Treaty of Berlin (1878)
The Treaty of Berlin was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region, they reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, it was the final act of the Congress of Berlin and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the dominant personality; the most important task of the Congress was to decide the fate of Bulgaria, but Bulgaria itself was excluded from participation in the talks, at Russian insistence. At the time, as it was not a sovereign state, Bulgaria was not a subject of international law, the same went for the Bulgarians themselves; the exclusion was an established fact in the great powers' Constantinople Conference, held one year before without any Bulgarian participation.
The most notable result of the conference was the official recognition of actual newly independent states of Romania and Montenegro. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1856, which ended the Crimean War, had made the Black Sea a neutral territory; the treaty had protected the Ottoman Empire, ended the Holy Alliance and weakened Russia's position in Europe. In 1870, Russia invoked the doctrine of rebus sic stantibus and terminated the treaty by breaching provisions concerning the neutrality of the Black Sea; the great powers became convinced that the Ottoman Empire would not be able to hold its territories in Europe. In 1875, the Herzegovina uprising resulted in the Great Eastern Crisis; as the conflict in the Balkans intensified, atrocities during the 1876 April Uprising in Bulgaria inflamed anti-Turkish sentiments in Russia and Britain, which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877. The treaty formally recognized the independence of the de facto sovereign principalities of Romania and Montenegro and the autonomy of Bulgaria although the latter de facto functioned independently and was divided into three parts: the Principality of Bulgaria, the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia, given back to the Ottomans, thus undoing Russian plans for an independent and Russophile "Greater Bulgaria".
The Treaty of San Stefano had created a Bulgarian state, just what Britain and Austria-Hungary feared the most. The Treaty of Berlin confirmed most of the Russian gains from the Ottoman Empire specified in the Treaty of San Stefan, but the valley of Alashkerd and the town of Bayazid were returned to the Ottomans. Despite the pleas of the Romanian delegates, Romania was forced to cede southern Bessarabia to the Russian Empire; as a compensation, Romania received Dobruja, including the Danube Delta. The treaty limited the Russian occupation of Bulgaria to 9 months, which limited the time during which Russian troops and supplies could be moved through Romanian territory; the three newly-independent states subsequently proclaimed themselves kingdoms: Romania in 1881, Serbia in 1882 and Montenegro in 1910, Bulgaria proclaimed full independence in 1908 after it had united with Eastern Rumelia in 1885. Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia in 1908, sparking a major European crisis; the Treaty of Berlin accorded special legal status to some religious groups and would serve as a model for the Minority Treaties, which would be established within the framework of the League of Nations.
It stipulated. It vaguely called for a border rectification between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, which occurred after protracted negotiations in 1881, with the transfer of Thessaly to Greece. In the "Salisbury Circular" of 1 April 1878, British Foreign Secretary, the Marquess of Salisbury, made clear his own and his government's objections to the Treaty of San Stefano and its favourable position of Russia. Historian AJP Taylor wrote, "If the treaty of San Stefano had been maintained, both the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary might have survived to the present day; the British, except for Beaconsfield in his wilder moments, had expected less and were, less disappointed. Salisbury wrote at the end of 1878: "We shall set up a rickety sort of Turkish rule again south of the Balkans, but it is a mere respite. There is no vitality left in them."The Kosovo Vilayet remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Austria-Hungary was allowed to station military garrisons in the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia and Sanjak of Novi Pazar.
The Vilayet of Bosnia was placed under Austro-Hungarian occupation although it formally remained part of the Ottoman Empire until it was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. The Austro-Hungarian garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar were withdrawn in 1908, after the annexation of the Vilayet of Bosnia and the resulting Bosnian crisis, to reach a compromise with the Ottoman Empire, struggling with internal strife because of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, which paved the way for the loss of Bosnia and of Bulgaria the same year United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Foreign Secretary Lord Odo Russell, ambassador to Berlin Germany and Prussia Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and Chancellor of Germany Baron Ernst von Bülow, Foreign Minister of Prussia Chlodwig, Prince of
The Tripartite Convention of 1899 concluded the Second Samoan Civil War, resulting in the formal partition of the Samoan archipelago into a German colony and a United States territory. Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889, the Anglo-German Agreement on Samoa of 1899. By the 1870s modern economic conditions were well established and accepted by the Samoans, who had just enough of a government that could be manipulated at will by the foreign business interests in Samoa. After the United States concluded a friendship treaty with Samoa in 1878, Germany negotiated her own Favorite Nation Treaty in 1879 with the same Samoan faction as the U. S. while in 1879 the Anglo-Samoan treaty was completed with a rival faction. Contentions among the whites in Samoa, plus native factional strife led to side-choosing that became deadly warring with the introduction of modern weapons. Washington conference of 1887 To attempt to resolve some of the problems, the United States and the United Kingdom agreed to a conference at Washington in June 1887.
