Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg. It is the biggest town and the administrative centre of the Territoire de Belfort département. Belfort is 141 km from Strasbourg, 290 km from Lyon and 150 km from Zürich; the residents of the city are called "Belfortains". The city is located on the Savoureuse river, on a strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate, it is located 16 km south from the base of the Ballon d'Alsace mountain range, source of the Savoureuse. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants. Belfort's strategic location, in a natural gap between the Vosges and the Jura, on a route linking the Rhine and the Rhône, has attracted human settlement since Roman times, has made it a frequent target for invading armies.
The site of Belfort was inhabited in Gallo-Roman times. It was subsequently recorded in the 13th century as a possession of the counts of Montbéliard, who granted it a charter in 1307. An Austrian possession, Belfort was transferred to France by the Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War; the town's fortifications were extended and developed by the military architect Vauban for Louis XIV. Until 1871, Belfort was part of the département of Haut-Rhin, in Alsace; the Siege of Belfort was resisted until the garrison was ordered to surrender 21 days after the armistice between France and Prussia. The region was not annexed by Prussia like the rest of Alsace and was exchanged for other territories in the vicinity of Metz, it formed, the Territoire de Belfort. The siege is commemorated by the Lion of Belfort, by Frédéric Bartholdi. Alsatians who sought a new French home in Belfort made a significant contribution to its industry; the town was bombarded by the German army during World War I and occupied by it during World War II.
In November 1944 the retreating German army held off the French First Army outside the town until French Commandos made a successful night attack on the Salbert Fort. Belfort was liberated on 22 November 1944. On 5 June 1892, Le Petit Journal organised a foot-race from Paris to Belfort, a course of over 380 kilometers, the first large scale long distance running race on record. Over 1,100 competitors registered for the event and over 800 started from the offices of Le Petit Journal, at Paris Opera; this had been the start point for the inaugural Paris–Brest–Paris cycle-race the previous year. The newspaper's circulation increased as the French public followed the progress of race participants, 380 of whom completed the course in under 10 days. In Le Petit Journal on June 18, 1892, Pierre Giffard praised the event as a model for the physical training of a nation faced by hostile neighbours; the event was won by Constant Ramoge in 100 hours 5 minutes. Belfort is a centre for heavy engineering industries dedicated to railways and turbines.
Belfort is the hometown of Alstom where the first TGVs were produced, as well as being the GE Energy European headquarter and a centre of excellence for the manufacturing of gas turbines. Like many other European cities, the volume of road traffic in Belfort continues to increases and dominates transport. Belfort is situated at only 25 mi from the commercial port of Mulhouse-Rhin which allows international trade; the motorway A36 from Beaune to Mulhouse follows a route to the south and east of the city, forms the main axis linking Belfort to other French and European cities. N19 is another major route which joins the south of Belfort with Paris and Switzerland. EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg is located about 60 km east of Belfort. Belfort is well connected with the rest of France, with direct connections by train to major destinations such as Paris, Besançon, Strasbourg, Marseille and Lille, including high-speed trains; some trains operate into Switzerland, such as Zürich stations. There is a train service to Frankfurt am Main in Germany.
Regional services connect Belfort to Montbéliard, Besançon, Vesoul, Épinal and Nancy. Gare de Belfort is the main railway station in the centre of the city. Gare de Belfort – Montbéliard TGV is the high speed railway station, 9 km south of the city. From 2017, regional trains will connect Belfort with Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station using the new Belfort–Delle railway link; this service will link Belfort and the surrounding area to Switzerland, the high-speed train link will connect Swiss towns such as Delémont, Bern and Lausanne to Paris and other cities. Before 2020, the service Épinal-Belfort will be modernized; this will allow a link between LGV Est and LGV Rhin-Rhône in Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station, opening new destinations like Nancy and Luxembourg. A local bus network Optymo operates within Belfort. Tickets can be bought from any newsagent in the city, or a bus passenger can send a sms'BUS' to 84100 and show the confirmation sms as a ticket; the region of Belfort offers around 70 km of cycling tracks with more under construction.
Visit the local tourist office for information on the latest additions including the'Coulée verte
France in the long nineteenth century
The history of France from 1789 to 1914 extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes: French Revolution French First Republic First French Empire under Napoleon I Bourbon Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans Second Republic Second Empire under Napoleon III Third Republic Long Depression Belle Époque At the time of the French Revolution, France had expanded to nearly the modern territorial limits. The 19th century would complete the process by the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the city of Nice and some small papal and foreign possessions. France's territorial limits were extended during the Empire through Revolutionary and Napoleonic military conquests and re-organization of Europe, but these were reversed by the Vienna Congress. Savoy and the Nice were definitively annexed following France's victory in the Franco-Austrian War in 1859. In 1830, France invaded Algeria, in 1848 this north African country was integrated into France as a département.
The late 19th century saw France embark on a massive program of overseas imperialism — including French Indochina and Africa — which brought it in direct competition with British interests. With the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, France lost her provinces of Alsace and portions of Lorraine to Germany. Between 1795 and 1866, metropolitan France was the second most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, the fourth most populous country in the world. Unlike other European countries, France did not experience a strong population growth from the middle of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century; the French population in 1789 is estimated at 28 million. Slow growth was a major political issue, as the arch-rival Germany continue to gain an advantage in terms of population and industry. Ways to reverse the trend became a major political issue; until 1850, population growth was in the countryside, but a period of slow urbanization began under the Second Empire. Unlike in England, industrialization was a late phenomenon in France.
France's economy in the 1830s had a limited iron industry, under-developed coal supplies, the great majority lived on farms. The systematic establishment of primary education and the creation of new engineering schools prepared an industrial expansion which would blossom in the following decades. French rail transport only began hesitantly in the 1830s, would not develop until the 1840s, using imported British engineers. By the revolution of 1848, a growing industrial workforce began to participate in French politics, but their hopes were betrayed by the policies of the Second Empire; the loss of the important coal and glass production regions of Alsace and Lorraine would cause further problems. The industrial worker population increased from 23% in 1870 to 39% in 1914. France remained a rather rural country in the early 1900s with 40% of the population still farmers in 1914. While exhibiting a similar urbanization rate as the U. S. the urbanization rate of France was still well behind the one of the UK.
In the 19th century, France was a country of immigration for peoples and political refugees from Eastern Europe and from the Mediterranean. France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population during the French Revolution; the Crémieux Decree gave full citizenship for the Jews in French Algeria. And by 1872, there were an estimated 86,000 Jews living in France, many of whom integrated into French society, although the Dreyfus affair would reveal anti-semitism in certain classes of French society. Alsace and Lorraine were lost to Germany in 1871; some French refugees moved to France. France suffered massive losses during World War I — estimated at 1.4 million French dead including civilians and four times as many wounded. Linguistically, France was a patchwork. People in the countryside spoke various dialects. France would only become a linguistically unified country by the end of the 19th century, in particular through the educational policies of Jules Ferry during the French Third Republic.
From an illiteracy rate of 33% among peasants in 1870, by 1914 all French could read and understand the national language, although 50% still understood or spoke a regional language of France. Through the educational and military policies of the Third Republic, by 1914 the French had been converted from a "country of peasants into a nation of Frenchmen". By 1914, most French could read French and the use of regional
History of the United States (1865–1918)
The history of the United States from 1865 until 1918 covers the Reconstruction Era, the Gilded Age, the Progressive Era, includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the United States. This article focuses on political and diplomatic history; this period of rapid economic growth and soaring prosperity in the North and the West saw the U. S. become the world's dominant economic and agricultural power. The average annual income of non-farm workers grew by 75% from 1865 to 1900, grew another 33% by 1918. With a decisive victory in 1865 over Southern secessionists in the Civil War, the United States became a united and powerful nation with a strong national government. Reconstruction brought the end of legalized slavery plus citizenship for the former slaves, but their new-found political power was rolled back within a decade, they became second-class citizens under a "Jim Crow" system of pervasive segregation that would stand for the next 80–90 years. Politically, during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System the nation was dominated by Republicans.
After 1900 and the assassination of President William McKinley, the Progressive Era brought political and social reforms. The Progressives worked through new middle-class organizations to fight against the corruption and behind-the-scenes power of entrenched, state political party organizations and big-city "machines", they demanded—and won—women's right to vote, the nationwide prohibition of alcohol 1920-1933. In an unprecedented wave of European immigration, 27.5 million new arrivals between 1865 and 1918 provided the labor base necessary for the expansion of industry and agriculture, as well as the population base for most of fast-growing urban America. By the late nineteenth century, the United States had become a leading global industrial power, building on new technologies, an expanding railroad network, abundant natural resources such as coal, timber and farmland, to usher in the Second Industrial Revolution. There were two important wars; the U. S. defeated Spain in 1898, which unexpectedly brought a small empire.
Cuba was given independence, as well as the Philippines. Puerto Rico became permanent U. S. possessions, as did Alaska. The independent Republic of Hawaii voluntarily joined the U. S. as a territory in 1898. The United States tried and failed to broker a peace settlement for World War I entered the war after Germany launched a submarine campaign against U. S. merchant ships that were supplying Germany's enemy countries. The publicly stated goals were to uphold American honor, crush German militarism, reshape the postwar world. After a slow mobilization, the U. S. helped bring about a decisive Allied Forces victory by supplying badly needed financing and millions of fresh and eager soldiers. Reconstruction was the period from 1863 to 1877, in which the federal government temporarily took control—one by one—of the Southern states of the Confederacy. Before his assassination in April 1865, President Abraham Lincoln had announced moderate plans for reconstruction to re-integrate the former Confederates as fast as possible.
Lincoln set up the Freedmen's Bureau in March 1865, to aid former slaves in finding education, health care, employment. The final abolition of slavery was achieved by the Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in December 1865. However, Lincoln was opposed by the Radical Republicans within his own party who feared that the former Confederates would never give up on slavery and Confederate nationalism, would always try to reinstate them behind-the-scenes; as a result, the Radical Republicans tried to impose legal restrictions that would strip most ex-rebels' rights to vote and hold elected office. The Radicals were opposed by Lincoln's Vice President and successor, Tennessee Democrat Andrew Johnson. However, the Radicals won the critical elections of 1866, winning enough seats in Congress to override President Johnson's vetoes of such legislation, they successfully impeached President Johnson, removed him from office in 1868. Meanwhile, they gave the South's "freedmen" federal legal protections; the Radicals' reconstruction plans took effect in 1867 under the supervision of the U.
S. Army, allowing a Republican coalition of Freedmen and Carpetbaggers, to take control of Southern state governments, they ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, giving enormous new powers to the federal courts to deal with justice at the state level. These state governments borrowed to build railroads and public schools, increasing taxation rates; the backlash of fierce opposition to these policies drove most of the Scalawags out of the Republican Party and into the Democratic Party. President Ulysses S. Grant enforced civil rights protections for African-Americans that were being challenged in South Carolina and Louisiana; the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870 giving African-Americans the right to vote in American elections. U. S. Representative Stevens was one of the major policymakers regarding Reconstruction, obtained a House vote of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson. Hans Trefousse, his leading biographer, concludes that Stevens "was one of the most influential representatives to serve in Congress
Territoire de Belfort
The Territoire de Belfort is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France. Its departmental code is 90, its prefecture is Belfort. There is a single arrondissement, subdivided into 9 cantons and thence into 102 communes; the administrative district Territoire de Belfort was created under the terms of the 1871 Treaty of Frankfurt. The German Empire annexed all of Alsace, but the French were able to negotiate retention of the Territoire de Belfort which thereby was separated from the rest of Alsace. There were three principal reasons for this exceptional treatment: The population in and around Belfort was French-speaking. Belfort had demonstrated heroic resistance, under Colonel Pierre Denfert-Rochereau, to the German invasion. Belfort's left-wing Catholic Deputy Émile Keller now conducted a forceful political campaign in the National Assembly, he argued. With the loss of Alsace and the department of Moselle in Lorraine, France lost a number of well fortified and favoured military positions that would otherwise have deterred future military aggression from the east.
Belfort, on steep ground and lined up with the Vosges Mountains, would form part of a natural line of defence for France's newly imposed eastern frontier. This encouraged the politicians in Paris to hold out for its retention; the Germans agreed because the Prussian military officiers indicated that leaving it in France would give Germany a more defensible border. After retaining its unique status as a territoire for just over half a century, Belfort was recognized as France's 90th department in 1922. France had recovered Alsace three years earlier, but the decision was taken not to reintegrate Belfort into its former department. There was talk of giving it a new departmental name, with suggestions that included "Savoureuse" or "Mont-Terrible", but there was no consensus for a name change and the department continues to be known as the Territoire de Belfort; when the regions of France were created, Belfort was not included in the region of Alsace, but the adjacent region of Franche-Comté, since January 2016 Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.
The departmental income of the department in 2008 had increased to €18 259, a little below the overall national figure. The averaged figure for the Territoire de Belfort masked large disparities such as, in particular, that between Belfort itself at €15 431 and Bermont at €24 677. In 2013 the department recorded a population of 144,318. Of these more than 50,000 live in the commune of Belfort itself. Four principal phases can be identified in the population trends during the two centuries between 1801 and 2000; the period from 1800 to 1872 was marked by steady economic development and a high birth rate. However, the cholera epidemic which in 1851 arose from increasing urbanisation, along with a more general economic slow-down, reduced the rate of increase in the third quarter of the century. Between 1803 and 1872 the recorded population increased from 37,558 to 56,781. After the loss to Germany of most of Alsace in 1871, the Belfort population was boosted by the arrival of large numbers of refugees from "Germanisation": the years between 1871 and 1914 saw the development of large factories, with the mechanical and textile sectors being prominent growth areas.
The population increase and the economic development were at their most intense in the Belfort conglomeration itself. By 1911 the territoire's population figure stood at 101,392. in the years between 1914 and 1945 the economic narrative was dominated by two world wars and the period of stagnation that came between them. Population declined, having slipped to 86,648 in 1946. After 1945 the region became a focus for industrial growth: population levels followed the same rising trend, to stand at 131,999 in 1982; as in many parts of France, from about 1980 it was clear that the economic crisis of the 1970s was having a lasting effect in slowing the pace of expansion. Geographers might contend that Belfort lies on the ridge that divides two regions of France, but before 1870 it was politically part of Alsace. However, in terms of the political regions established in 1982, the Territoire de Belfort has found itself in the Franche-Comté rather than Alsace; the department has an area of only 609 km ².
Communes of the Territoire de Belfort department Cantons of the Territoire de Belfort department Arrondissement of Belfort Media related to Territoire de Belfort at Wikimedia Commons Prefecture website General council website Tourist Office website
French Third Republic
The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, the establishment of the Paris Commune; the early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy and who should be awarded the throne caused those talks to stall. Thus, the Third Republic, intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France; the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic.
It consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. Issues over the re-establishment of the monarchy dominated the tenures of the first two presidents, Adolphe Thiers and Patrice de MacMahon, but the growing support for the republican form of government in the French population and a series of republican presidents during the 1880s quashed all plans for a monarchical restoration; the Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century. The early years of the 20th century were dominated by the Democratic Republican Alliance, conceived as a centre-left political alliance, but over time became the main centre-right party; the period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured polarized politics, between the Democratic Republican Alliance and the more Radicals.
The government fell during the early years of World War II as the Germans occupied France and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France and Philippe Pétain's Vichy France. Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s "the form of government that divides France least". On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution. On the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army. In spite of France's divided electorate and persistent attempts to overthrow it, the Third Republic endured for seventy years, which as of 2018 makes it the longest lasting system of government in France since the collapse of the Ancien Régime in 1789; the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France and the overthrow of Emperor Napoleon III and his Second French Empire. After Napoleon's capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870.
The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president. This first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris; as Paris was cut off from the rest of unoccupied France, the Minister of War, Léon Gambetta, who succeeded in leaving Paris in a hot air balloon, established the headquarters of the provisional republican government in the city of Tours on the Loire river. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, national elections were called with the aim of creating a new French government. French territories occupied by Prussia at this time; the resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, nominally. Due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters; the new government negotiated a peace settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire: the Treaty of Frankfurt signed on 10 May 1871.
To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of financial laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities, to pay reparations. In Paris, resentment against the government built and from late March – May 1871, Paris workers and National Guards revolted and established the Paris Commune, which maintained a radical left-wing regime for two months until its bloody suppression by the Thiers government in May 1871; the following repression of the communards would have disastrous consequences for the labor movement. The French legislative election of 1871, held in the aftermath of the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, resulted in a monarchist majority in the French National Assembly, favourable to making a peace agreement with Prussia; the "Legitimists" in the National Assembly supported the candidacy of a descendant of King Charles X, the last monarch from the senior line of the Bourbon Dynasty, to assume the French throne: his grandson Henri, Comte de Chambord, alias "Henry V."
The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch i
Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, situated along right bank of the Upper Rhine. The margraves of Baden originated from the house of Zähringen. Baden is named after Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a devastating fire in Baden-Baden in 1689, the capital was moved to Karlsruhe; the two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden; the Grand Duchy of Baden was a state within the German Empire until 1918, succeeded by the Republic of Baden within the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. During 1945–1952, South Baden and Württemberg-Baden were territories under French and American occupation, respectively.
They were united with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the modern Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. History of Baden-Württemberg List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Baden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans