George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark was an American surveyor and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky throughout much of the war, he is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia and Vincennes during the Illinois Campaign, which weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. The British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest". Clark's major military achievements occurred before his thirtieth birthday. Afterwards, he led militia in the opening engagements of the Northwest Indian War but was accused of being drunk on duty, he was disgraced and forced to resign, despite his demand for a formal investigation into the accusations. He left Kentucky to live on the Indiana frontier but was never reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures.
He spent the final decades of his life evading creditors and living in increasing poverty and obscurity. He was involved in two failed attempts to open the Spanish-controlled Mississippi River to American traffic, he became an invalid after suffering the amputation of his right leg. He was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, he died of a stroke on February 13, 1818. George Rogers Clark was born on November 19, 1752 in Albemarle County, near Charlottesville, the hometown of Thomas Jefferson, he was the second of 10 children of John and Ann Rogers Clark, who were Anglicans of English and Scottish ancestry. Five of their six sons became officers during the American Revolutionary War, their youngest son William was too young to fight in the war, but he became famous as a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The family moved from the Virginia frontier to Caroline County, Virginia around 1756, after the outbreak of the French and Indian War, lived on a 400-acre plantation that grew to include more than 2,000 acres.
Clark had little formal education. He lived with his grandfather so that he could receive a common education at Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline, he was tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian planters' children of the period. His grandfather trained him to be a surveyor. In 1771 at age 19, Clark left his home on his first surveying trip into western Virginia. In 1772, he made his first trip into Kentucky via the Ohio River at Pittsburgh and spent the next two years surveying the Kanawha River region, as well as learning about the area's natural history and customs of the Indians who lived there. In the meantime, thousands of settlers were entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. Clark's military career began in 1774, he was preparing to lead an expedition of 90 men down the Ohio River when hostilities broke out between the Shawnee and settlers on the Kanawha frontier that culminated in Lord Dunmore's War. Most of Kentucky was not inhabited by Indians.
Tribes were angry in the Ohio country who had not been party to the treaty signed with the Cherokee, because the Kentucky hunting grounds had been ceded to Great Britain without their approval. As a result, they were unsuccessful. Clark spent a few months surveying in Kentucky, as well as assisting in organizing Kentucky as a county for Virginia prior to the American Revolutionary War; as the American Revolutionary War began in the East, Kentucky's settlers became involved in a dispute about the region's sovereignty. Richard Henderson, a judge and land speculator from North Carolina, had purchased much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in an illegal treaty. Henderson intended to create a proprietary colony known as Transylvania, but many Kentucky settlers did not recognize Transylvania's authority over them. In June 1776, these settlers selected Clark and John Gabriel Jones to deliver a petition to the Virginia General Assembly, asking Virginia to formally extend its boundaries to include Kentucky.
Clark and Jones traveled the Wilderness Road to Williamsburg where they convinced Governor Patrick Henry to create Kentucky County, Virginia. Clark was given 500 lb of gunpowder to help defend the settlements and was appointed a major in the Kentucky County militia, he was just 24 years old, but older settlers looked to him as a leader, such as Daniel Boone, Benjamin Logan, Leonard Helm. In 1777, the Revolutionary War intensified in Kentucky. British lieutenant governor Henry Hamilton armed his Indian allies from his headquarters at Fort Detroit, encouraging them to wage war on the Kentucky settlers in hopes of reclaiming the region as their hunting ground; the Continental Army could spare no men for an invasion in the northwest or for the defense of Kentucky, left to the local population. Clark spent several months defending settlements against the Indian raiders as a leader in the Kentucky County militia, while developing his plan for a long-distance strike against the British, his strategy involved seizing British outposts north of the Ohio River to destroy British influence among their Indian allies.
In December 1777, Clark presented his plan to Virginia's Governor Patrick Henry, he asked for permission to lead a secret expedition to capture the British-held villages at Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the Illinois country. Governor Henry commissioned him as a lieutenant colonel in the
The Cuyahoga River is a river in the United States, located in Northeast Ohio, that feeds into Lake Erie. The river is famous for having been so polluted that it "caught fire" in 1969; the event helped to spur the environmental movement in the US. The name Cuyahoga is believed to mean "crooked river" from the Mohawk Indian name Cayagaga, although the Senecas called it Cuyohaga, or "place of the jawbone"; the Cuyahoga watershed begins its 100-mile journey in Hambden, flowing southward to the confluence of the East Branch Cuyahoga River and West Branch Cuyahoga River in Burton, where the Cuyahoga River begins. It continues on its 84.9 miles journey flowing southward to Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, where it turns north and flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Park in northern Summit County and southern Cuyahoga County. It flows through Independence, Valley View, Cuyahoga Heights, Newburgh Heights and Cleveland to its northern terminus, emptying into Lake Erie; the Cuyahoga River and its tributaries drain 813 square miles of land in portions of six counties.
The river is a recent geological formation, formed by the advance and retreat of ice sheets during the last ice age. The final glacial retreat, which occurred 10,000–12,000 years ago, caused changes in the drainage pattern near Akron; this change in pattern caused the south-flowing Cuyahoga to flow to the north. As its newly reversed currents flowed toward Lake Erie, the river carved its way around glacial debris left by the receding ice sheet, resulting in the river's winding U-shape; these meanderings stretched the length of the river into a 100-mile trek from its headwaters to its mouth. The depth of the river ranges from 3 to 6 ft. Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor charged with exploring the Connecticut Western Reserve, first arrived at the mouth of the Cuyahoga in 1796 and subsequently located a settlement there, which became Cleveland, Ohio; the river was one of the features along which the "Greenville Treaty Line" ran beginning in 1795, per the Treaty of Greenville that ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country becoming the western boundary of the United States and remaining so briefly.
The Cuyahoga River, at times during the 20th century, was one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. The reach from Akron to Cleveland was devoid of fish. A 1968 Kent State University symposium described one section of the river: From 1,000 feet below Lower Harvard Bridge to Newburgh and South Shore Railroad Bridge, the channel becomes wider and deeper and the level is controlled by Lake Erie. Downstream of the railroad bridge to the harbor, the depth is held constant by dredging, the width is maintained by piling along both banks; the surface is covered with the brown oily film observed upstream as far as the Southerly Plant effluent. In addition, large quantities of black heavy oil floating in slicks, sometimes several inches thick, are observed frequently. Debris and trash are caught up in these slicks forming an unsightly floating mess. Anaerobic action is common as the dissolved oxygen is above a fraction of a part per million; the discharge of cooling water increases the temperature by 10 to 15 °F.
The velocity is negligible, sludge accumulates on the bottom. Animal life does not exist. Only the algae Oscillatoria grows along the piers above the water line; the color changes from gray-brown to rusty brown as the river proceeds downstream. Transparency is less than 0.5 feet in this reach. This entire reach is grossly polluted. At least 13 fires have been reported on the Cuyahoga River, the first occurring in 1868; the largest river fire in 1952 caused over $1 million in damage to boats, a bridge, a riverfront office building. On June 22, 1969, a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays"; the fire did spark major changes as well as the article from Time, but in the immediate aftermath little attention was given to the incident and it was not considered a major news story in the Cleveland media. Furthermore, the conflagration that sparked Time's outrage was in June 1969, but the pictures they displayed on the cover and as part of the article were from the much more dangerous and costly 1952 fire.
No pictures of the 1969 fire are known to exist, as local media did not arrive on the scene until after the fire was under control. The 1969 fire caused $50,000 in damage to an adjacent railroad bridge; the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire helped spur an avalanche of water pollution control activities, resulting in the Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. As a result, large point sources of pollution on the Cuyahoga have received significant attention from the OEPA in recent decades; these events are referred to in Randy Newman's 1972 song "Burn On," R. E. M.'s 1986 song "Cuyahoga," and Adam Again's 1992 song "River on Fire." Great Lakes Brewing Company of Cleveland named its Burning River Pale Ale after the event. In December 1970 a federal grand jury investigation led by U. S. Attorney Robert W. Jones began, of water pollution being caused by about 12 companies in northeastern Ohio.
The Attorney General of the United States, John N. Mitchell, gave a Press Conference December 18, 1970 referencing new pollution control litigation, with particular reference to work w
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Treaty of Fort Industry
The Treaty of Fort Industry was a successor treaty to the Treaty of Greenville, which moved the eastern boundary of Indian lands in northern Ohio from the Tuscarawas River and Cuyahoga River westward to a line 120 miles west of the Pennsylvania boundary, which coincided with the western boundary of the Firelands of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In return, the United States agreed "every year forever hereafter, at Detroit, or some other convenient place" to pay $825 for the ceded lands south of the 41st degree of north latitude, an additional $175 for the Firelands, which lie north of 41 degrees north, which the President would secure from the Connecticut Land Company, for a total of annuity $1000.00, to be "divided between said nations, from time to time, in such proportions as said nations, with the approbation of the President, shall agree."The treaty was signed on July 4, 1805 by Charles Jouett, a federal Indian agent, for the United States, representatives of the Ottawa, Chippewa, Munsee and Shawnee.
