Connecticut Land Company
The Connecticut Company or Connecticut Land Company was a post-colonial land speculation company formed in the late eighteenth century to survey and encourage settlement in the eastern parts of the newly chartered Connecticut Western Reserve of the former "Ohio Country" and a prized-part of the Northwest Territory)—a post-American Revolutionary period region, part of the lands-claims settlement adjudicated by the new United States government regarding the contentious conflicting claims by various Eastern Seaboard states on lands west of the gaps of the Allegheny draining into the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers. Under the arrangement, all the states gave up their land claims west of the Alleghenies to the Federal government save for parts parceled out to each claimant state. Western Pennsylvania was Pennsylvania's part, the Connecticut Western Reserve was the part apportioned to Connecticut's claim; the specific Connecticut Western Reserve lands were the northeastern part of the greater Mississippi drainage basin lands just west of those defined as part of Pennsylvania's claims settlement.
The Western Reserve is located in Northeast Ohio with its hub being Cleveland. In 1795, the Connecticut Land Company bought three million acres of the Western Reserve. Settlers used the guidelines of the Land Ordinance of 1785, which demanded the owners survey the land before settlement. In 1796, the company began sales on property east of Cuyahoga; the original proprietors, 57 of the wealthiest and most prominent men in Connecticut, included Oliver Phelps, the largest subscriber and chief manager of the project. In 1796, one of the largest shareholders, Moses Cleaveland, planned a settlement on the banks of the Cuyahoga River with Seth Pease; this planned settlement would become the city of Cleveland. The Deeds for the land were executed as follows: Company Introduction The Connecticut Land Company was a company set up by a group of private investors in 1795 with the aim of making a profit from land sales. Towards that end, the company bought a large portion of the eastern part of the Western Connecticut Reserves.
However, poor company management and political uncertainty led to weak land sales, slow economic development, company failure in 1809. Despite its short existence, the Connecticut Land Company was instrumental in the development of the region and left a lasting impact on the landscape. One of the most important legacies of the Connecticut Land Company was the establishment of the settlement of Cleveland. Key Company Figures The ownership of the company was made up of a syndicate of 35 purchasing groups representing a total of 58 individual investors; the leader of this group and the head of the Connecticut Land Company was Oliver Phelps. He was the head manager of this investment project. Another key figure in the company was one of the company's first directors, he was in charge of conducting the first company survey of the Western Connecticut Reserves in 1796. Moses Cleaveland negotiated a treaty with the Iroquois, who gave up all of their land claims east of the Cuyahoga River, he founded a settlement named after him that would become the city “Cleveland” due to a cartographic error.
Company Background In 1795, the Connecticut Land Company paid the state of Connecticut $1.2 million for three million acres of its Western Reserve lands. The $1.2 million raised by the state was used to fund public education. This allowed Connecticut to improve its educational facilities. With regards to the land purchased by the company, it was divided into 1.2 million shares. On September 5, 1795, the company adopted articles of association, each purchasing group was given a proportional share of the land commensurate with the amount of capital invested; the main purpose of the Connecticut Land Company was the pursuit of profits through the sale of the lands to both land speculators and settlers. Land would be sold many times between speculators and investors before it would be sold to someone who would settle it. Due to weak land sales, the company was forced to lower prices and give away free land in order to encourage settlement; the problems that forced the company to lower prices would force the company into bankruptcy.
Company’s Problems One of the problems that befell the Connecticut Land Company was company mismanagement. Sales efforts by the company were not centrally organized; the company did not set up a marketing office in the Western Reserve to promote sales of land. Without an organized, concerted sales campaign by the company, their efforts to sell the land were unsuccessful. In fact, only 1000 people had settled in the region by 1800; the other problem that beset the company and hurt land sales was political uncertainty surrounding the Connecticut Western Reserves. The political confusion concerned the right to govern the land and the legitimacy of the land titles. There were disputes between the Northwest Territory and the state of Connecticut over who had the right to govern the land purchased by the company. In addition, the company wanted Connecticut to guarantee the land titles that the company issues, but Connecticut refused; as a result of this uncertain surrounding the legality of land titles and jurisdiction, many would-be settlers decided not to come.
