The Tallapoosa River runs 265 miles from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, United States and westward into Alabama. It is formed by the confluence of McClendon Creek and Mud Creek in Georgia. Lake Martin at Alexander City, Alabama is a large and popular water recreation area formed by a dam on the river; the Tallapoosa joins the Coosa River about 10 miles northeast of Montgomery near Wetumpka to form the Alabama River. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa: Yates, Thurlow and Harris dams, they are important sources of electricity generation for Alabama Power and recreation for the public. The Tallapoosa River its lower course, was a major population center of the Creek Indians before the early 19th century; the contemporary name of the river is from the Creek words Talwa posa, which mean "Grandmother Town". The Creek consider the Tallapoosa branch of their tribe to be one of the oldest. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, a U. S. National Military Park managed by the National Park Service, is located along the banks of the Tallapoosa River just upstream from Lake Martin.
It preserves a battle site associated with the Creek War. The river below Thurlow Dam provides a short run of outstanding Class II, III and IV whitewater kayaking. Tallapoosa, Georgia is named for the river; the first hydroelectric dam in Alabama was built on the Tallapoosa River in 1902, by Henry C. Jones, an Auburn University electrical engineer, at the site of the current Yates Dam, it was rebuilt. The dam belonged to the Montgomery Light & Water Power Company. In 1928 it was replaced by the Yates Dam. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa River: Yates Dam, Thurlow Dam, Martin Dam, R. L. Harris Dam; the table below outlines the four impoundments on the Tallapoosa River from south to north. The Tallapoosa River's drainage has many significant tributaries which reflected below based on their location within the watershed; the Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, founded in 1890 in Gadsden, Alabama to promote navigation on the Coosa River is a leading advocate of the economic and environmental benefits of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River systems.
The Alabama Rivers Alliance works to unite the citizens of Alabama to protect peoples right to clean, waters. Alabama Water Watch is dedicated to volunteer citizen monitoring of water quality in Alabama Rivers; the Alabama Power Foundation is a non-profit foundation providing grants for watershed and community projects along the Tallapoosa River and within the state of AlabamaThe Coosa River Basin Initiative is a grassroots environmental organization with the mission of informing and empowering citizens so that they may become involved in the process of creating a clean and economically viable Coosa River Basin. A number of significant cities lie on the banks of the Tallapoosa River, they include: Heflin, Alabama - headwaters Buchanan, Georgia - headwaters Tallapoosa, Georgia - headwaters Wedowee, Alabama - near R. L Harris Lake Lineville, Alabama - near R. L harris Lake (Lake Wedowee Alexander City, Alabama - north flank of Lake Martin Dadeville, Alabama - south flank of Lake Martin Tallassee, Alabama - site of Lower Tallassee Dam Wetumpka, Alabama - near confluence with Coosa River forming the Alabama River Montgomery, Alabama - Tallapoosa River is major source of drinking water for city.
Atkins, Leah Rawls. "Developed for the Service of Alabama" - The Centennial History of the Alabama Power Company 1906-2006. Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama Power Company. ISBN 978-0-9786753-0-1. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Putting Loafing Streams To Work-The Building of Lay, Mitchell and Jordan Dams, 1910-1929. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0879-2. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0771-0. "Tallapoosa, a river of Georgia and Alabama". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans was fought on January 8, 1815, between the British Army under Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, the United States Army under Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson. It took place 5 miles east-southeast of the city of New Orleans, close to the present-day town of Chalmette and was a U. S. victory. The battle took place directly after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, before news of the treaty could reach the United States. U. S. troops defeated a poorly executed British assault on New Orleans, despite the British having a large advantage in training and fielded troops. In just over a half-hour, the U. S. suffered just over 60 casualties, while the British suffered 2,000 casualties. On October 24, 1814, in Pakenham's Secret Orders the Secretary of War and the Colonies, Henry Bathurst wrote: War Department 24th October 1814 M Genl The Hon Sir E. Pakenham Secret Sir: It has occurred to me that one case may arise affecting your situation upon the Coasts of America for which the Instructions addressed to the late Major General Ross have not provided.
You may hear whilst engaged in active operations that the Preliminaries of Peace between His Majesty and the United States have been signed in Europe and that they have been sent to America in order to receive the Ratification of The President. As the Treaty would not be binding until it shall have received such Ratification in which we may be disappointed by the refusal of the Government of the United States, it is advisable that Hostilities should not be suspended until you shall have official information that The President has ratified the Treaty and a Person will be duly authorized to apprise you of this event; as during this interval, judging from the experience we have had, the termination of the war must be considered as doubtful, you will regulate your proceedings accordingly, neither omitting an opportunity of obtaining signal success, nor exposing the troops to hazard or serious loss for an inconsiderable advantage. And you will take special care not so to act under the expectation of hearing that the Treaty of Peace has been ratified, as to endanger the safety of His Majesty's Forces, should that expectation be unhappily disappointed.
