St. Clair River
The St. Clair River is a 40.5-mile-long river in central North America which drains Lake Huron into Lake St. Clair, forming part of the international boundary between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. state of Michigan. The river is a significant component in the Great Lakes Waterway, with shipping channels permitting cargo vessels to travel between the upper and lower Great Lakes; the river, which some consider a strait, flows in a southerly direction, connecting the southern end of Lake Huron to the northern end of Lake St. Clair, it branches into several channels near its mouth at Lake St. Clair, creating a broad delta region known as the St. Clair Flats; the river drops 5 feet in elevation from Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair; the flow rate averages around 182,000 cubic feet per second, the drainage area is 223,600 square miles. This takes into account the combined drainage areas of Lakes Huron and Superior. In the 18th century, French voyageurs and coureurs des bois travelled on the river to trade with Native Americans and transport furs in canoes to major posts of French and British traders, including Fort Detroit, built downriver in 1701.
European demand for American furs beaver, was high until the 1830s. Ships built at Marine City, during the mid-19th century carried immigrants up the river on their way to new homes in the American West. Lumber harvested on The Thumb of Michigan was shipped downriver as log rafts to Detroit. In the early 20th century, lake steamers carried passengers and traveled among the small towns along the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, around the Great Lakes. During the 20th century, freighters traveled throughout the Great Lakes transporting commodities such as iron ore from the Mesabi Range and grain, all products of settlers' labor. Iron was taken to Ashtabula and other industrial cities for processing and steel manufacture, grain was shipped through to major eastern markets such as Cleveland and New York City; the St. Clair River and its Lambton County tributaries in Ontario contributes 103,210 acres to the watershed, although this does not include the Sydenham River watershed. In Michigan, the Black River, Pine River, Belle River drain 780,600 acres in Lapeer, Sanilac, St. Clair counties.
Stag Island lies between Corunna and Marysville, Michigan. Fawn Island is near Port Lambton and Marine City, Michigan. Walpole, Bassett, Pottowatamie, St. Anne, Dickinson and Harsens islands are located where the St. Clair River flows into Lake St. Clair near Algonac, Michigan; these islands are part of the only major river delta in the Great Lakes. Six of the islands in this delta are unceded territory that are part of the Walpole Island First Nations, whose members include Ojibwe and Odawa peoples, they call this delta area Bkejwanong, meaning "where the waters divide". Most of the watershed away from the river in Ontario and Michigan is used for agriculture. There were numerous sugar beet farms in the flatlands, an annual beet market was held in Marine City, for years at harvest time. Many of the 19th-century English immigrants to this area came from Lincolnshire, where sugar beets have been a major commodity crop. A few forest and wetland areas have survived, although their area has declined since European settlement and development of cultivated fields for various agricultural crops.
Much of the shoreline on both sides of the St. Clair River is urbanized and industrialized. Intensive development has occurred in and near the adjacent cities of Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario, at the northern end of the river; the heaviest concentration of industry, including a large petrochemical complex, lies along the Ontario shore south of Sarnia. Several communities along the St. Clair rely on the river as their primary source of drinking water. About one-third to one-half of the residents of Michigan receive their water from the St. Clair/Detroit River waterway. Industries including petroleum refineries, chemical manufacturers, paper mills, salt producers and electric power plants need high-quality water for their operations. Since the late 20th century and passage of environmental laws to protect air and water quality, there have still been events when some of these industries have illegally contaminated river waters after discharging pollutants. Major clean-up activities were required.
Land areas of the St. Clair River shoreline and flats consist of two biological zones: upland and transitional, both of which are above the water table, but which may be flooded periodically; the upland forests consist of deciduous species, many of which are near their northern climatic limit. Most pre-European settlement trees have been cleared for industry, or urbanization. Remaining forest stands, such as oak savannas as well as lakeplain prairies, are found along the southern reaches of the river on the islands of the St. Clair River Delta and on the Michigan shore in Algonac State Park. Transitional species are abundant in the low-lying regions, categorized as shrub ecotones, wet meadows, sedge marshes, island shorelines and beaches; this habitat is home to water and land mammals, including humans, as well as songbirds, insects, pollinators and amphibians. The aquatic habitat of the St. Clair River ranges from deep and fast near the Blue Water Bridge to shallow and slow in the lower river near its discharge point into Lake St. Clair.
Each area provides a unique habitat for
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may be known as an agreement, covenant, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are examples of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, any party that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. A treaty is the official document. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty begins with a preamble describing the High Contracting Parties and their shared objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a single long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability, in which each of the paragraphs begins with a gerund.