The Connecticuit Western Reserve was established by Connecticuit's cession of its Ohio and Illinois Country land claims in 1785. The designated Firelands western portion of the Reserve extended west of the Treaty line established by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh that same year. Conflicts over the area, in Indian Country, erupted immediately after the treaty signing. While the Treaty of Greenville brought peace to the Ohio Country frontier, the Western Reserve boundary line problem wasn't resolved until the Firelands portion was acquired by the Treaty of Fort Industry; the location of Fort Industry is one of the enduring mysteries of the western frontier. The place of the signing was on the upper Maumee River, it was a temporary stockade or fortification erected just for the signing. Local tradition places the fort at the mouth of the Swan River on the Maumee in Toledo, although there is no documented record of this. U. S. government and military records do not mention that any fort or post was built there or anywhere with that name.
The name does not appear in period letters and documents after that time. The name is associated with Gen. Anthony Wayne as one of the forts he built along the western Ohio border in the Northwest Indian War more than a decade before. However, Gen. Wayne had been dead for nine years at the time of the signing. List of Indian treaties Indian Removals in Ohio
Great Miami River
The Great Miami River is a tributary of the Ohio River 160 miles long, in southwestern Ohio and Indiana in the United States. The Great Miami flows through Dayton, Troy and Sidney; the river is named for the Miami, an Algonquian-speaking Native American people who lived in the region during the early days of European settlement. They were forced to relocate to the west to escape European-American settlement pressure; the region surrounding the Great Miami River is known as the Miami Valley. This term is used in the upper portions of the valley as a moniker for the economic-cultural region centered on the Greater Dayton area; as the lower portions of the Miami Valley fall under the influence of Cincinnati and the Ohio River Valley, residents of the lower area do not identify with the Miami in the same way. The main course of the Great Miami River rises from the outflow of Indian Lake in Logan County, about 1 mile southeast of the village of Russells Point 15 miles southeast of Lima. Indian Lake is an artificial reservoir which receives the flow from the North and South forks of the Great Miami River.
It flows south and southwest, past Sidney, is joined by Loramie Creek in northern Miami County. It flows south past Piqua and Troy, through Taylorsville Dam near Tipp City and Vandalia, it continues through Dayton, where it is joined by the Mad rivers and Wolf Creek. From Dayton it flows southwest past Miamisburg, Franklin and Hamilton in the southwest corner of Ohio. In southwestern Hamilton County, it is joined by the Whitewater River 5 miles upstream from its mouth on the Ohio River, just east of the Ohio-Indiana state line 16 miles west of Cincinnati; the river meanders across the state line near Lawrenceburg, Indiana in the last two miles before reaching its mouth ¼ mile east of the border in Ohio. The border of Ohio and Indiana was based on where the confluence of the Ohio and Great Miami Rivers was in 1800. In the 1700s, the French called the river Riviere a la Roche; the Miami and Erie Canal, which connected the Ohio River with Lake Erie, was built through the Great Miami watershed. The first portion of the canal, from Cincinnati to Middletown, was operational in 1828, extended to Dayton in 1830.
Water from the Great Miami fed into the canal. A extension to the canal, the Sidney Feeder, drew water from the upper reaches of the Great Miami from near Port Jefferson and Sidney; the canal served as the principal north-south route of transportation from Toledo to Cincinnati for western Ohio until being supplanted in the 1850s by railroads. As was common in early industrial days, beginning in the 19th century the river served as a source of water and a method to dispose of wastes for a variety of major industrial firms, including Armco Steel, Champion International Paper, Black Clawson and many others. Heightened attention to water pollution in the late 1950s and 1960s has led to significant improvements in waste disposal and water quality. Following a catastrophic flood in March 1913, the Miami Conservancy District was established in 1914 within Ohio to build dams and storage areas, to dredge and straighten channels to control flooding of the river; the Great Miami River has been known as: Assereniet River Big Miami River Gran Miammee Fiume Grande Miami Riviere Great Miama River Great Miamia River Great Miammee River Great Mineami River Miami River Riviere à la Roche Rocky Fiume Rocky River Big Mineamy River Great Miamis River Great Miyamis River Miamis River Riviere La Rushes Rockey River Clear Creek Loramie Creek Mad River Stillwater River Twin Creek Whitewater River Wolf Creek Indian Creek Taylor Creek Four Mile Creek List of rivers of Indiana List of rivers of Ohio Little Miami River Arthur Benke & Colbert Cushing, Rivers of North America, Elsevier Academic Press, 2005 ISBN 0-12-088253-1
Northwest Indian War
The Northwest Indian War known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers of France and Great Britain, their colonials. Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded to the U. S. "control" of what were known as the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, which were occupied by numerous Native American peoples. Despite the treaty, the British kept forts there and continued policies that supported the Native Americans. With the encroachment of European settlers west of the Appalachians after the War, a Huron-led confederacy formed in 1785 to resist usurpation of Indian lands, declaring that lands north and west of the Ohio River were Indian territory.
President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U. S. sovereignty over the territory. The U. S. Army, consisting of untrained recruits and volunteer militiamen, suffered a series of major defeats, including the Harmar Campaign and St. Clair's Defeat. About 1,000 soldiers and militiamen were killed and the United States forces suffered many more casualties than their opponents. After St. Clair's disaster, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General "Mad" Anthony Wayne to organize and train a proper fighting force. Wayne took command of the new Legion of the United States late in 1792. After a methodical campaign up the Great Miami and Maumee River Valleys in western Ohio Country, he led his men to a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near southwestern Lake Erie in 1794. Afterward he went on to establish Fort Wayne at the Miami capital of Kekionga, the symbol of U. S. sovereignty in the heart of Indian Country. The defeated tribes were forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.
The Jay Treaty in the same year arranged for cessions of British Great Lakes outposts on the great U. S. territory. Settlement west of the Appalachians brought about a collision of differing notions of land usage and ownership between Indians and whitemen. To the Indians, land belonged to all, anyone could hunt or use it. Attempts to avoid conflict resulted in a succession of boundary lines being defined between Indian Country and whiteman's settlements. Co-operation among the Native American tribes forming the Western Confederacy had gone back to the French colonial era, it was renewed during the American Revolutionary War. The confederacy first came together in the autumn of 1785 at Fort Detroit, proclaiming that the parties to the confederacy would deal jointly with the United States, rather than individually; this determination was renewed in 1786 at the Wyandot village of Upper Sandusky. The confederacy declared the Ohio River as the boundary between their lands and those of American settlers.
The confederacy was a loose association of Algonquin-speaking tribes in the Great Lakes area. The Wyandot were the nominal "fathers," or senior guaranteeing tribe of the confederacy, but the Shawnee and Miami provided the greatest share of the fighting forces. Other tribes in the confederacy included the Delaware, Council of Three Fires, Kickapoo and Wabash Confederacy. In most cases, an entire tribe was not involved in the war. Villages and individual warriors and chiefs decided on participation in the war. Nearly 200 Cherokee warriors from two bands of the Overmountain Towns fought alongside the Shawnee from the inception of the Revolution through the years of the Indian Confederacy. In addition, the Chickamauga Cherokee leader, Dragging Canoe, sent a contingent of warriors for a specific action; some warriors of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes from the southeast, traditional enemies of the northwest tribes, served as scouts for the United States during these years. Still opposed to the US, some British agents in the region sold weapons and ammunition to the Indians and encouraged attacks on American settlers.
British Lieutenant Governor John Simcoe, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, was delighted with the United States' failures, hoped for British involvement in the creation of a neutral barrier state between the United States and Canada. In 1793, Simcoe abruptly changed policy and sought peace with the United States in order to avoid opening a new front in the French Revolutionary Wars. Simcoe treated the United States commissioners - Benjamin Lincoln, Beverly Randolph, Timothy Pickering - cordially when they arrived at Niagara in May 1793, seeking an escort by way of the Great Lakes in order to avoid the fate of John Hardin and Alexander Truman in 1792. War parties launched a series of isolated raids in the mid-1780s, resulting in escalating bloodshed and mistrust. In the fall of 1786, General Benjamin Logan led a force of Federal soldiers and mounted Kentucky militia against several Shawnee towns along the Mad River; these were defended by noncombatants while the warriors were raiding forts in Kentucky.
Logan burned the native towns and food supplies, killed or captured numerous natives, including their chief Moluntha, murdered by one of Logan's men. Logan's raid and the execution of the chief embittered the Shawnees, who retaliated by escalating their attacks on American settlers. Native American raids on both sides of the Ohio River resulted in increasing casualties. During the
Treaty of Greenville
The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc. was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Indians of the Northwest Territory including the Wyandot and Delaware, which redefined the boundary between Indian lands and Whiteman's lands in the Northwest Territory. It was signed at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio, on August 3, 1795, following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier, it ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country, limited Indian Country to northwestern Ohio, began the practice of annual payments following land concessions. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of Native American tribes known as the Western Confederacy, the United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne and local frontiersmen; the treaty became synonymous with the end of the frontier in the Northwest Territory. General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, who led the victory at Fallen Timbers, led the American delegation. Other members included William Wells, William Henry Harrison, William Clark, Caleb Swan, Meriwether Lewis.
Native American leaders who signed the treaty included leaders of these bands and tribes: Wyandot, Delaware. Shawnee, Chippewa, Miami, Wea and Kaskaskia; the Treaty consisted of 10 articles that provided: The treaty established what became known as the Greenville Treaty Line delineated below. For several years it distinguished Native American territory from lands open to European-American settlers, although settlers continued to encroach. In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000, the Native American tribes ceded to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio; the treaty established the "annuity" system of payment in return for Native American cessions of land east of the treaty line: yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth to Native American tribes. This institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs and gave outsiders considerable control over Native American life; the treaty redefined with slight modifications the boundaries in Ohio established by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and reasserted in the Treaty of Fort Harmar in 1789.
In particular, the western boundary, which ran northwesterly to the Maumee River, now ran southerly to the Ohio River. Ohio had developed settlements and defined tracts of land prior to 1795, including the Western Reserve, Seven Ranges survey area, Virginia Military District, Symmes Purchase, two Ohio Company purchases, all in eastern and southern Ohio, as well as the line of western forts built by Wayne through Fort Recovery along the Great Miami River valley; the boundary line would need to encompass all these, covering about 2/3 of Ohio Country, within Whiteman's land. The treaty line began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in present-day Cleveland and ran south along the river to the portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers, in what is now known as the Portage Lakes area between Akron and Canton; the line continued down the Tuscarawas to Fort Laurens near present-day Bolivar. From there, the line ran west-southwest to near present-day Fort Loramie on a branch of the Great Miami River.
From there, the line ran west-northwest to Fort Recovery, on the Wabash River near the present-day boundary between Ohio and Indiana. From Fort Recovery, the line ran south-southwest to the Ohio River at a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River in present-day Carrollton, Kentucky. There were other forts along the Great Lakes nominally under U. S. sovereignty but occupied by the British, including Fort Miamis, other outpost forts in Ohio and Indiana. In Indiana, there was Clark's Grant and the settlement at Ouiatenon to protect; the treaty permitted established U. S. Army posts and allocated strategic reserved tracts within the Indian Country to the north and west of the ceded lands, the most important of, the future site of Fort Dearborn on Lake Michigan, Other American lands within Indian Country included Fort Detroit, Fort Wayne, Fort Miami, Fort Sandusky; the treaty exempted from relinquishment established settlements at Vincennes, Clark's Grant, various French settlements, Fort Massac.
The United States renounced all claims to lands not within the treaty line in Ohio or parcels exempted. The Indians were to recognize the United States as the sole sovereign power in the entire territory but otherwise the Indians would have free use of Indian lands as long as they were kindly disposed to Whitemen; the treaty arranged for an exchange of prisoners, specified which parties would be responsible for enforcing the boundary and punishing transgressions. Continuing encroachments by settlers on Indian Country north and west of the treaty line in Indiana, would lead a disgruntled Tecumseh, who had not signed the Treaty of Greenville, to reform the Confederacy at Prophetstown over the following decade. Unrest among the tribes culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, a major defeat for the Indians that may have contributed to the Indians siding with the British in the looming War of 1812; the Treaty of Greenville closed the frontier in the Northwest Territory. Thereafter began a series of purchases of Indian lands by treaty and Indian removals by law throughout the territory (later Indiana Territory, etc. which became several mode