I have etc. Bathurst By December 14, 1814, sixty British ships with 14,450 soldiers and sailors aboard, under the command of Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, had anchored in the Gulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne. Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer set out to attack Jones' force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a small carronade. Lockyer captured Jones' vessels in a brief engagement known as the Battle of Lake Borgne. 17 British sailors were killed and 77 wounded, while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, 86 captured. The wounded included both Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands of British soldiers, under the command of General John Keane, were rowed to Pea Island where they established a garrison, about 30 miles east of New Orleans. On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of the Mississippi River, 9 miles south of New Orleans.
Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation and wait for the arrival of reinforcements. Meanwhile, General Jackson learned of the advances and position of the British encampment from Colonel Pierre Denis de La Ronde and his son-in-law, Gabriel Villeré, son of Colonel Jacques Villeré; the young major had escaped through a window after capture, when the advancing British invaded his family home. At the close of Major Villere's narrative the General drew up his figure, bowed with disease and weakness, to its full height, with an eye of fire and an emphatic blow upon the table with his clenched fist, exclaimed:'By the Eternal, they shall not sleep on our soil! That evening, attacking from the north, led 2,131 men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, who were resting in their camp. Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles south of the city.
The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, 74 missing, while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, 64 missing. Historian Robert Quimby says, "The British did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position." However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest; the unexpected and severe attack made Keane more cautious... he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth." As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a fortified earthwork. On Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans; that evening, General Pakenham, angry with the position in which the army had been placed, met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation.
General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route, but he was overruled by Admiral Cochrane, who insisted that
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Creek War known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place in today's Alabama and along the Gulf Coast. The major conflicts of the war took place between state militia units and the "Red Stick" Creeks; the Creek War was part of the centuries-long American Indian Wars. It is considered part of the War of 1812 because it was influenced by Tecumseh's War in the Old Northwest, was concurrent with the American-British war and involved many of the same participants, the Red Sticks had sought British support and aided Admiral Cochrane's advance towards New Orleans; the Creek War began as a conflict within the Creek Confederation, but local white militia units became involved. British traders in Florida as well as the Spanish government provided the Red Sticks with arms and supplies because of their shared interest in preventing the expansion of the United States into their areas; the United States government formed an alliance with the Choctaw Nation and Cherokee Nation, along with the remaining Creeks to put down the rebellion.
The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, when General Andrew Jackson forced the Creek confederacy to surrender more than 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama. The Red Stick militancy was a response to the increasing United States cultural and territorial encroachment into their traditional lands; the alternate designation as the Creek Civil War comes from the divisions within the tribe over cultural, political and geographic matters. At the time of the Creek War, the Upper Creeks controlled the Coosa and Alabama Rivers that led to Mobile, while the Lower Creeks controlled the Chattahoochee River, which flowed into Apalachicola Bay; the Lower Creek were trading partners with the United States and, unlike the Upper Creeks, had adopted more of their cultural practices. The provinces of East and West Florida were governed by the Spanish, British firms like Panton, Co. provided most of the trade goods into Creek country. Pensacola and Mobile, in Spanish Florida, controlled the outlets of the US Mississippi Territory's rivers.
Territorial conflicts between France, Spain and the United States along the Gulf Coast that had helped the Creeks to maintain control over most of the United States' southwestern territory had shifted due to the Napoleonic Wars, the Florida Rebellion, the War of 1812. This made long-standing Creek trade and political alliances more tenuous than ever. During and after the American Revolution, the United States wished to maintain the Indian Line, established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763; the Indian Line created a boundary for colonial settlement in order to prevent illegal encroachment into Indian lands, helped the U. S. government maintain control over the Indian trade. Traders and settlers violated the terms of the treaties establishing the Indian Line, frontier settlements by colonials in Indian lands was one of the arguments the United States used to expand its territory. In the Treaty of New York, Treaty of Colerain, Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, the Treaty of Fort Washington, the Creek ceded their Georgia territory east of the Ocmulgee River.
In 1804, the United States claimed the city of Mobile under the Mobile Act. The 1805 treaty with the Creek had allowed the creation of a Federal Road that linked Washington to the newly acquired port city of New Orleans, which stretched through Creek territories; these increasing territorial grabs westward into Creek territory, coupled with the Louisiana Purchase, compelled the British and Spanish governments to strengthen existing alliances with the Creek. In 1810, following the occupation of Baton Rouge during the West Florida Rebellion, the United States sent an expeditionary force to occupy Mobile; as a result, Mobile was jointly occupied by weak American and Spanish soldiers until Secretary of War John Armstrong ordered General James Wilkinson to force the Spanish to turn over control of the city in February 1813. The Patriot Army captured parts of East Florida from 1811–1815. After Fort Charlotte was surrendered in April, the Spanish focused on protecting Pensacola from the United States.
The Spanish decided to support the Creek in an attack on the United States and in defense of their homeland, but were hindered by their weak position in the Floridas and lack of supplies for their own army. The splintering of the Creek peoples along progressive and nativist lines had roots dating back to the eighteenth century, but came to a head after 1811. Red Stick militancy was a response to the economic and cultural crises in Creek society caused by the adoption of Western trade goods and culture. From the sixteenth century, the Creek had formed successful trade alliances with European empires, but the drastic fall in the price of deerskin from 1783 to 1793 made it more difficult for individuals to repay their debt, while at the same time the assimilation process made American goods more necessary; the Red Sticks resisted the civilization programs administered by the U. S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, who had stronger alliances among the towns of the Lower Creek; some of the "progressive" Creek began to adopt American farming practices as their game disappeared, as more Anglo settlers assimilated into Creek towns and families.
Leaders of the Lower Creek towns in present-day Georgia included Bird Tail King of Cusseta.
1828 United States presidential election
The 1828 United States presidential election was the 11th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 31, to Tuesday, December 2, 1828. It featured a re-match of the 1824 election, as President John Quincy Adams of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson of the nascent Democratic Party. Unlike in 1824, Jackson defeated Adams, marking the start of Democratic dominance in federal politics. Adams was the second president to lose re-election, following John Adams. Jackson had won a plurality of the electoral and popular vote in the 1824 election, but had lost the contingent election, held in the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the election, Jackson's supporters accused Adams and Henry Clay of having reached a "corrupt bargain" in which Clay helped Adams win the contingent election in return for the position of Secretary of State. After the 1824 election, Jackson's supporters began plans for a re-match in 1828; as the once-dominant Democratic-Republican Party collapsed and allies such as Martin Van Buren and Vice President John C. Calhoun laid the foundations of the Democratic Party.
Opponents of Adams coalesced around Jackson, unlike the 1824 election, the 1828 election became a two-way contest. Adams's supporters rallied around the president, calling themselves National Republicans in contrast to Jackson's Democrats. Jackson's cause was aided by the passage of the Tariff of 1828, referred to by its opponents as the Tariff of Abominations, which raised tariffs on imported materials and goods from abroad. With the ongoing expansion of the right to vote to most white men, the election marked a dramatic expansion of the electorate, with 9.5% of Americans casting a vote for President, compared with 3.4% in 1824. Passage of the unpopular tariff helped Jackson carry much of the South, Jackson swept the Western states. Adams won only three states outside of his home region. Jackson became the first president whose home state was neither Virginia; the election ushered Jacksonian Democracy into prominence, thus marking the transition from the First Party System to the Second Party System.
Historians debate the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern American politics with the decisive establishment of democracy and the permanent establishment of a two-party electoral system. Andrew Jackson won a plurality of electoral votes in the election of 1824, but still lost to John Quincy Adams when the election was deferred to the House of Representatives. Henry Clay, unsuccessful candidate and Speaker of the House at the time, despised Jackson, in part due to their fight for Western votes during the election, he chose to support Adams, which led to Adams being elected president. A few days after the election, Adams named Clay his Secretary of State, a position which at that time led to the presidency. Jackson and his followers accused Clay and Adams of striking a "corrupt bargain," and they continued to lambaste the president until the 1828 election. In the aftermath of the 1824 election, the national Democratic-Republican Party collapsed as national politics became polarized between supporters of Adams and supporters of Jackson.
In a prelude to the presidential election, the Jacksonians bolstered their numbers in Congress in the 1826 Congressional elections. Within months after the inauguration of John Quincy Adams in 1825, the Tennessee legislature re-nominated Jackson for president, thus setting the stage for a re-match between these two different politicians three years thence. Congressional opponents of Adams, including former William H. Crawford supporter Martin Van Buren, rallied around Jackson's candidacy. Jackson's supporters called themselves Democrats, would formally organize as the Democratic Party shortly after his election. In hopes of uniting those opposed to Adams, Jackson ran on a ticket with sitting Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun would decline the invitation to join the Democratic Party and instead formed the Nullifier Party after the election. No congressional nominating caucus or national convention was held. President Adams and his allies, including Secretary of State Clay and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, became known as the National Republicans.
The National Republicans were less organized than the Democrats, many party leaders did not embrace the new era of popular campaigning. Adams was re-nominated on the endorsement of partisan rallies; as with the Democrats, no nominating caucus or national convention was held. Adams chose Secretary of the Treasury Richard Rush, a Pennsylvanian known for his protectionist views, as his running mate. Adams, popular in New England, hoped to assemble a coalition in which Clay attracted Western voters, Rush attracted voters in the middle states, Webster won over former members of the Federalist Party; the campaign was marked by large amounts of nasty "mudslinging." Jackson's marriage, for example, came in for vicious attack. When Jackson married his wife Rachel in 1791, the couple believed that she was divorced, however the divorce was not yet finalized, so he had to remarry her once the legal papers were complete. In the Adams
The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans