Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove
St. Marys River (Michigan–Ontario)
The St. Marys River, sometimes written as the St. Mary's River, drains Lake Superior, starting at the end of Whitefish Bay and flowing 74.5 miles southeast into Lake Huron, with a fall of 23 feet. For its entire length it is an international border, separating Michigan in the United States from Ontario, Canada; the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan are connected across the St. Marys River by the Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge; the St. Marys Rapids are just below the river's exit from Lake Superior and can be bypassed by huge freight ships through the man-made Soo Locks and the Sault Ste. Marie Canal. Two of the Ontario tributaries of this river are the Bar River. Other Canadian tributaries include Fort Creek, the Root River, the Little Carp River, the Big Carp River, the Lower Echo River, Desbarats River, the Two Tree River; the American tributaries to the St. Mary River are the Gogomain River, the Munuscong River, the Little Munuscong River, the Charlotte River, the Waiska River.
Before Europeans arrived, Ojibwe Native Americans fished and maintained a portage around the rapids of the St. Marys River, which they referred to as Baawitigong, meaning "at the cascading rapids". French explorer Étienne Brûlé was the first European to travel up the rapids in about 1621. In 1641 Jesuit priests Isaac Jogues and Charles Raymbault ventured the same route as Brûlé, finding many Ojibwe at the rapids, named it Sault Ste. Marie. Sault means "jump". Fort St. Joseph was built on the Canadian shore in 1796 to protect a trading post, ensure continued British control of the area; the fort fulfilled its role in the War of 1812. The first modern lock was completed in May 1855 by Erastus Corning's St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal Company, was known as the "American Lock". Today, there are four parallel locks on the American side of the river, although only two are in regular use; the Soo Locks were made a part of the Great Lakes Waterway system in 1959. Due to the American refusal of passage through the Soo Locks during the Wolseley Expedition, a Canadian Lock was built in 1895.
The current Canadian Lock is a National Historic Site of Canada. During World War II, the Soo Locks and the St. Marys River waterway were guarded by U. S. and Canadian forces coordinated by the U. S. Army's Central Defense Command. During the waterway's usable season from March through November, 90 percent of the United States' iron ore production for domestic use passed through it in 1939, making the waterway critical to maintaining war production. A battalion of infantry, stationed at nearby Fort Brady, provided security beginning just after the outbreak of the European war in September 1939. After Pearl Harbor in December 1941, fear of possible air or paratroop attacks by German forces led to a major expansion of defense measures. Scenarios envisioned included U-boats in Hudson Bay launching attack aircraft, one-way bombing or paratroop missions along a great circle route from German-occupied Norway. Units deployed included the 131st Infantry Regiment, an anti-aircraft regiment, a barrage balloon battalion for a total in mid-1942 of 7,000 troops in the area.
Canada provided an anti-aircraft battalion, elements of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and defensive positions for some of the U. S. force, a warning system of 266 aircraft observation posts of the Aircraft Identity Corps extending northward to Hudson Bay. This was augmented by five U. S.-manned radar stations in northern Ontario. By late 1943, with no threat emerging and spare components stockpiled in the event of lock damage, the U. S. forces were cut to 2,500 troops, the AA and air warning defenses were abandoned. In January 1944 the garrison was further reduced to a single military police battalion. Drummond Island Neebish Island St. Joseph Island Squirrel Island Sugar Island Whitefish Island Lime Island The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge, a steel truss arch bridge, takes road traffic across the river. Directly to the west is the Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, which carries rail traffic on a single set of tracks; the Edison Sault Electric Hydroelectric Plant, located at the eastern end of the Sault Ste.
Marie Power Canal which runs between Lake Superior and Lake Huron through the city south of the American locks, is one of the longest hydroelectric plants in the world at 1,340 feet in length. The plant consists of 74 three-phase generators capable of generating 25 to 30 megawatts, it was completed in 1902. The hydro plant is faced with stone quarried during the excavation of the Sault Ste. Marie Power Canal; the United States Army Corps of Engineers owns and operates a hydroelectric generating plant directly north of the American locks. The Francis H. Clergue Generating Station and operated by Brookfield Renewable Energy, Inc. is a hydroelectric generating plant located directly north of the Canadian lock with a generating capacity of 52 MW. It was completed in 1981; the Edison Sault Power Canal is used to power the Saint Marys Falls Hydropower Plant at its eastern end. The canal separated downtown Sault Ste. Marie, from its mainland, making it an island, it was begun in September 1898 as the Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Canal, but completed by Edison Sault Electric Company in June 1902.
Measured from its headgates to its end at the power plant
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may be known as an agreement, covenant, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are examples of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, any party that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. A treaty is the official document. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty begins with a preamble describing the High Contracting Parties and their shared objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a single long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability, in which each of the paragraphs begins with a gerund.
The High Contracting Parties. His Majesty The King of X or His Excellency The President of Y, or alternatively in the form of "Government of Z". However, under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties if the representative is the head of state, head of government or minister of foreign affairs, no special document is needed, as holding such high office is sufficient; the end of the preamble and the start of the actual agreement is signaled by the words "have agreed as follows". After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement; each article heading encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. Modern treaties, regardless of subject matter contain articles governing where the final authentic copies of the treaty will be deposited and how any subsequent disputes as to their interpretation will be peacefully resolved; the end of a treaty, the eschatocol, is signaled by a clause like "in witness whereof" or "in faith whereof", the parties have affixed their signatures, followed by the words "DONE at" the site of the treaty's execution and the date of its execution.
The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was "DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five". If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, is followed by a stipulation that the versions in different languages are authentic; the signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the end. When the text of a treaty is reprinted, such as in a collection of treaties in effect, an editor will append the dates on which the respective parties ratified the treaty and on which it came into effect for each party. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities, it is possible, for a bilateral treaty to have more than two parties. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties; these however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties. The parties are divided into the Swiss and the EU and its member states; the treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU and its member states.
A multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes obligations between each party and every other party. Multilateral treaties are regional. Treaties of "mutual guarantee" are international compacts, e.g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are caveats to a state's acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state; these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i.e. "a party cannot add a reservation after it has joined a treaty". Article 19 of Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties in 1969. International law was unaccepting of treaty reservations, rejecting them unless all parties to the treaty accepted the same reservations. However, in the interest of encouraging the largest number of states to join treaties, a more permissive rule regarding reservations has emerged. While some treaties still expressly forbid any reservations, they are now permitted to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the goals and purposes of the treaty.
When a state limits its treaty obligations through reservations, other states par
Rainy Lake and River Bands of Saulteaux
Rainy Lake and River Bands of Saulteaux are Saulteaux group located in Northwestern Ontario and northern Minnesota and about the Rainy Lake and the Rainy River, known in Ojibwe as Gojijiing. Through Treaty of Paris and the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, the Gojijiwininiwag were split between those in the United States and those in the British North America; the Gojijiwininiwag in Canada became parties to Treaty 3. In Canada, the communities forming the Rainy Lake and River Bands of Saulteaux interacted with the Canadian government with Department of Indian Affairs through the Couchiching Agency, Fort Frances, from 1871−1903, after which the agency became the Fort Frances Agency. Rainy River Bands at one time had a joint Indian reserve known as the "Wild Land 15M." The Rainy Lake Bands still have a joint reserve known as the Agency 1. The Rainy Lake and River Bands of Saulteaux are named after their location of Rainy Lake and Rainy River, which in the Ojibwe language are Gojiji-zaaga'igan and Gojiji-ziibi, respectively.
Handbook of North American Indians record other variations of their names. The locative form of the region — gojijiing — is the basis for names of Koochiching County and Couchiching First Nation. Algonquins of Rainy Lake — Lewis and Clark, Travels, 55, 1806. Ko1che1che1 Wenenewak — Long, Expedition of St. Peter's River, II, 153, 1824 Ko-je-je-win-in-e-wug — Warren in Minnesota Historical Society Collections, V, 84, 1885. Kotchitchi-wininiwak — Gatschet, Ojibwa MS. BAE, 1882. Kutcitciwininiwag — William Jones, information, 1906. Lac la Pluie Indians — Hind, Red River Expedition, I, 82, 1860 Rainy Lake Indians — Schoolcraft in H. R. Doc. 107, 25th Congress, 3d. Session, 9, 1839. Tecamamiouen — Chauvignerie in New York Document on Colonial History, IX, 1054, 1855. Rainy Lake Bands of SaulteauxCouchiching First Nation, Fort Frances, Ontario Naicatchewenin First Nation, Ontario Nigigoonsiminikaaning First Nation, Fort Frances, Ontario — known as the Nicickousemenecaning First Nation and as the Red Gut First Nation.
Stanjikoming First Nation, Fort Frances, OntarioRainy River Bands of SaulteauxLac La Croix First Nation, Fort Frances, Ontario — formed from two historical bands: Lac La Croix Band of Rainy River Saulteaux — on Lac La Croix Indian Reserve 25D Sturgeon Lake Band of Rainy River Saulteaux — was on Sturgeon Lake Indian Reserve 24C until the Reserve was delisted by the Ontario Provincial Park Act in 1950, took this Indian Reserve and made it part of Quetico Provincial Park. Little Forks Band of Rainy River Saulteaux — the southern half of the Little Forks Band of Rainy River Saulteaux, are now part of Bois Forte Band of Chippewa, Nett Lake, Koochiching County, Minnesota. Rainy River First Nations, Manitou Rapids, Ontario — six of the seven historical Rainy River Saulteaux bands sold their Reserves in 1914-1915 and began the amalgamation into a single Band; the Canadian federal government made the amalgamation official in the 1960s. The seven historical Saulteaux bands forming this First Nation are: Hungry Hall 1 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Hungry Hall 2 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Little Forks Band of Rainy River Saulteaux — northern half of the Little Forks Band of Rainy River Saulteaux.
Long Sault 1 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Long Sault 2 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Manitou Rapids 1 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Manitou Rapids 2 Band of Rainy River Saulteaux Seine River First Nation, Mine Centre, Ontario Department of Indian Affairs: Reports of Indian Agents. Treaty 3 Text at Northern Affairs Canada website. Place of the Long Rapids "New era of respect proclaimed." At TheFreeLibrary.com
Shakopee (Dakota leaders)
Shakopee or Chief Shakopee may refer to any of the three Mdewakanton Dakota leaders, in what is now the United States, who lived in the area of Minnesota from the late 18th century through 1865. The name comes from the Dakota Shák'pí meaning "Six," as the wife of the first Shakopee gave birth to sextuplet boys. Shakopee I. Shakopee was given this name when White Buffalo Woman, gave birth to sextuplet boys. Shakopee met Major Stephen Harriman Long at the mouth of the Minnesota River in 1817, when Long came up to distribute the presents for which Lieutenant Zebulon Pike had contracted to send them 12 years earlier when he made the Pike's Purchase. Long reported finding Chief Shakopee offensive. Shakopee was executed at Fort Snelling in June 1827 by running a gauntlet manned by Ojibwa as part of his punishment for murdering some Ojibwa before. Shakopee Lake near Mille Lacs Lake was named after him. Shakopee II, or the Eaglehead. Shakopee was the biological twin son of the Ojibwa leader Ozaawindib "Yellow Head".
His father gave him to the Dakota in order to forge an alliance with the band, to provide them with a hereditary chief. As an adult, Shakopee identified as being both Ojibwa and Dakota, he had been adopted by Shakopee I as his son. After signing the 1825 First Treaty of Prairie du Chien, Shakopee II was forced to identify as Dakota, because he was representing them in negotiations and treaties with the United States, he was signatory to the 1826 Treaty of Fond du Lac, 1837 Treaty of St. Peters, the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe of the Ojibwa. Shakopee was a signatory to the Treaty of Mendota of August 5, 1851,. Annuities of food and money were to be distributed from the federal government to the Indians as part of the treaty, but several years after the outbreak of the American Civil War, United States broke their treaty obligations. Shakopee served as a guide to Joseph Nicollet in part of the exploration of the upper Mississippi River, providing details on its tributaries, such as Rice Creek near Fridley, Minnesota.
In Ojibwe, he was called Zhaagobe. His descendants who identified as Ojibwa rather than Dakota are known by the surname of "Shaugobay," spelled "Shagobince". Shakopee III was first named as Eatoka, he was named Shakpedan in Dakota or Zhaagobens in Ojibwe, both meaning "Little Shakopee," or Little Six at the death of his father. Shakopee was the son of his Dakota wife, he was born in the Dakota village of Shakopee. He became a chief following the death of his father. During the Dakota War of 1862, Shakopee III was a war leader of the Yankton Dakota in Minnesota, he escaped to Canada after the conflict. With fellow leader Medicine Bottle, he was betrayed, drugged and turned over to U. S. forces. Shakopee and Medicine Bottle were executed at Fort Snelling on November 11, 1865 for their participation in the Dakota War. While he was held prisoner at Fort Snelling, Shakopee III was photographed in 1864, he is the namesake of the Little Six Casino operated by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community in Shakopee, Minnesota.
Eden Prairie History — Three Chiefs Shakopee
Crow Wing River
The Crow Wing River is a 113-mile-long tributary of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, United States. The river rises at an elevation of about 1391 feet in a chain of 11 lakes in southern Hubbard County and flows south east, entering the Mississippi at Crow Wing State Park northwest of Little Falls, Minnesota, its name is a loose translation from the Ojibwe language Gaagaagiwigwani-ziibi. A wing-shaped island at its mouth accounts for the river's name; because of its many campsites and its undeveloped shores, the Crow Wing River is considered one of the state's best "wilderness" routes for canoeists. Much of the river is flanked by thick forests. For its first 20 miles the river cuts through low marshy lands; the river the banks increase in height as it flows southward. Jack pine forest has all but replaced the virgin white and red pine forests on the sandy plains of northern Wadena County, Minnesota. Hazel, sweet fern, wintergreen and reindeer moss provide lush ground cover; the Crow Wing's lower reaches are flanked by a river bottom forest of elm, cottonwood, box elder, basswood, maple and aspen.
Grasslands and swamps are scattered throughout the river corridor. Due to its sandy bottom, limited cover and dearth of deep pools, the Crow Wing is not a good game fish river. Shorthead Redhorse and White Sucker, both rough fish, are the river's most common species; the diversity of vegetation along the river supports a wide variety of wildlife. Canoeists may see turtles, muskrats, mink, gophers, chipmunks and rabbit. Bobcats and a small number of black bears inhabit the river area, it is not unusual to see eagles fishing from the river. Game species include white-tailed deer, ruffed grouse and various waterfowl; the Crow Wing supports only a limited number of waterfowl because of sparse aquatic vegetation and a lack of backwater areas. The Dakota Indians held the Crow Wing region until the Ojibwe began moving westward into the region in the early 18th century. By the early 19th century the Ojibwe controlled lands west of the Mississippi and north of the Crow Wing. Signs of Native American presence mark the river corridor, with Native American burial mounds at several sites along the river, including a site at river mile 61.
Fur traders entered the region in the early 18th century. In 1792 the North West Company established the Wadena Trading Post on the west bluff of the river at its junction with the Partridge River. There was considerable overland trade in the area by the 19th century; the Old Otter Tail Trail crossed the river near the Wadena post and was the main transportation route between St. Paul and Fort Garry in Winnipeg. Dense forests near the river made Nimrod, Minnesota, an important lumbering center from the 1870s to the early 20th century. By the start of the 20th century, most of the virgin timber had been cleared, the economy came to depend on agriculture; the river continues to attract a small but devoted number of visitors, ranging from regional outdoor enthusiasts in late spring to Native Americans who harvest wild rice growing along the river in the autumn. List of rivers of Minnesota