The High Contracting Parties. His Majesty The King of X or His Excellency The President of Y, or alternatively in the form of "Government of Z". However, under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties if the representative is the head of state, head of government or minister of foreign affairs, no special document is needed, as holding such high office is sufficient; the end of the preamble and the start of the actual agreement is signaled by the words "have agreed as follows". After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement; each article heading encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. Modern treaties, regardless of subject matter contain articles governing where the final authentic copies of the treaty will be deposited and how any subsequent disputes as to their interpretation will be peacefully resolved; the end of a treaty, the eschatocol, is signaled by a clause like "in witness whereof" or "in faith whereof", the parties have affixed their signatures, followed by the words "DONE at" the site of the treaty's execution and the date of its execution.
The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was "DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five". If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, is followed by a stipulation that the versions in different languages are authentic; the signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the end. When the text of a treaty is reprinted, such as in a collection of treaties in effect, an editor will append the dates on which the respective parties ratified the treaty and on which it came into effect for each party. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities, it is possible, for a bilateral treaty to have more than two parties. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties; these however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties. The parties are divided into the Swiss and the EU and its member states; the treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU and its member states.
A multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes obligations between each party and every other party. Multilateral treaties are regional. Treaties of "mutual guarantee" are international compacts, e.g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are caveats to a state's acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state; these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i.e. "a party cannot add a reservation after it has joined a treaty". Article 19 of Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties in 1969. International law was unaccepting of treaty reservations, rejecting them unless all parties to the treaty accepted the same reservations. However, in the interest of encouraging the largest number of states to join treaties, a more permissive rule regarding reservations has emerged. While some treaties still expressly forbid any reservations, they are now permitted to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the goals and purposes of the treaty.
When a state limits its treaty obligations through reservations, other states par
Shiawassee County, Michigan
Shiawassee is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 70,648; the county seat is Corunna. and the largest city in the county is Owosso. In 1822, the Michigan Territorial legislature defined a new county, taken from portions of existing Oakland and St. Clair counties. However, for purposes of representation and judicial matters, the area was temporarily assigned to adjoining county governments. In early 1837, the Michigan Territory was admitted into the Union as the State of Michigan, that same year the new Michigan State government authorized the organization of a county government in Shiawassee. In 2010, the center of population of Michigan was located in Shiawassee County, in Bennington Township. Shiawassee County comprises the Owosso, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Lansing-East Lansing-Owosso, MI Combined Statistical Area; the Shiawassee County Courthouse was designed by Claire Allen, a prominent southern Michigan architect.
In March 2019, the county was struck by a powerful EF3 tornado. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 541 square miles, of which 531 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water; the Shiawassee River enters it from Genesee County in the southeast and flows through Corunna and Owosso in the center of the county, exiting to Saginaw County in the north. Shiawassee County is considered to be a part of Central Michigan. I-69 - enters near SW corner of county. Runs ENE past Shaftsburg, Morrice, Durand. Exits running east into Genesee County. M-13 - runs along the east line of county, from NE corner to intersection with I69 one mile south of Lennon. M-21 - runs east-west through upper middle of county, passing Corunna and Owosso. M-52 - enters north line of county at Oakley. Runs south to Owosso SW and south to Perry. Exits running south into Ingham County. M-71 - begins at Owosso. Runs ESE to intersection with one mile NW of Durand. Durand Union Station in Durand offers access to Amtrak's Blue Water route.
The train runs from Port Huron to Chicago. Owosso Community Airport – 2 miles east of Owosso. Public airport for general aviation smaller aircraft; as of the 2010 United States Census, Shiawassee County had a 2010 population of 70,648. This decrease of -1,039 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a decrease of 1.4% during that ten-year period. In 2010 there were 27,481 households and 19,397 families in the county; the population density was 133.1 per square mile. There were 30,319 housing units at an average density of 57.1 per square mile. 96.7% of the population were White, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.5% of some other race and 1.5% of two or more races. 2.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 22.2% were of German, 21.8% English, 9.5% Irish, 5.2% French, French Canadian or Cajun and 5.1% Polish ancestry according to 2010 American Community Survey. There were 27,481 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were husband and wife families, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families, 24.2% were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.99. The county population contained 24.1% under age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 29.1% from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males. The 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $46,528 and the median income for a family was $52,614. Males had a median income of $32,155 versus $19,301 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,103. About 10.6% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under the age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Shiawassee County has tended to vote Republican since the beginning. Since 1884, the Republican Party nominee has carried 74% of the elections; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Corunna Durand Laingsburg Owosso Perry The county's townships and the villages, census designated places and unincorporated communities within the townships. List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Shiawassee County, Michigan McArthur Mining Company – Michigan's first coal mine. National Register of Historic Places listings in Shiawassee County, Michigan Shiawassee County History Shiawassee County website City of Corunna MI "Bibliography on Shiawassee County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Owosso Independent
Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major
The Detroit River flows for 24 nautical miles from Lake St. Clair west and south to Lake Erie as a strait in the Great Lakes system and forms part of the border between Canada and the United States; the river divides the metropolitan areas of Detroit and Windsor, Ontario—an area referred to as Detroit–Windsor. The two cities are connected by the Ambassador Bridge, the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel; the river's name comes from the French Rivière du Détroit. The Detroit River has served an important role in the history of Detroit and Windsor, is one of the busiest waterways in the world, it serves as an important transportation route connecting Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Superior to the St. Lawrence Seaway and Erie Canal; when Detroit underwent rapid industrialization at the turn of the 20th century, the Detroit River became notoriously polluted and toxic. Since the late 20th century, however, a vast restoration effort has been undertaken because of the ecological importance of the river.
In the early 21st century, the river today has a wide variety of recreational uses. There are numerous islands in the Detroit River, much of the lower portion of the river is incorporated into the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge; the portion of the river in the city of Detroit has been organized into the Detroit International Riverfront and the William G. Milliken State Park and Harbor; the Detroit River is designated an American Heritage River and a Canadian Heritage River — the only river to have this dual designation. The Detroit River flows for 24 nautical miles from Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie. By definition, this classifies it as both a river and a strait — a strait being a narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water, how the river earned its name from early French settlers. However, the Detroit River is referred to as a strait, because bodies of water referred to as straits are much wider; the Detroit River is only 0.5 to 2.5 miles wide. The Detroit River starts on an east to west flow but bends and runs north to south.
The deepest portion of the Detroit River is 53 feet deep in the northern portion of the river. At its source, the river is at an elevation of 574 feet above sea level; the river drops only three feet before entering into Lake Erie at 571 feet. As the river contains no dams and no locks, it is navigable by the smallest of vessels; the watershed basin for the Detroit River is 700 square miles. Since the river is short, it has few tributaries, its largest tributary is the River Rouge in Michigan, four times longer than the Detroit River and contains most of the watershed. The only other major American tributary to the Detroit River is the much smaller Ecorse River. Tributaries on the Canadian side include Turkey Creek and the River Canard; the discharge for the Detroit River is high for a river of its size. The river's average discharge is 188,000 cubic feet per second, the river's flow is constant; the Detroit River forms a major element of the international border between the United States and Canada.
The river on the American side is all under the jurisdiction of Wayne County and the Canadian side is under the administration of Essex County, Ontario. The largest city along the Detroit River is Detroit, most of the population along the river lives in Michigan; the Detroit River has only two automobile traffic crossings connecting the United States and Canada: the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel. Both of these are protected by the U. S. Customs and Border Protection and the Canada Border Services Agency; the upper portion of the river is one of the few places where a Canadian city lies directly south of an American city. In this case, the city of Detroit is directly north of the city of Ontario; the only other location where this occurs is Fort Erie, lying south of several cities in Niagara County, New York. The cities and communities southwest of Detroit along the American side of the river are popularly referred to as the Downriver area, because those areas are said to be "down the river" from Detroit.
Several of these communities do not border the Detroit River. The Detroit River contains numerous islands, whose ownership and control varies depending on their location along the river; the majority are on the American side of the river. Many are small and uninhabited. But, Grosse Île on the U. S. side and Bois Blanc Island on the Canadian side have permanent populations. Most islands are in the southern portion of the waterway, close to where the river empties into Lake Erie. Belle Isle, in the northern section of the river, is a Michigan State Park, is open to the public via a bridge connection with Detroit; the Detroit River was first navigated by non-natives in the 17th century. The Iroquois traded furs with the Dutch colonists at New Amsterdam by traveling through the Detroit River; the French claimed the area for New France. The famed sailing ship Le Griffon reached the mouth of the Detroit River in mid-August 1679 on its maiden voyage through the Great Lakes; when the French began settling in the area, they navigated the river using canoes made of birch or elm bark.
Handcrafted vessels were a common mode of travel across the river, the pirogue and bateaux were used. As the North American fur trade intensified, E
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed