Rab is an island in Croatia and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea. The island is 22 km long, has an area of 9,328 inhabitants; the highest peak is Kamenjak at 408 m. The northeastern side of the island is barren, while the southwestern side is covered by one of the last oak forests of the Mediterranean. Ferries connect the island of Rab with the mainland port of Stinica and with the neighbouring islands of Krk and Pag. European Coastal Airlines offered multiple daily connections by seaplane from Rab to Zagreb and to Rijeka via Rijeka Airport in Omišalj on the neighboring island of Krk, until it ceased operations in 2016; the island of Rab was first mentioned in a Greek source Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax and by other Greek and Roman geographists by the name Arba. That name belonged to the Liburnians, so far the oldest known inhabitants of the island. Arba was the name of the Liburnian settlement in the modern city of Rab, it is not certain. The Illyrian-Liburnian word Arb meant'dark, green, forested'.
Therefore, name Arba should be comprehended as a toponym meaning "Black island", due to the rich pine forests that once grew on the island. After the 1st century AD, it was recorded by many other Greek and Roman authors by the names Arba and Arva, its Medieval Dalmatian speaking population used Arbe, Arbiana and most Arbum in the documents written in the Latin language. Arbe became the Venetian name of the city in the 15th century when it fell under the authority of the Republic of Venice. In the Croatian language it became Rab, a form which goes back as far as the 7th centurywhen the Slavs began to settle on the island. However, the first record of name Rab is preserved only in the middle of the 15th century, since the major establishment of Croatian inhabitants in the city did not occur before the 10th century, unlike the rest of the island and region; the island is first heard of under the Illyrians in 360 BC. It was part of Liburnia and part of the Roman Empire; the emperor Octavian Augustus gave Rab the title of Municipium.
Saint Marinus, the founder of the mini-state of San Marino, originated on Rab, whence he fled during the religious persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian. The earliest bishop of Arba whose name is preserved in an extant document is Titianus, a participant in a council held in 532 Salona, the metropolitan see of which Arba was a suffragan. On 17 October 1154, Arba was attached instead to the archdiocese of Zadar. By the papal bull Locum Beati Petri of 30 June 1828, the history of the diocese as a residential see came to an end and its territory was united with that of Krk. No longer a residential bishopric, Arba is today listed by the Catholic Church. During the Middle Ages, Rab remained as part of the Roman Empire. Although, for a short time, it formed a part of the Kingdom of Croatia. In 1000 the island, together with the many other islands and cities of Dalmatia, submitted to the Republic of Venice. In 1358 the island came under the Angevin ruler of Hungary. During the Renaissance it was ruled by Venice from 1409 until the end of the 18th century followed by a brief interlude under Napoleon.
It was annexed by the Habsburgs in 1815 and remained under Austrian rule till 1918. Since a majority of its residents were Italian-speaking, the locals sought to be annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, but Italy decided to cede the island to Yugoslavia in 1921, many of its Italian-speaking residents subsequently left for Istria and the rest of Italy. During World War II, the forces of Fascist Italy established the Rab concentration camp on the island. A memorial complex built in 1953 commemorates the site of the former camp, located in the village of Kampor. After the Second World War, the island was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until the Croatian independence referendum in 1991; the island of Rab is rich in cultural heritage and cultural-historical monuments that make it a popular vacation destination. Rab is known as a pioneer of naturism after the visit of King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson; the island is nowadays popular with tourists and families for its beautiful nature, beaches and many events the Rab arbalest tournament and the Rab Medieval festival: Rapska Fjera.
Sežana Königsbrunn San Marino Rab tourist office Rab city web site Kristofor travel: tourist services and accommodation Accommodation in Rab and Lopar AdriaClub: services and accommodations rab360 virtual panoramas
Brač is an island in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia, with an area of 396 square kilometres, making it the largest island in Dalmatia, the third largest in the Adriatic. It is separated from the mainland by the Brač Channel, 5 to 13 km wide; the island's tallest peak, Vidova gora, or Mount St. Vid, stands at 780 m, making it the highest island point in the Adriatic; the island has a population of 13,956, living in numerous settlements, ranging from the main town Supetar, with more than 3,300 inhabitants, to Murvica, where less than two dozen people live. Brač Airport on Brač is the largest airport of all islands surrounding Split. Archaeological findings in the Kopačina cave between Supetar and Donji Humac have been dated to the 12th millennium BC; these are some of the oldest traces of human habitation in Croatia. The findings show that the cave has been inhabited until the 3rd millennium BC; some of the artefacts have originated in the Dalmatian hinterland, showing that Brač was part of a trade network with the mainland.