Making settlement less attractive was the fact that the US government did not recognize the Western Reserve as part of the Northwest Territory until 1800. In practice this means that the US government did not provide settlers with legal or military protection. On April 28, 1800, the Quieting Act was signed by President Adams int
The Maumee River is a river running from northeastern Indiana into northwestern Ohio and Lake Erie in the United States. It is formed at the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Marys rivers, where Fort Wayne, has developed, meanders northeastwardly for 137 miles through an agricultural region of glacial moraines before flowing into the Maumee Bay of Lake Erie; the city of Toledo is located at the mouth of the Maumee. The Maumee was designated an Ohio State Scenic River on July 18, 1974; the Maumee watershed is Ohio’s breadbasket. It is the largest watershed of any of the rivers feeding the Great Lakes, supplies five percent of Lake Erie’s water; the river was known as the "Miami" in United States treaties with Native Americans. As early as 1671, French colonists called Miami of the Lake. Maumee is an anglicized spelling of the Odawa name for the Miami tribe, Maamii; the Odawa had a village at the mouth of the Maumee River and occupied other territory in northwestern Ohio. The Battle of Fallen Timbers, the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, was fought 3⁄4 mile north of the banks of the Maumee River.
After this decisive victory for General Anthony Wayne, Native Americans ceded a twelve mile square tract around Perrysburg and Maumee to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Lands north of the river and downstream of Defiance were ceded in the 1807 Treaty of Detroit, the rest of the Maumee River valley was ceded in the 1817 Treaty of Fort Meigs. Prior to the development of canals, portages between the rivers were important trade routes. U. S. forces built forts such as Fort Loramie, Fort Recovery, Fort Defiance. In honor of General Wayne's victory on the banks of the Maumee, the primary bridge crossing the river near downtown Toledo is named the Anthony Wayne Suspension Bridge. A dispute over control of part of the Maumee River region led to the so-called Toledo War between Ohio and the Michigan Territory. Agricultural practices along the Maumee River have contributed in the 21st century to high phosphate levels in Lake Erie; this triggered algae blooms in the lake, rendering drinking water from the city of Toledo unsafe for consumption for nearly a week in August 2014.
The Maumee River watershed was once part of the Great Black Swamp, a remnant of Glacial Lake Maumee, the proglacial ancestor of Lake Erie. The 1,500-square-mile swamp was a vast network of forests and grasslands, a rich habitat for numerous species of birds, animals and flora. During the 19th century, European-American settlers struggled to drain the swamp and to convert the land to farmland; the mouth of the river at Toledo and Lake Erie is wide and supports considerable commercial traffic, including oil and coal. About 12 miles upstream, in the town of Perrysburg, the river becomes much shallower and today supports only recreational navigation above that point; the Miami and Erie Canal was built parallel to and north of the Maumee between Toledo and Defiance, Ohio, to enable extended transportation of shipped goods. The canal entered the river at a "slackwater" created by Independence Dam, it was built to the south, ending at Cincinnati, Ohio. While abandoned for commercial use, portions of the canal's towpath are maintained for recreational use in both Lucas and Henry counties.
A restored section of canal, including a canal lock, is operated at Providence Metropark, where visitors can ride an authentic canal boat. The Wabash and Erie Canal was constructed on the south side of the river, continuing southwest from Defiance to Fort Wayne, crossing the "summit" to the Wabash River valley. Both canals were important pre-railway transportation methods in the 1840–60 period; the Maumee has the largest watershed of any Great Lakes river, with 8,316 square miles. This area includes a portion of southern Michigan. In addition to its source tributaries – the St. Joseph River and St. Marys, the Maumee's principal tributaries are the Auglaize River and the Tiffin River, which join it at Defiance from the south and north, respectively. There are several small islands in the section of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio; the names of the islands are: Indian Island – near Farnsworth Park west of Toledo Woodcock Island – just west of Indian Island, adjacent to Missionary Island Missionary Island – near Farnsworth Park west of Toledo Granger Island – near Waterville, Ohio Butler Island – near Side Cut Metropark, adjacent to Missionary Island's North East side Grave Island – adjacent to Missionary Island on its south side, opposite of Butler Island Bluegrass Island – part of Side Cut Metropark Audubon Island – the largest island in the Maumee River McKee's Island or Ewing Island, part of SideCut Park Marengo Island – near Maumee, Ohio Horseshoe Island – near Walbridge Park in Toledo Clark Island – near Walbridge Park in Toledo Corbutt Island – in Toledo Grassy Island – at the mouth of Grassy Creek at Rossford, Ohio.
Girty's Island – two miles downstream of Florida, Ohio Preston Island – near Defiance, Ohio Little sisters Island – near Rossford, Ohio According to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, the annual walleye run up the Maumee River is one of the largest migrations of riverbound walleyes east of the Mississippi. The migration of the wall
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Treaty of Greenville
The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc. was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Indians of the Northwest Territory including the Wyandot and Delaware, which redefined the boundary between Indian lands and Whiteman's lands in the Northwest Territory. It was signed at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio, on August 3, 1795, following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier, it ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country, limited Indian Country to northwestern Ohio, began the practice of annual payments following land concessions. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of Native American tribes known as the Western Confederacy, the United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne and local frontiersmen; the treaty became synonymous with the end of the frontier in the Northwest Territory. General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, who led the victory at Fallen Timbers, led the American delegation. Other members included William Wells, William Henry Harrison, William Clark, Caleb Swan, Meriwether Lewis.
Native American leaders who signed the treaty included leaders of these bands and tribes: Wyandot, Delaware. Shawnee, Chippewa, Miami, Wea and Kaskaskia; the Treaty consisted of 10 articles that provided: The treaty established what became known as the Greenville Treaty Line delineated below. For several years it distinguished Native American territory from lands open to European-American settlers, although settlers continued to encroach. In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000, the Native American tribes ceded to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio; the treaty established the "annuity" system of payment in return for Native American cessions of land east of the treaty line: yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth to Native American tribes. This institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs and gave outsiders considerable control over Native American life; the treaty redefined with slight modifications the boundaries in Ohio established by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and reasserted in the Treaty of Fort Harmar in 1789.
In particular, the western boundary, which ran northwesterly to the Maumee River, now ran southerly to the Ohio River. Ohio had developed settlements and defined tracts of land prior to 1795, including the Western Reserve, Seven Ranges survey area, Virginia Military District, Symmes Purchase, two Ohio Company purchases, all in eastern and southern Ohio, as well as the line of western forts built by Wayne through Fort Recovery along the Great Miami River valley; the boundary line would need to encompass all these, covering about 2/3 of Ohio Country, within Whiteman's land. The treaty line began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in present-day Cleveland and ran south along the river to the portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers, in what is now known as the Portage Lakes area between Akron and Canton; the line continued down the Tuscarawas to Fort Laurens near present-day Bolivar. From there, the line ran west-southwest to near present-day Fort Loramie on a branch of the Great Miami River.
From there, the line ran west-northwest to Fort Recovery, on the Wabash River near the present-day boundary between Ohio and Indiana. From Fort Recovery, the line ran south-southwest to the Ohio River at a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River in present-day Carrollton, Kentucky. There were other forts along the Great Lakes nominally under U. S. sovereignty but occupied by the British, including Fort Miamis, other outpost forts in Ohio and Indiana. In Indiana, there was Clark's Grant and the settlement at Ouiatenon to protect; the treaty permitted established U. S. Army posts and allocated strategic reserved tracts within the Indian Country to the north and west of the ceded lands, the most important of, the future site of Fort Dearborn on Lake Michigan, Other American lands within Indian Country included Fort Detroit, Fort Wayne, Fort Miami, Fort Sandusky; the treaty exempted from relinquishment established settlements at Vincennes, Clark's Grant, various French settlements, Fort Massac.
The United States renounced all claims to lands not within the treaty line in Ohio or parcels exempted. The Indians were to recognize the United States as the sole sovereign power in the entire territory but otherwise the Indians would have free use of Indian lands as long as they were kindly disposed to Whitemen; the treaty arranged for an exchange of prisoners, specified which parties would be responsible for enforcing the boundary and punishing transgressions. Continuing encroachments by settlers on Indian Country north and west of the treaty line in Indiana, would lead a disgruntled Tecumseh, who had not signed the Treaty of Greenville, to reform the Confederacy at Prophetstown over the following decade. Unrest among the tribes culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, a major defeat for the Indians that may have contributed to the Indians siding with the British in the looming War of 1812; the Treaty of Greenville closed the frontier in the Northwest Territory. Thereafter began a series of purchases of Indian lands by treaty and Indian removals by law throughout the territory (later Indiana Territory, etc. which became several mode
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Congress Lands North of Old Seven Ranges
The Congress Lands North of the Old Seven Ranges was a land tract in northeast Ohio, established by the Congress early in the 19th century. It is located south of the Connecticut Western Reserve and Firelands, east of the Congress Lands South and East of the First Principal Meridian, north of the United States Military District and Seven Ranges, west of Pennsylvania. Acquired by Great Britain from France following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, the Ohio Country had been closed to white settlement by the Proclamation of 1763; the United States claimed the region after the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War. The Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 as a formal means of surveying and settling the land and raising revenue. Land was to be systematically surveyed into square "townships", six miles on a side created by lines running north-south intersected by east-west lines. Townships were to be arranged in north-south rows called ranges; these townships were sub-divided into thirty-six "sections" of 640 acres.
These ranges and sections were to be systematically numbered. The first north-south line, Eastern Ohio Meridian, was to be the western boundary of Pennsylvania, sometimes called Ellicott‘s Line after Andrew Ellicott, in charge of surveying it, the first east-west line was to begin where the Pennsylvania boundary touched the north bank of the Ohio River, the Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey40°38′33″N 80°31′10″W; the Geographer's Line was to extend westward through “the whole territory” which at that time was meant to include lands lying between the Ohio River and Lake Erie. A problem with this plan was that Connecticut had a claim on lands north of the 41st parallel north latitude. Thus, on May 9, 1786, Congress instructed Thomas Hutchins, Geographer of the United States, to continue his survey only south of the Geographers line. Hutchins group completed surveying seven ranges by 1787, presented plats to Congress in 1788 for the tract that became known as the Seven Ranges. On June 1, 1796, Congress created the United States Military District, sometimes called the USMD Lands, or USMD Survey.
The district was south of the Greenville Treaty Line. An un-surveyed tract of land in eastern Ohio remained north of the Seven Ranges and Military District, south of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In that gap, extending westward from the Pennsylvania line to the Tuscarawas River, lands were surveyed circa 1801 under the Act of May 18, 1796; the ranges and townships followed those of the original Seven Ranges, ranges being numbered westward from Pennsylvania, townships within each range numbered from south to north starting at the Ohio River, known as the Ohio River Base, thus having townships in adjacent ranges with different numbers. Sections were numbered according to the 1796 pattern; the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 had established land west of the Tuscarawas as reserved for Indians, not open to American settlement. With the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805, Indian land west of the Tuscarawas River, between Lake Eire and the Greeneville Treaty Line, east of a line 120 miles west of Pennsylvania, or about 82° 51' W longitude, was ceded by six tribes.
Congress Lands in this ceded area were surveyed 1806-07. This survey had six mile square townships and continued the range and section numbering system of the Ohio River Survey, section numbering being based on the 1796 land act; the two surveys of 1801 and 1806-07 became known as the Congress Lands North of the Old Seven Ranges. This area consists of only two townships, within the Congress Lands North of the Old Seven Ranges and bounded on the north by the Connecticut Western Reserve. Townships are numbered 1 and 2 north, the range is 10 west; the range continues the numbering of the Ohio River Survey. This survey was conducted in 1800; the civil townships of Lawrence Township, Stark County and Franklin Township, Summit County, Ohio correspond to this survey. Section 4 of the Land Act of May 18, 1796 provided that the lands between the Seven Ranges and the Western Reserve be sold at “Pittsburg“; the Land Act of May 10, 1800 established the Steubenville Federal Land Office for sale of these lands.
The Act of March 3, 1807 established a land office for the Congress Lands North of Old Seven Ranges that ended up in Canton, creating the Canton Land District. The Act of February 25, 1811 kept the name Canton Land District. Sales were conducted from the nation's capital at the General Land Office. Local offices were closed; the State of Ohio eventually sold lands granted to them by the federal government, such as section 16 of each township. The Tract today includes all or part of these counties in Ohio: Ashland, Columbiana, Holmes, Mahoning, Richland, Stark and Wayne. Ohio Lands Congress Lands Historic regions of the United States Knepper, George W; the Official Ohio Lands Book. The Auditor of the State of Ohio. Peters, William E. Ohio Lands and Their Subdivision. W. E. Peters. Ohio History Central- Congress Lands Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources: Map of Original Land Subdivisions of Ohio
Connecticut Western Reserve
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.
The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.
As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.
Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio, is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.
This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragi