The Prisoner is a 1967 British science fiction-allegorical television series about an unidentified British intelligence agent, abducted and imprisoned in a mysterious coastal village, where his captors try to find out why he abruptly resigned from his job. It was created by Patrick McGoohan and George Markstein with McGoohan playing the main role of Number Six. Episodes covered various plots from spy fiction with elements of science fiction and psychological drama, it was produced by Everyman Films for distribution by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment company. A single season of 17 episodes was filmed between September 1966 and January 1968 with Portmeirion in north Wales standing in for the Village and interior shots filmed at MGM-British Studios in Borehamwood; the series was first broadcast in Canada beginning on 6 September 1967 in the UK on 29 September 1967, in the US on 1 June 1968.. Although the show was sold as a thriller in the mould of the previous series starring McGoohan, Danger Man, its combination of 1960s countercultural themes and surrealistic setting had a far-reaching influence on science fiction and fantasy TV programming, on narrative popular culture in general.
Since its release the series has developed a cult following. A six-part TV miniseries remake aired on the US cable channel AMC in November 2009. In 2016 Big Finish Productions reinterpreted the series as an audio drama; the series follows an unnamed British man who, after abruptly and angrily resigning from his job prepares to make a hurried departure from the country. While packing his luggage, he is rendered unconscious by knockout gas piped into his London flat; when he wakes, he finds himself in a re-creation of his apartment, located in a mysterious seaside "village" within which he is held captive, isolated from the mainland by mountains and sea. The Village is further secured by numerous monitoring systems and security forces including a militarised, balloon-based device called Rover that recaptures or destroys those who attempt escape; the man encounters the Village's population: hundreds of people from all walks of life and cultures, all seeming to be peacefully living out their lives.
They do not use names, but have been assigned numbers, which give no clue as to any person's status within the Village, whether as inmate or guard. Potential escapees therefore have no idea whom they can not trust; the protagonist is assigned Number Six, but he refuses the pretence of his new identity. Number Six is monitored by Number Two, the Village administrator, who acts as an agent for the unseen "Number One". A variety of techniques are used by Number Two to try to extract information from Number Six, including hallucinogenic drug experiences, identity theft, mind control, dream manipulation, various forms of social indoctrination and physical coercion. All of these are employed not only to find out why Number Six resigned as an agent, but to elicit other purportedly dangerous information he gained as a spy; the position of Number Two is filled in by various other characters on a rotating basis. Sometimes this is part of a larger plan to confuse Number Six. Number Six, distrustful of everyone in the Village, refuses to co-operate or provide the answers they seek.
He struggles alone, with various goals, such as determining for which side of the Iron Curtain the Village works, if indeed it works for any at all. His schemes lead to the dismissals of the incumbent Number Two on two occasions, although he never escapes. By the end of the series, the administration, becoming desperate for Number Six's knowledge as well as fearful of his growing influence in the Village, takes drastic measures that threaten the lives of Number Six, Number Two, the rest of the Village. A major theme of the series is individualism, as represented by Number Six, versus collectivism, as represented by Number Two and the others in the Village. McGoohan stated; the Prisoner consists of seventeen episodes, which were first broadcast from 29 September 1967 to 1 February 1968 in the United Kingdom. While the show was presented as a serialised work, with a clear beginning and end, the ordering of the intermediate episodes is unclear, as the production and original broadcast order were different.
Several attempts have been made to create an episode ordering based on script and production notes, interpretations of the larger narrative of Number Six's time in the Village. The opening and closing sequences of The Prisoner have become iconic and cited as "one of the great set-ups of genre drama", by establishing the Orwellian and postmodern themes of the series; the high production values of the opening sequence have been described as more like a feature film than a television programme. Number Six awakes in the mysterious coastal location known to'residents' as the Village. Most of the'residents' are prisoners with others acting as guards. Escape from the Village is difficult with mountains to three sides and the sea on the other. Escapees are tracked by CCTV and intercepted by'Rover', a white balloon guardian that will attack and asphyxiate people if required. Everyone uses. Most of the villagers wear a standard outfit make up of coloured blazers with piping, multicoloured capes, striped sweaters, plimsolls and a variety of head wear with str
Guarantee (international law)
A guarantee ensures the fulfilment of international obligations by a state promising to help another state fulfill its obligations when they are hindered by a third party. Other methods to ensure fulfillment of international obligations, like oaths or the receiving of hostages, were called guarantees. One example of such an obligation can be neutrality. For example, before World War I, the neutrality of Switzerland and Luxembourg had been guaranteed. Treaty of London Swiss neutrality Treaty of London
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Concert of Europe
The Concert of Europe represented the European balance of power from 1815 to 1848 and from 1871 to 1914. A first phase of the Concert of Europe, known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was dominated by five Great Powers of Europe: Prussia, Britain and Austria; the more conservative members of the Concert of Europe, who were members of the Holy Alliance, used this system to oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, uphold the balance of power. Historians date its effective operation from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the early 1820s, although some see it playing a role until the Crimean War. With the Revolutions of 1848 the Vienna system collapsed and, although the republican rebellions were checked, an age of nationalism began and culminated in the unifications of Italy and Germany in 1871; the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck re-created the Concert of Europe to avoid future conflicts escalating into new wars. The revitalized concert included France, Austria and Italy with Germany as the main continental power economically and militarily.
The Congress of Berlin and the Conference of Berlin promoted the solidification of power in the respective controlled regions as well as imperialism. The Concert of Europe split itself into the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, World War I broke out in 1914; the Concert of Europe was founded by the powers of Austria, Prussia and the United Kingdom, which were the members of the Quadruple Alliance that defeated Napoleon and his First French Empire. In time, France was established as a fifth member of the Concert, following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. At first, the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh, Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and Tsar Alexander I of Russia. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord of France was responsible for returning that country to its place alongside the other major powers in international diplomacy; the age of the Concert is sometimes known as the Age of Metternich, due to the influence of the Austrian chancellor's conservatism and the dominance of Austria within the German Confederation, or as the European Restoration, because of the reactionary efforts of the Congress of Vienna to restore Europe to its state before the French Revolution.
It is known in German in Russian as the Vienna System. The Concert of Europe had no written rules or permanent institutions, but at times of crisis any of the member countries could propose a conference. Meetings of the Great Powers during this period included Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau and Verona; the Concert's effectiveness came to an end because of many factors such as the British distrust of Russia. The idea of a European federation had been raised by figures such as Gottfried Leibniz and Lord Grenville; the Concert of Europe, as developed by Metternich, drew upon their ideas and the notion of a balance of power in international relations, so that the ambitions of each Great Power would be restrained by the others: The Concert of Europe, as it began to be called at the time, had... a reality in international law, which derived from the final Act of the Vienna Congress, which stipulated that the boundaries established in 1815 could not be altered without the consent of its eight signatories.
From the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792 to the exile of Napoleon to Saint Helena in 1815, Europe had been constantly at war. During this time, the military conquests of France had resulted in the spread of liberalism throughout much of the continent, resulting in many states adopting the Napoleonic code; as a reaction to the radicalism of the French Revolution, most victorious powers of the Napoleonic Wars resolved to suppress liberalism and nationalism, revert to the status quo of Europe prior to 1789. The Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian and Russian empires, formed the Holy Alliance with the expressed intent of preserving Christian social values and traditional monarchism; every member of the anti-Napoleonic coalition promptly joined the Alliance, except for the United Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with a more liberal political philosophy. The great powers were now in a system of meeting. Britain and France did not send their representatives. Britain did however ratify the Quadruple Alliance, signed on the same day as the Second Peace Treaty of Paris, which became the Quintuple Alliance when France joined in 1818.
It was signed by the same three powers that had signed the Holy Alliance on 26 September 1815. There has been much debate between historians as to which treaty was more influential in the development of international relations in Europe in the two decades following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. In the opinion of historian Tim Chapman the differences are somewhat academic, as the powers were not bound by the terms of the treaties and many of them intentionally broke the terms if it suited them; the Holy Alliance was the brainchild of Tsar Alexander I. It gained a lot of support because most European monarchs did not wish to offend the Tsar by refusing to sign it, as it bound monarchs rather than their governments, it was easy to ignore once signed. Only three notable princes did not sign: Pope Pius VII, Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire, the British Prince Regent because his government did not wish to pledge itself to the policing of continental Europe. In the o
Place des Martyrs, Brussels
Martyrs' Square is a square in the centre of Brussels, Belgium. Its current name refers to the martyrs of the September days of the Belgian Revolution of 1830; the square was called Place Saint-Michel in French or Sint-Michielsplein in Dutch after Saint Michael, patron saint of the City of Brussels. It was laid-out in a uniform neoclassical style in the years 1774–1778, based on the designs of Claude Fisco. Over 400 heroes of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 lie buried in a crypt beneath the cobblestones. Many lie not far from where they were shot, in fierce battles amid the Brussels streets and barricades. Martyrs' Square is home to cabinet offices of the Flemish Government, including those of the Flemish minister-president, as well as a theatre, the Théâtre des Martyrs. In 1773, the City of Brussels, which had acquired the plot of a former laundry, commissioned the architect Claude Fisco, controller of the works of the city, to build a new square, called Place Saint-Michel/Sint-Michielsplein.
The works, which involved digging several arteries, lasted from 1774 to 1776. In 1795, under the French regime, the square was temporarily renamed Place de la Blanchisserie/Blekerijplein; the layout of the square was modified several times over the centuries. It was a paved "empty" square, as can be seen on engravings from the late 18th century. In 1802, linden trees were planted. In 1830, after the first victims of the Belgian Revolution had been buried there, the provisional government decided, in 1831, to turn the square into a national commemoration place for the victims of the Revolution. In 1838, the Pro Patria monument, carved by the court sculptor of King Leopold I, Guillaume Geefs, including a statue and crypt, was erected; the construction of the Martyrs' Monument led to a radical alteration of the square and its name was changed definitively to Place des Martyrs/Martelarenplein. In 1839, the addition of gardens on both sides of the Monument changed the square's appearance once again in 1841, the installation of fountains, which were replaced by pools in 1841.
Martyrs' Square, including the facades and roofs of the buildings, as well as the Martyrs' Monument, were designated a historic monument on 10 June 1963. In 1980, the square was restored to its original appearance and was repaved. Martyrs' Square is located near Rue Neuve/Nieuwstraat, it is served by the metro station De Brouckère on lines 5 of the Brussels metro. The Brabançonne Place Royale Media related to Place des Martyrs/Martelaarsplein at Wikimedia Commons
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands. The PCA is not a court in the traditional sense but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties; the cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, human rights, international investment, international and regional trade. The PCA is constituted through two separate multilateral conventions with a combined membership of 121 states; the organization is not a United Nations agency. The Peace Palace was built from 1907 to 1913 for the PCA in The Hague. In addition, the building houses the Hague Academy of International Law, Peace Palace Library and the International Court of Justice; the PCA is not a court in the conventional understanding of that term but an administrative organization with the object of having permanent and available means to serve as the registry for purposes of international arbitration and other related procedures, including commissions of enquiry and conciliation.
The Administrative Council is a body composed of all diplomatic representatives of Member States accredited to the Netherlands. It is presided by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, a member, it is responsible for "direction and control" of the International Bureau, directs the organisation's budget and reports on its activities. The International Bureau is headed by the Secretary-General, it provides linguistic, administrative support to PCA arbitration tribunals. The judges or arbitrators that hear cases are called Members of the Court; each member state may appoint up to four "of known competency in questions of international law, of the highest moral reputation and disposed to accept the duties of arbitrators" for a renewable 6-year term. Members of each member state together form a "national group". Members may be selected in arbitration cases. National Groups may propose candidates for International Court of Justice members; the PCA sometimes gets confused with the International Court of Justice, which has its seat in the same building.
The PCA is however not part of the UN system, although it does have observer status in the UN General Assembly since 1993. In the Articles 30-57 of the Hague Convention of 1899 the rules of arbitration procedure are outlined; these rules are an adapted version of pre-existing treaties among the states. They were amended in 1907, the creation of a summary procedure for simple cases being the most conspicuous change, were relevant in the 1920s development of rules for the Court of International Justice; the first act of parties before the PCA is the submission of the so-called "compromisis", stating the issue and the competence of the arbitrator. Proceedings are conducted in two phases: written pleadings and oral discussion; the Court retires once the debate is over to deliberate and conclude the case by a simple majority of votes. The decision is published as a writ, along with any dissenting opinions. Early Court decisions were countersigned by the arbitrators themselves, but in 1907, that responsibility was passed to the president and secretary.
The writ is read to a public session in the presence of the agents and lawyers of the parties to the case. The decision is binding on the parties, there is no mechanism for appeal. Between 2007 and 2008, the budget was 1.8 million Euro. The budget of PCA comes from the contributions of its members and income through arbitration cases; the distribution of the amounts to be paid by the individual member states is based on the system in use by the Universal Postal Union. Parties to arbitration have to pay the expenses of the arbitral tribunal set up to hear the case, including the salary of the arbitrators and administrative functions, but not including overhead of the organization); the costs of arbitration vary from case to case and discussions may be held between the PCA and the parties over fee arrangements. The fixed costs for action as an appointing authority are €2000. Parties to the Convention on the Pacific Settlement of disputes of 1899 and 1907 are automatically parties to the PCA; as 51 are parties to both conventions, the PCA has 121 member states: 119 members of the United Nations, as well as Kosovo and Palestine.
PCA is one of the oldest institutions for international dispute resolutions. It was established in 1899 by the first Hague Peace Conference under Articles 20 to 29 of the 1899 Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. At the second Hague Peace Conference, the earlier Convention was revised by the 1907 Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes; the Conference was convened at the initiative of Czar Nicholas II of Russia "with the object of seeking the most objective means of ensuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and lasting peace, above all, of limiting the progressive development of existing armaments." PCA tribunals have jurisdiction for disputes based on the PCA founding documents, or based on bilateral and multilateral treaties. Its Secretary General furthermore acts as an appointing authority for arbitration; when problems arise in designating arbitrators for an arbitration under UNCITRAL arbitration rules, the PCA Secretary-General may be re