Tecumseh's War or Tecumseh's Rebellion was a conflict between the United States and an American Indian confederacy led by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. Although the war is considered to have climaxed with William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, Tecumseh's War continued into the War of 1812, is considered a part of that larger struggle; the war lasted for two more years, until the fall of 1813, when Tecumseh, as well as his second-in-command, died fighting Harrison's Army of the Northwest at the Battle of the Thames in Upper Canada, near present-day Chatham and his confederacy disintegrated. Tecumseh's War is viewed by some academic historians as being the final conflict of a longer term military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region of North America, encompassing a number of wars over several generations, referred to as the Sixty Years' War; the two principal adversaries in the conflict and William Henry Harrison, had both been junior participants in the Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close of the Northwest Indian War in 1794.
Tecumseh was not among the signers of the Treaty of Greenville that had ended the war and ceded much of present-day Ohio, long inhabited by the Shawnees and other Native Americans, to the United States. However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville terms, for the next ten years, pantribal resistance to American hegemony faded. After the Treaty of Greenville, most of the Ohio Shawnees settled at the Shawnee village of Wapakoneta on the Auglaize River, where they were led by Black Hoof, a senior chief who had signed the treaty. Little Turtle, a war chief of the Miamis, who had participated in the earlier war and signed the Greenville Treaty, lived in his village on the Eel River. Both Black Hoof and Little Turtle urged cultural adaptation and accommodation with the United States; the tribes of the region participated in several treaties, including the Treaty of Grouseland and the Treaty of Vincennes that gave and recognized American possession of most of southern Indiana.
The treaties resulted in an easing of tensions by allowing settlers into Indiana and appeasing the Indians with reimbursement for the lands the settlers were inhabiting by squatting. In May 1805, Lenape Chief Buckongahelas, one of the most important native leaders in the region, died of either smallpox or influenza; the surrounding tribes believed his death was caused by a form of witchcraft, a witch-hunt ensued, leading to the death of several suspected Lenape witches. The witch-hunts inspired a nativist religious revival led by Tecumseh's brother Tenskwatawa, who emerged in 1805 as a leader among the witch hunters, he posed a threat to the influence of the accommodationist chiefs, to whom Buckongahelas had belonged. As part of his religious teachings, Tenskwatawa urged Indians to reject European American ways, such as drinking liquor, European-style clothing, firearms, he called for the tribes to refrain from ceding any more lands to the United States. Numerous Indians, who were inclined to cooperate with the United States, were accused of witchcraft, some were executed by followers of Tenskwatawa.
Black Hoof was not harmed. From his village near Greenville, Tenskwatawa compromised Black Hoof's friendly relationship with the United States, leading to rising tensions with settlers in the region. Black Hoof and other tribal leaders began to put pressure on Tenskwatawa and his followers to leave the area to prevent the situation from escalating. By 1808, tensions with whites and the Wapakoneta Shawnees compelled Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh to retreat further northwest and establish the village of Prophetstown near the confluence of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers, land claimed by the Miami. Little Turtle told the Shawnee that they were unwelcome there. Tenskwatawa's religious teachings became more known as they became more militant, he attracted Native American followers from many different nations, including Shawnee, Chickamauga, Miami, Ojibwe, Kickapoo, Mascouten, Sauk and Wyandot. In 1808, Tecumseh began to be seen as a leader by his community. In 1808, the British in Canada approached him to form an alliance.
The Americans first took notice of him in 1810. Tecumseh emerged as the leader of the confederation, but it was built upon a foundation established by the religious appeal of his younger brother. Prophetstown came to be the largest Native American community in the Great Lakes region and served as an important cultural and religious center, it was an intertribal, religious stronghold along the Wabash River in Indiana for 3000 Native Americans. Led by Tenskwatawa and jointly with Tecumseh, thousands of Algonquin-speaking Indians gathered at Tippecanoe to gain spiritual strength. Meanwhile, in 1800, William Henry Harrison had become the governor of the newly formed Indiana Territory, with the capital at Vincennes. Harrison sought to secure title to Indian lands to allow for American expansion. Harrison negotiated numerous land cession treaties with American Indians. In 1809, Harrison began to push for the need of another treaty to open more land for settlement; the Miami and Kickapoo were "vehemently" opposed to selling any more land around the Wabash River.
To influence those groups to sell the land, Harrison decided, against the wishes of President James Madison, to first conclude a treaty with the tribes willing to sell and use them to help influ
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory contained 259,824 square miles of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory and the Illinois Territory; the Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. William Henry Harrison, the territory's first governor, oversaw treaty negotiations with the native inhabitants that ceded tribal lands to the U. S. government, opening large parts of the territory to further settlement. In 1809 the U. S. Congress established a bicameral legislative body for the territory that included a popularly-elected House of Representatives and a Legislative Council.