After the surfacing of serious disagreements among the parties, the conference adjourned without results. Fighting by nationals of the three powers with their factional local allies led to a conflict, only tempered by the Apia hurricane of 1889 that wrecked warships on the verge of hostilities. Treaty of Berlin of 1889 The seriousness of the situation was recognized and German foreign minister Count Herbert von Bismarck proposed to reconvene the adjourned Washington conference of 1887, he invited U. S. and British representatives to Berlin in April 1889. Bismarck's pragmatic approach proposed protection for life and commerce of the treaty participants and relegated native government and their unstable "kings" to the Samoans, with which the British concurred; the United States insisted on a three powers authority while preserving native rights. In the Treaty of Berlin of 1889 thus a joint protectorate or condominium was declared, with a European/American chief justice, a municipal council for Apia, with the "free right of the natives to elect their Chief or King" as the signatory to the act, thus the treaty professed to recognize a Samoan independent government.
No sooner was the native royal figurehead appointed, after disturbances restored, the other chiefs went into rebellion and civil war ensued. By the end of the 19th century, the failure of the arrangement was admitted by the governments of the three powers since the principal protagonists in Samoa acted directly for their own interests overruling the officials of the condominium. A dissolution of the condominium created by the "entangling alliance" was now in play; the German government "had never made a secret of their belief that international control of Samoa was visionary and impractical... and they began a series of diplomatic moves intended to eliminate it altogether." German diplomats in Washington had ascertained during the summer of 1899 that the United States administration was satisfied with obtaining the island of Tutuila with its key asset, the existing coaling station at Pago Pago. With "partitioning of Samoa" by the prevailing understanding, the United States expressed no objections to Britain and Germany "coming to a preliminary agreement."Kaiser Wilhelm II had accepted an invitation to visit England in November 1899 and his government insisted that an agreement on Samoa should be concluded before his departure for Britain.
A settlement was signed on 14 November. It was therefore this Anglo-German agreement on Samoa in tandem with the informal understanding with the United States that partitioned Samoa, it only remained for the three powers to negotiate a tripartite convention in order to secure the approval of the United States to the whole agreement. The Tripartite Convention of 1899 was duly constituted and documents were signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 by the U. S. Secretary of State John Hay, Baron Theodor von Holleben, German ambassador to the United States, Sir Julian Pauncefote, British ambassador to the United States, with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. United States: President William McKinley signed an executive order on 19 February 1900, reading: "The Island of Tutuila, of the Samoan Group, all other islands of the group east of longitude 171 degrees west of Greenwich, are hereby placed under the control of the Department of the Navy for a naval station; the Secretary of the Navy shall take such steps as are necessary to establish the authority of the United States and to give to the islands the necessary protection."
On the same day John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy, stated further that these islands "... are hereby established into a naval station, to be known as the naval station, to be under the command of a commandant." Rose Island, an uninhabited coral atoll, the island of Aunu'u were included. The cession of deeds of the islands of the Manua Group did not take place until 1904, although the respective chiefs had accepted the sovereignty of the United States; the term "American Samoa" entered into conscious usage in 1905 with a first assembly or fono of Samoan chiefs from all ceded islands within the naval station. Germany: The Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii and the small islands of Apolima and Manono, west of 171 degrees west longitude, were declared a protectorate of the German Empire and became known as German Samoa, with flag-raising on 1 March 1900 and appointment of Wilhelm Solf as governor; this "happy acquisition" was viewed in Germany as a "splendid achievement in colonial policy, at the same time a genuinely popular one."United Ki
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by first Chancellor of Germany; the conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance. Before the conference, European diplomacy treated African indigenous people in the same manner as the New World natives, forming trading relationships with the indigenous chiefs. In the early 1800s the search for ivory, often used in the production of luxurious products, led many white traders further into the interior of Africa. With the exception of trading posts along the coasts, the continent was ignored during this period. In 1876, King Leopold II of Belgium, who had founded and controlled the International African Association that same year, invited Henry Morton Stanley to join him in researching and'civilizing' the continent.
In 1878, the International Congo Society was formed, with more economic goals, but still related to the former society. Léopold secretly bought off the foreign investors in the Congo Society, turned to imperialistic goals, with the African Society serving as a philanthropic front. From 1878 to 1885, Stanley returned to the Congo, not as a reporter but as an envoy from Léopold with the secret mission to organize what soon after the closure of the Berlin Conference, i.e. in August 1885, would become known as the Congo Free State. French intelligence had discovered Leopold's plans, France engaged in its own colonial exploration. In 1881, French naval officer Pierre de Brazza was dispatched to central Africa, traveled into the western Congo basin, raised the French flag over the newly founded Brazzaville, in what is the Republic of Congo. Portugal, which had a long, but abandoned colonial Empire in the area through the defunct proxy state Kongo Empire claimed the area, its claims were based on old treaties with the Roman Catholic Church.
It made a treaty on 26 February 1884 with its former ally, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to block off the Congo Society's access to the Atlantic. By the early 1880s, due to many factors including diplomatic manoeuvres, subsequent colonial exploration, recognition of Africa's abundance of valuable resources such as gold, rubber and markets, European interest in the continent had increased dramatically. Stanley's charting of the Congo River Basin removed the last terra incognita from European maps of the continent, delineating the areas of British, Portuguese and Belgian control; the powers raced to push these rough boundaries to their furthest limits and eliminate any potential local minor powers which might prove troublesome to European competitive diplomacy. France moved to take over Tunisia, one of the last of the Barbary Pirate states, under the pretext of another piracy incident. French claims by Pierre de Brazza were solidified with French taking control of today's Republic of the Congo in 1881 and Guinea in 1884.
Italy became part of the Triple Alliance, upsetting Bismarck's laid plans with the state and forcing Germany to become involved in Africa. In 1882, realizing the geopolitical extent of Portuguese control on the coasts, but seeing penetration by France eastward across Central Africa toward Ethiopia, the Nile, the Suez Canal, Britain saw its vital trade route through Egypt and its Indian Empire threatened. Under the pretext of the collapsed Egyptian financing and a subsequent riot, in which hundreds of Europeans and British subjects were murdered or injured, Britain intervened in nominally Ottoman Egypt and kept control for decades. Owing to the European race for colonies, Germany started launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to soothe this brewing conflict, King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference in 1884 to work out joint policy on the African continent.
The conference was opened on November 15, 1884 and continued till its closure on 26 February 1885. Whilst the number of plenipotentiaries varied per nation, the following 14 countries did send representatives to attend the Berlin Conference and sign the subsequent Berlin Act: Austria-Hungary Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy Netherlands Ottoman Empire Portugal Russia Spain Sweden–Norway United Kingdom United States – though the United States reserved the right to decline or to accept the conclusions of the Conference; the conference was convened on Saturday, November 15, 1884, at Bismarck's official residence on Wilhelmstrasse. Bismarck accepted the chairmanship; the British representative was Sir Edward Malet. Henry Morton Stanley attended as a U. S. delegate. The participants were: The General Act fixed the following points
Treaty of Berlin (1889)
The Treaty of Berlin was the concluding document of the conference at Berlin in 1889 on Samoa. The conference was proposed by German foreign minister Count Herbert von Bismarck to reconvene the adjourned Washington conference on Samoa of 1887. Herbert von Bismarck invited delegations from the United States and the British Empire to Berlin in April 1889; the treaty launched the condominium in Samoa between the United States and Great Britain. It was designed to guarantee the preservation of rights of the three powers as secured in separate treaties with the Samoan régime in 1878 and 1879. Further, the independence and neutrality of the Samoan government was ensured, public finance was reorganized and the Samoan king elected in 1881 was restored. In an effort to strengthen the judiciary an American/European chief justice position was created, the municipality of Apia was reestablished, chaired by a council president; the treaty was signed at Berlin by the three powers on 14 June 1889. The condominium ended in political shambles after ten years with the ratification of the Tripartite Convention of 1899 and the resulting partition of the Samoan archipelago.
List of treaties Gilson, Richard Phillip. Samoa 1830 to 1900, The Politics of a Multi-Cultural Community. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 1970. Ryden, George Herbert; the Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Press. 1975. WHKMLA: History of Samoa, 1830-1899