In addition, the territorial government began planning for a basic transportation network and education system, but efforts to attain statehood for the territory were delayed due to war. At the outbreak of Tecumseh's War, when the territory was on the front line of battle, Harrison led a military force in the opening hostilities at the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the subsequent invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. After Harrison resigned as the territorial governor, Thomas Posey was appointed to the vacant governorship, but the opposition party, led by Congressman Jonathan Jennings, dominated territorial affairs in its final years and began pressing for statehood. In June 1816 a constitutional convention was held at Corydon, where a state constitution was adopted on June 29, 1816. General elections were held in August to fill offices for the new state government, the new officeholders were sworn into office in November, the territory was dissolved. On December 11, 1816, President James Madison signed the congressional act that formally admitted Indiana to the Union as the nineteenth state.
When the Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 its original boundaries included the western portion the Northwest Territory. This encompassed an area northwest of a line beginning at the Ohio River, on the bank opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky River, extending northeast to Fort Recovery, in present-day western Ohio, north to the border between the United States and Canada along a line 84 degrees 45 minnutes West longitude; the territory included most of the present-day state of Indiana, all of present-day states of Illinois and Wisconsin, fragments of present-day Minnesota that were east of the Mississippi River, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula the western half of the Lower Peninsula of present-day Michigan, a narrow strip of land in present-day Ohio, northwest of Fort Recovery. This latter parcel became part of Ohio when it attained statehood in 1803; the Indiana Territory's southeast boundary was shifted in 1803, when Ohio became a state, to the mouth of the Great Miami River from its former location opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River.
In addition, the eastern part of present-day Michigan was added to the Indiana Territory. The territory's geographical area was further reduced in 1805 with the creation of the Michigan Territory to the north, in 1809, when the Illinois Territory was established to the west; the Indiana Territory's government passed through a non-representative phase from 1800 to 1804. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance, during the non-representative phase of territorial government the U. S. Congress, after 1789, the president with congressional approval, appointed a governor and three judges to govern each new territory. Local inhabitants did not elect these territorial officials. During the second, or semi-legislative phase of government, the territory's adult males who owned at least fifty acres of land elected representatives to the lower house of the territorial legislature. In addition, the Congress, the president with congressional approval, appointed five adult males who owned at least five hundred acres of land to the upper house of the territorial legislature from a list of ten candidates that the lower house submitted for consideration.
In the semi-legislative phase of government, the upper and lower houses could legislate for the territory, but the territorial governor retained absolute veto power. When the territory reached a population of 60,000 free inhabitants, it entered the final phase that included its successful petition to Congress for statehood. In 1803, when the Indiana Territory was formed from the remaining Northwest Territory after Ohio attained statehood, the requirement for proceeding to the second or semi-legislative phase of territorial government was modified. Instead of requiring the territory's population to reach 5,000 free adult males, the second phase could be initiated when the majority of territory's free landholders informed the territorial governor that they wanted to do so. In 1810 the requirement for voters to be landholders was replaced with a law granting voting rights to all free adult males who paid county or territorial taxes and had resided in the territory for at least a year; because of William Henry Harrison's leadership in securing passage of the Land Act of 1800 and his help in forming the Indiana Terri
The Wea were a Miami-Illinois-speaking Native American tribe located in western Indiana related to the Miami Tribe. The name Wea is used today as the a shortened version of their numerous recorded names; the Wea name for themselves in their own language is waayaahtanwa, derived from waayaahtanonki,'place of the whirlpool', where they were first recorded being seen and where they were living at that time. The different spellings of their name are numerous, as they were made by different settlers from different language and educational backgrounds. One French version is Ouiatenon. In 2004 the Indiana Historical Bureau installed a marker commemorating the Wea Village in Terre Haute and its living descendants; the Wea spoke a dialect of Miami, the same language as the Miami Tribe, both from the Algonquian languages. When the Wea had increased in numbers at their village of Ouiatenon, near present-day Lafayette, Piankeshaw offered to move and take part of the people with him further downriver to start a new village, which he established near the mouth of the Vermilion River.
He had tribal markings of holes or slits in his ears, he was called Piankeshaw. The Piankeshaw were the Deer Clan of the Wea. During the 19th century the Miami, Eel River and Piankashaw all occupied areas of Indiana; these tribes all signed treaties separately with the United States government and were considered to be distinct polities. The Wea had villages in present-day Wisconsin and Ohio, their main homeland in the 18th century was in Indiana, as well as a few villages in Illinois and Ohio. The three largest villages of the Wea were west of what is now Lafayette. Lesser settlements included five villages on the South side of the Wabash across from Fort Ouiatenon, occupied by the Wea, Piankeshaw and Gros clans. Toward the west near present-day Granville were villages of the Kickapoo people. With increased Euro-American settlement and Indian removals, the United States made many treaties with these tribes. A Treaty in 1854 was made that confederated the Wea who went west, the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw as the Confederated Peoria Tribe of Kansas Indian Territory.
After moving West they were known as the Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma. Many of the Wea Tribe remained in Indiana, they were referred to in treaties as the Wabash Wea. In historical records, they have been called the Wabash Indians. Descendants of the Wea reside today in the United States and abroad. Listed are just a few villages that were located in Illinois. Chicago Chicago, Illinois Kenapacomaqua Logansport, Indiana Ouiatenon Lafayette, where a marker notes the site Kethtippecahnunk Lafayette Sugar Creek Village/Reserve Sugar Creek, Indiana Weauteno / Jacco's Towne Terre Haute, Indiana Upper Wea Village/Town 2 miles above Terre Haute Old Wea Town Between Terre Haute and Vincennes Wea Reserve Parke County, Indiana Wea Village Danville, Illinois Paola, Miami County, Kansas Below are some of the many Treaties were made between the US and the Wea. Treaty of Greenville, Aug 3, 1795 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, June 7, 1803was not at the original treaty but signed Vincennes, Indiana Territory, Aug 13, 1803 Grouseland Indiana Territory, Aug 21, 1805 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Dec 30, 1805 Fort Wayne Indiana Territory, Sept 30, 1809 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Oct 26, 1809 Fort Harrison, Indiana Territory, June 4, 1816 Vincennes Indiana Territory, Jan 3, 1818 St Mary's Ohio Oct 2, 1818 Vincennes Indiana Aug 11, 1820 St Joseph Michigan Sept 21,1826 St Joseph Michigan Sept 24, 1828 Caster Hill Missouri, Oct 29, 1832 Washington DC May 30, 1854 Washington DC Feb 23, 1867 The following referred to Wea who chose to stay in Indiana: Treaty of St. Marys 1820 in Article 3: "As it is contemplated by the said Tribe, to remove from the Wabash, it is agreed, that the annuity secured to the Weas, by the Treaty of Saint Mary's, above mentioned, shall hereafter be paid to them at Kaskaskia in the state of Illinois.
" Treaty of Castor Hill 1832 in Article 4: "The United States will afford some assistance to that part of the Wea tribe now residing in the State of Indiana", The descendants of the Wea, along with the Kaskaskia and Piankeshaw, are enrolled in the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, a federally recognized tribe in Oklahoma
The Miami are a Native American nation speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory, now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, western Ohio. By 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory; the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe; the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribe's autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have been derived from an older term meaning "downstream people." Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee an onomatopoeic reference to their sacred bird, the sandhill crane. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, a name of unknown etymology; some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, not their autonym. They called themselves Mihtohseeniaki.
The Miami continue to use this autonym today. Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture. Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive regional trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns, other factors; the historical Miami engaged in hunting. During historic times, the Miami were known to have migrated south and eastwards from Wisconsin from the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century, by which time they had settled on the upper Wabash River in what is now northwestern Ohio; the migration was a result of their being invaded during the protracted Beaver Wars by the more powerful Iroquois, who traveled far in strong organized groups from their territory in central and western New York for better hunting during the peak of the eastern beaver fur trader days. The Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand; the warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations, but the major factor were fatalities from infectious diseases for which they had no immunity.
Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the indigenous people were living around the western shores of Lake Michigan. The Miami had moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a loose confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. At this time, the major bands of the Miami were: Atchakangouen, Atchatchakangouen, Greater Miami or Crane Band Kilatika, Kiratika called by the French known by the English as Eel River Band of Miamis.
The Hopewell tradition describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a dispersed set of related populations, they were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds in modern-day Florida as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways; the Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas; these people converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks.
The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can be considered a cultural climax. Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion... to southern Ohio. The Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell; the name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio, in 1891 and 1892; the mound group itself was named after Mordecai Hopewell, whose family who owned the earthworks at the time. What any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown, it is used to describe a wide scattering of people who lived near rivers in temporary settlements of 1-3 households and practiced a mixture of hunting and crop growing.
The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods; the Hopewellian peoples had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and soldiers. These cultures accorded certain families a special place of privilege; some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of "big-men". These leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion, they perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community.
Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of "big-men" was another step toward the development of the structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom. The Hopewell settlements were linked by extensive and complex trading routes, which doubled as communication networks, bring people together for important ceremonies. Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory. Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights; the gigantic sculpted earthworks took the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. The function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained. Several scientists, including Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6-year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon.
The Octagon covers the size of 100 football pitches. Dr. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks and the High Banks Works in Chillicothe, Ohio. Christopher Turner noted that the Fairground Circle in Newark, Ohio aligns to the sunrise on May 4, i.e. that it marked the May cross-quarter sunrise. In 1983, Turner demonstrated that the Hopeton earthworks encode various sunrise and moonrise patterns, including the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, the cross-quarter days, the lunar maximum events, the lunar minimum events due to their precise straight and parallel lines. William F. Romain has written a book on the subject of "astronomers and magicians" at the earthworks. Many of the mounds contain various types of burials. Precious burial good have been found in the mounds; these include objects of adornment made of copper and obsidian, imported to the region hundreds of miles away.
Stone and ceramics were fashioned into intricate shapes. The Hopewell created artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, their graves were filled with neck
The Kickapoo People are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe. Anishinaabeg say the name "Kickapoo" means "Stands here and there," which may have referred to the tribe's migratory patterns; the name can mean "wanderer". This interpretation is contested and believed to be a folk etymology. Today there are three federally recognized Kickapoo tribes in the United States: Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas; the Oklahoma and Texas bands are politically associated with each other. The Kickapoo in Kansas came from a relocation from southern Missouri in 1832 as a land exchange from their reserve there. Around 3,000 people are enrolled tribal members. Another band, the Tribu Kikapú, resides in Múzquiz Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Smaller bands live in Durango; the Kickapoo were an Algonquian-language people who migrated to or developed as a people in a large territory along the Wabash River in the area of modern Terre Haute, Indiana.
They were confederated with the larger Wabash Confederacy, which included the Piankeshaw to their south, the Wea to their north, the powerful Miami Tribe, to their east. A subgroup occupied the Upper Iowa River region in what was known as northeast Iowa and the Root River region in southeast Minnesota in the late 1600s and early 1700s; this group was known by the clan name "Mahouea", derived from the Illinoian word for wolf, m'hwea. The earliest European contact with the Kickapoo tribe occurred during the La Salle Expeditions into Illinois Country in the late 17th century; the French colonists set up remote fur trading posts throughout the region, including on the Wabash River. They would set up posts at or near Native American villages, Terre Haute was founded as a French village; the Kickapoo had to contend with a changing cast of Europeans. They increased their own trading with the Kickapoo; the United States acquired this territory east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River after it gained independence from the United Kingdom.
As white settlers moved into the region from the United States eastern areas, beginning in the early 19th century, the Kickapoo were under pressure. They negotiated with the United States over their territory in several treaties, including the Treaty of Vincennes, the Treaty of Grouseland, the Treaty of Fort Wayne, they moved north to settle among the Wea. Rising tensions between the regional tribes and the United States led to Tecumseh's War in 1811; the Kickapoo were one of Tecumseh's closest allies. Many Kickapoo warriors participated in the Battle of Tippecanoe and the subsequent War of 1812 on the side of the British, hoping to expel the American settlers from the region. A prominent, nonviolent spiritual leader among the Kickapoo was Kennekuk, who led his followers during Indian Removal in the 1830s to their current tribal lands in Kansas, he died there in 1852. The close of the war led to a change of federal Indian policy in the Indiana Territory, the state of Indiana. American leaders began to advocate the removal of tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River, to extinguish their claims to lands wanted by American settlers.
The Kickapoo were among the first tribes to leave Indiana under this program. They accepted an annual subsidy in exchange for leaving the state. Kickapoo speak an Algonquian language related to that of the Sauk and Fox, they are classified with the Central Algonquians, are related to the Illinois Confederation. In 1985 the Kickapoo Nation's School in Horton, Kansas began a language immersion program for elementary school grades to revive teaching and use of the Kickapoo language in grades K-6. Efforts in language education continue at most Kickapoo sites. In 2010, the Head Start Program at the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas reservation, which teaches the Kickapoo language, became "the first Native American school to earn Texas School Ready! Project certification."Also in 2010, Mexico's "Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia participated in the elaboration of a Kickapoo alphabet that may be used by more than 700 members of the group that dwell in Mexico and the United States, in the states of Coahuila and Texas.
No Kickapoo alphabet was used in Mexico. The Kickapoo in Mexico are known for their whistled speech. Texts, a vocabulary of the language are available; the Kickapoo language and members of the Kickapoo tribe were featured in the movie The Only Good Indian, directed by Greg Wilmott and starring Wes Studi. This was a fictionalized account of Native American children forced to attend an Indian boarding school, where they were forced to speak English and give up their cultures; the consonant sounds of the Kickapoo language are given below. The sounds can range to sounding voiced, but only infrequently; the eight vowel sounds in Kickapoo are as followed: short /a, ɛ, i, o/ and long /aː, ɛː, iː, oː/. Three of the vowels /a, ɛ, o/, have allophones /ə, ɪ, ɤ~u/. There are three federally recognized Kickapoo communities in the United States: one in Kansas, one in Texas, the third in Oklahoma; the Mexican Kickapoo are tied to the Texas and Oklahoma communities. These groups migrate annually among the three locations to maintain connections.
Indeed, the Texas and Mexican bran
The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia and Western Maryland. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Kansas. In the 1830s some were removed from the upper Midwest to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, Shawnee Tribe; the Shawnee language, an Algonquian language, was spoken by 200 people in 2002, including over 100 Absentee Shawnee and 12 Loyal Shawnee speakers. The language is written in the Latin script, it has a dictionary and portions of the Bible were translated into Shawnee.
Some scholars believe that the Shawnee are descendants of the people of the precontact Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio region, although this is not universally accepted. Fort Ancient culture flourished from 1000 to 1650 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited lands on both sides of the Ohio River in areas of present-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky and western West Virginia, they were mound builders. Fort Ancient culture was once thought to have been an extension of the Mississippian culture. But, scholars now believe Fort Ancient culture developed independently and was descended from the Hopewell culture a mound builder people. Uncertainty surrounds the fate of the Fort Ancient people. Most their society, like the Mississippian culture to the south, was disrupted by waves of epidemics from new infectious diseases carried by the first Spanish explorers in the 16th century. After 1525 at Madisonville, the type site, the village's house sizes became smaller and fewer, with evidence showing the people changed from their "horticulture-centered, sedentary way of life".
There is a gap in the archaeological record between the most recent Fort Ancient sites and the oldest sites of the Shawnee. The latter were recorded by European archaeologists as occupying this area at the time of encounter. Scholars accept that similarities in material culture, art and Shawnee oral history linking them to the Fort Ancient peoples, can be used to support the connection from Fort Ancient society and development as the historical Shawnee society; the Shawnee traditionally considered the Lenape of the East Coast mid-Atlantic region, who were Algonquian speaking, as their "grandfathers." The Algonquian nations of present-day Canada regarded the US Shawnee as their southernmost branch. Along the East Coast, the Algonquian-speaking tribes were located in coastal areas, from Quebec to the Carolinas. Algonquian languages have words similar to the archaic shawano meaning "south". However, the stem šawa- does not mean "south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm": See Voegelin "šawa MODERATE, WARM.
Cp. šawani'it is moderating...". In one Shawnee tale, "Sawage" is the deity of the south wind. Curtin translates Sawage as ` it thaws'. Šaawaki is attested as the spirit of the South, or the South Wind, in this account, in one of Voegelin's tales, in a song collected by Voegelin. Europeans reported encountering the Shawnee over a wides geographic area. One of the earliest mentions of the Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch map showing some Sawwanew located just east of the Delaware River. 17th-century Dutch sources place them in this general location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century located the Shawnee along the Ohio River, where the French encountered them on forays from eastern Canada and the Illinois Country. A Shawnee town might have from forty to one hundred bark-covered houses similar in construction to Iroquois longhouses; each village had a meeting house or council house sixty to ninety feet long, where public deliberations took place. According to one English legend, some Shawnee were descended from a party sent by Chief Opechancanough, ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy 1618–1644, to settle in the Shenandoah Valley.
The party was led by Sheewa-a-nee. Edward Bland, an explorer who accompanied Abraham Wood's expedition in 1650, wrote that in Opechancanough's day, there had been a falling-out between the Chawan chief and the weroance of the Powhatan, he said. The Shawnee were "driven from Kentucky in the 1670s by the Iroquois of Pennsylvania and New York, who claimed the Ohio valley as hunting ground to supply its fur trade; the colonists Batts and Fallam in 1671 reported that the Shawnee were contesting control of the Shenandoah Valley with the Haudenosaunee Confederacy in that year, were losing. Sometime before 1670, a group of Shawnee migrated to the Savannah River area; the English based in Charles Town, South Carolina were contacted by these Shawnee in 1674. They forged a long-lasting alliance; the Savannah River Shawnee were known to the Carolina English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time, other Shawnee groups migrated to Florida, Maryland and other regions south and east of the Ohio country. D'Iberville, writing in his journal in 1699, describes the Shawnee as "the single nati