In the Bronze Age and Iron Age, numerous villages existed. In the 4th century BC Greek colonisation spread over many Adriatic islands and along the coast, but none of them on Brač. Greeks visited the island and traded with the Illyrian inhabitants; the Greek name of the island was Elaphousa derived from elaphos "stag". Based on this, it has been speculated that the original name of the island may have been derived from Messapic *brentos "stag". Polybius and Plinius record the name of the island as Brattia. Brač lay on the crossroads of several trade routes from Salona to the Po River. Greek artifacts were found in the bay of Vičja near Ložišća on the estate of the Rakela-Bugre brothers. Many of the objects belonging to this still unexamined site are now on display in the Archeological Museum of Split. Dalmatia fell under Roman rule in AD 9. Salona became the capital of the new province and because of its proximity to Salona, significant population centers were present on the island in the Roman period.
Signs of Roman habitation are still widespread, but they are limited to single Roman villas and early quarries between Škrip and Splitska. Splitska became the most important harbour to carry stone to Salona and the whole of Dalmatia. Diocletian's Palace, which became Split, was built with limestone, quarried on Brač. Agriculture wine and olives, began in the same era. After the destruction of Salona by Avars and Slavs, Brač became a refuge. Tradition has it that Škrip was founded by refugee Salonans, but the town is much older than that. In 872, the island was sacked by Saracen raiders. From 1268 to 1357 the island recognised the supremacy of the Republic of Venice, after that they bowed to the Kingdom of Hungary. In the summer of 1390, together with the whole region, they accepted the rule of the Bosnian King Tvrtko Kotromanić, who died the next year. Soon after his death, Hungary claimed the island again. In this whole period, they kept their basic autonomy and old structures - the island was never rich or strategically interesting enough to justify serious intervention.
Local nobility administered and ruled Brač and the seat of the council was Nerežišća in the island's center. The leader was selected from the noble families. Only in 1420 did the Venetian Republic reclaim the island sending a representative to assume rule over it; the Black Death hit Brač from 1434-1436. For 1405, Hranković mentions in his chronicles that Brač has a population of 6,000 - but after the pandemic, only 2,000 people were still living on the island; the population recovered in the following years with many people moving in from the main land and the population spreading from the inner parts of the island to the coast, where some of the old pre-Croatian settlements were resettled again. During this time, the Bosnian realm fell to the Ottoman Empire and many refugees settled on the islands on Brač. Many towns were founded in that time and the population began moving from the interior of the island to its coast: to Bol, Postira, Povlja, Pučišća, Sumartin, Supetar i Sutivan. Venice ruled for more than four centuries, until 1797, when the Habsburg Monarchy annexed most of its territory in a deal with Napoleonic France.
The official language was Latin. During the Napoleonic Wars, Brač was conquered by the French Empire for a short time in 1806. In 1807, Prince-Bishop Petar I Njegoš of Montenegro managed to seize Brač with the help of the Russian navy, however at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 the island was returned to the Austrian Empire. In 1827, the administrative center of Brač moved from Nerežišća to Supetar. Brač was incorporated into the Austrian crownland of Dalmatia from and became a part of Cisleithania of the Monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867. After the fall of Austria-Hungary 1918, Brač became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, or Yugoslavia since 1929. In 1939 an autonomous Croatian Banate was created; the population of the island drastically decreased in the beginning of the 20th century due to heavy emigration to Latin America Argentina and Chile, to New Zealand and Australia. The emigration continued during the whole century, only generations preferring to move to European countries Germany.
Among others, the Chilean writer Antonio Skármeta is descended from such immigrants. In 1941 Italian forces occupied the island. In the mountainous regions of the island, native rebels fought a quite effective guer
History of Tyrol
The history of Tyrol, a historical region in the middle alpine area of Central Europe, dates back to early human settlements at the end of the last glacier period, around 12,000 BC. Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. Many of the main and side valleys were settled during the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1300 BC. From these settlements, two prominent cultures emerged: the Laugen-Melaun culture in the Bronze Age, the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture in the Iron Age; the region was conquered by the Romans in 15 BC. The northern and eastern areas were incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Raetia and Noricum, leaving deep impressions on the culture and language, with the Rhaeto-Romance languages. Following the conquest of Italy by the Goths, Tyrol became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in the fifth and sixth centuries. In 553, southern Tyrol was incorporated into the Lombards' Kingdom of Italy, northern Tyrol came under the influence of the Bavarii, western Tyrol became part of Alamannia—the three areas meeting at present-day Bolzano.
In 774, Charlemagne conquered the Lombards, as a consequence, Tyrol became an important bridgehead to Italy. In the eleventh century, the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire granted the counties of Trento and Vinschgau to the Bishopric of Trent, the county of Norital and Puster Valley to the Bishopric of Brixen—effectually placing the region under the control of the Emperors. In the coming centuries, the counts residing in Tirol Castle near Merano extended their territory over the region. Counts would hold much of their territory directly from the Holy Roman Emperor; the Meinhardinger family, originating in Gorizia, controlled the Tyrol and the Duchy of Carinthia. By 1295, the "county and reign of Tyrol" had established itself in the "Land on the Adige and Inn", as the region was called; when the Meinhardiner dynasty died out in 1369, the Tyrol was ceded to the House of Habsburg, who ruled over the region for the next five and a half centuries, with a brief period of control in the early nineteenth century by the Bavarians during the Napoleonic Wars.
At the conclusion of World War I, the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1919 ceded the southern part of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Italy, including present day-South Tyrol with its large German-speaking majority. The northern part of Tyrol was retained by the First Austrian Republic; the historical region is formed by the present-day Austrian State of Tyrol and the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino. The boundaries of this Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion correspond to the former Habsburg County of Tyrol, which gave this historical region its name. Archaeological findings show people settled in the middle alpine region to be called Tyrol, when the glaciers retreated and flora and fauna revived, after the last ice age ended around 12,000 BC. Artifacts found on the Seiser Alm date to the Upper Paleolithic era. In the valley bottoms near Bolzano and Salorno, mesolithic hunters resting places were discovered. Stone artefacts recovered there were dated to the 8th millennia BC. Discovery of Ötzi on the Similaun glacier in 1991 proved man had crossed the highest Alpine passes 5000 years ago.
Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. There is ample evidence of settlements in the main and side valleys during the early and middle Bronze Age. Preferred settlement sites were sunny terraces on the valleys slopes, hill tops in the middle heights. In the Bronze and Iron Ages the region was home to a series of autochthonous cultures occupying the area of the county of Tyrol; the most prominent are the late Bronze Age Laugen-Melaun culture and Iron Age Fritzens-Sanzeno culture cultures. The Laugen-Melaun culture, named after two important archaeological sites near the modern-day town of Brixen in South Tyrol, originated in the 14th century BC, in the area of today's South Tyrol and Trentino, it soon spread over the central area of the Southern Alps, encompassing South and East Tyrol, Trentino north of Rovereto and the Lower Engadine. Distinguishing factors include its characteristic richly decorated pottery, while the metal-working is influenced by adjacent cultures.
As in the Urnfield culture, Laugen-Melaun-people cremated their dead, placing their ashes in urns, worshipping their gods in sanctuaries sometimes situated in remote areas, on mountain-tops or close to water. Rich burial objects show that from the 13th to 11th century BC, the Laugen-Melaun culture flourished, due to the mining of copper, the source material for the alloy bronze. Around 500 BC, the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture known as culture of the Raeti, after the goddess Raetia who according to Roman authors was the main deity of the people inhabiting the region, succeeded both the Laugen-Melaun culture of the southern and the Urnfield culture of the northern part of Tyrol; as in the preceding culture, the richly ornamented pottery is characteristic, while many aspects such as the metal-working, burial customs and religion are influenced by its neighbours the Etruscans and Celts. Nonetheless, the Fritzens-Sanzeno-people possessed important distinct cultural traits distinguishing them from adjacent groups, such as the typical mountain-sanctuaries in use during the time of the Laugen-Melaun culture, certain types of fibulae, bronze armor, their own alphabet derived from one of North Etruscan alphabets.
The language of the Raeti was kin to Estruscan, but different enough to suggest a ancient divergence between them. In 15 BC, the region was conquered by the Romans, its northern
Idrija is a town in western Slovenia. It is the seat of the Municipality of Idrija, it is located in the traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral and is in the Gorizia Statistical Region. It is notable for its mercury mine with stores and infrastructure, as well as miners' living quarters, a miners' theatre. Together with the Spanish mine at Almadén, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2012. In 2011, Idrija was given the Alpine Town of the Year award; the town of Idrija lies in the Idrija Basin, surrounded by the Idrija Hills. It is traversed by the Idrijca River, joined there by Nikova Creek, it includes the hamlets of Brusovše, Prenjuta, Žabja Vas close to the town center, as well as the more outlying hamlets of Češnjice, Ljubevč, Kovačev Rovt, Mokraška Vas, Razpotje and Zahoda. The Marof hydroelectric plant is located on the Idrijca River on the northern outskirts of Idrija, between Marof and Mokraška Vas. Mercury was discovered in Idrija in the late 15th century. Mining operations were taken over by the government in 1580.
The mineral idrialite, discovered here in 1832, is named after the town. According to legend, a bucket maker working in a local spring spotted a small amount of liquid mercury over 500 years ago. Idrija is one of the few places in the world where mercury occurs in both its elemental liquid state and as cinnabar ore; the subterranean shaft mine entrance known as Anthony's Shaft is used today for tours of the upper levels, complete with life-sized depictions of workers over the ages. The lower levels, which extend to 400 meters below the surface and are no longer being mined, are being cleaned up; the parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Joseph the Worker and belongs to the Diocese of Koper. There are three other churches in Idrija, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, Saint Anthony of Padua, Our Lady of Sorrows. Notable people that were born or lived in Idrija include: Aleš Bebler, Slovene Communist leader, resistance fighter, diplomat Jožef Blasnik, publisher Stanko Bloudek, designer Borut Božič, professional road cyclist Aleš Čar, writer Karel Dežman, Carniolan politician and scholar Damir Feigel, journalist, cultural worker, humorist, father of Slovenian science fiction, national awakener and anti-fascism fighter Heinrich Freyer, Slovenian botanist, cartographer and natural scientist Ludvik Grilc, painter/portrait painter Belsazar Hacquet, French natural scientist Marko Hatlak, accordionist Vladimír Karfík, Czechoslovak architect Eva Lucija Cecilija Viktorija Emilija Kraus, Baroness of Wolsberg, lover of French Emperor Napoleon Marko V. Lipold, Miner and lawyer, known as the father of Slovenian geology Jožef Mrak, one of the most notable Slovenian polytechnicians Pier Paolo Pasolini, Italian film director and poet Vasja Pirc, chess grandmaster Nikolaj Pirnat, painter and author Zorko Prelovec, composer, choir composition author Luka Rupnik, Slovenian basketball player Marko Ivan Rupnik, artist and theologian Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Italian natural scientist Jan Tratnik, professional road cyclist Anton Alojzij Wolf, Roman Catholic bishop, patron of literature Tanja Žakelj, Slovenian professional world champion mountain biker The ghost town of New Idria, California, a site of mercury mining during the 19th-century California Gold Rush, was named after Idrija.
Idrija, official page of the municipality Idrija on Geopedia Idrija municipal museum Local newspaper Tourist info Tourist information, a page in English about the town and its history Town portal
Malborghetto Valbruna is a comune in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Malborghetto-Valbruna is located about 100 kilometres northwest of Trieste and about 50 kilometres northeast of the regional capital Udine, on the border with Austria, it is one of the three municipalities in the Canal Valley of the Fella River, between Tarvisio in the east and Pontebba in the west. In the north, the crest of the Carnic Alps forms the border with the Austrian state of Carinthia and the municipalities of Hermagor-Pressegger See, Sankt Stefan im Gailtal, Feistritz an der Gail, Hohenthurn. In the south, the Jôf di Montasio massif of the Julian Alps separates it from the Italian municipalities of Chiusaforte and Dogna. Beside the villages of Malborghetto and Valbruna, the municipal area includes the frazioni of Bagni di Lusnizza, Santa Caterina, Ugovizza as well as the localitiy of Cucco. Ugovizza-Valbruna station is a stop on the Pontebbana railway line from Udine to Tarvisio, rebuilt until 2000.
Valbruna has access to the A23 Alpe-Adria Autostrada, running from the Austrian border and the A2 Süd Autobahn to Udine as part of the European route E55. For centuries, German-, Romance- as well as Slavic- -speaking people settled in the Canal Valley, which from 1077 was ruled by the Carinthian duke Liutold of Eppenstein, while King Henry IV of Germany ceded the adjacent territory of the Imperial March of Verona in the south to the Patriarchate of Aquileia. While the Aquileia territory was conquered by Venice and incorporated into the Domini di Terraferma by 1433, the settlement named Buonborgeth was part of the Carinthian possession held by the Prince-Bishops of Bamberg; the village, economical relevant for its iron ore and silver deposits at Valbruna as well as for its forestry, received its current name male due to the constant border quarrels with the Serenissima. The Austrian Habsburgs, Carinthian dukes since 1335, had a border fortress built at Malborgeth, occupied by Venice in 1616, by French Revolutionary troops led by General André Masséna during the War of the First Coalition in 1797, again by French Imperial forces under Napoleon's stepson Eugène de Beauharnais in 1805.
Again attacked by Beauharnais' troops during the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809, it was defended by an Austrian contingent under the command of Captain Friedrich Hensel from 14 to 17 May. They succumbed to the French, but prevented their arrival at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on 21 May, where Austrian Archduke Charles was able to repel Napoleon's forces; the Malborgeth fortress was named Fort Hensel in the honour of the captain, who like most of his men was killed in battle. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Canal Valley was adjudicated to the Kingdom of Italy according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the 1915 London Pact. In the course of the 1939 South Tyrol Option Agreement between Italy and Nazi Germany, most of the German-speaking population was resettled to Carinthia; as of 31 December 2004, Malborghetto-Valbruna had a population of 1,025 and an area of 120.5 km². According to the 1971 census, 46,2% of the population are Slovenes
Cres is an Adriatic island in Croatia. It is one of the northern islands in the Kvarner Gulf and can be reached via ferry from Rijeka, the island Krk or from the Istrian peninsula. With an area of 405.78 km2, Cres is the same size as the neighbouring island of Krk, although Krk has for many years been thought the largest of the islands. Cres has a population of 3,079. Cres and the neighbouring island of Lošinj once used to be one island, but were divided by a channel and connected with a bridge at the town of Osor. Cres's only fresh water source is the Lake Vrana. Cres has been inhabited since the Paleolithic time period, its name predates classical antiquity and is derived from Proto-Indo-European *quer-. Although this is one view, another more correct is from classical antiquity, when the town was founded and inhabited by ancient Greeks, called it Chersos. "Chersos" was resounded to "Cresta", from which the modern name "Cres" is derived. Cres was ruled by the Greeks and, since the 1st century B.
C. the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Roman Empire the island was taken over and became a part of the Byzantine Empire, remained this way for centuries. In the 7th century the Croats invaded the islands around it, they returned to the islands in the early 9th century. Around 866 the inhabitants saw the first conflicts with the Republic of Venice; the Venetians took control of Cres and the neighboring islands in the 10th and 11th centuries. However, the Croats regained the islands and the islands went through a change of rulers for centuries, being ruled by Croats and for 400 years the Venetians took control of the islands. After Napoleon's victory over the Venetians, the island went under Austrian rule. After the defeat of Austria by Napoleon in 1809 the islands became part of the French Empire. After the fall of Napoleon, Austria once again took control of the island for 100 years. During this time the economy developed with olive trees and other plants becoming key to the success of the island.
At the end of World War I, with the Treaty of Rapallo signed in 1920, the island was once again handed over to Italy. This lasted until 1947; the island has gone through an agricultural downturn as many residents left the island in search of a better life on the mainland and abroad. This has resulted in many former agricultural areas becoming overgrown with local vegetation. People retirees, have been returning to live on the island. Tourism has become an important industry and the population experiences significant seasonal variation; the island has several villages, all of them connected by a road that runs down the middle of the island. On one side is the ferry from the mainland. Approaching the island from Pula, you will first come to Porozina. A list of the villages with descriptions is below: Porozina – A small village comprising the ferry terminal and a few shops. Beli – This small village, at the end of a long and narrow road, is home to a famed bird species, the endangered Griffon vulture.
Cres Orlec – Another small village at the end of a narrow road home to the endangered vulture. Valun – Visible on the way to Lubenice, this village does not permit cars. A fee is charged for parking. Lubenice – An ancient mountain village with a great view of the sea and neighboring islands. A restaurant and bar operate during the warmer months. Weekly musical concerts take place during the peak tourist season. Belej Stivan – On a side street this small hamlet of 16 people features a private beach, old houses and a church, is on the way to other villages. Merag -with ferry connections. Miholašćica - A small village with a church which shares the same name as the community. Tourism has grown here since the arrival of the Zaglav community nearby. Martinšćica – The home of a large vacation complex, along with beaches and cafes. Osor - A town on the "border" between two islands. Founded by the Romans who dug the channel thus dividing what was known as the Osor island into Cres and Lošinj. A major port and commercial centre started to fade with coming of larger ships that could not pass the narrow channel or dock in the shallow port.
Pernat – The westernmost village on Cape Pernat. A quaint and rustic village forming a gateway to numerous walking secluded beaches. Podol – Between Lubenice and Valun. A tiny hamlet that resembles a large farmhouse, its key feature is the mulberry tree located in the middle of the road. Punta Kriza – The southernmost part of Cres. FKK resort is here. Vidovici – A short distance uphill from Martinšćica. A village with an extraordinary view of the Istrian Peninsula and numerous islands including Zeča, Lošinj and Unije forming part of the archipelago. A restaurant operates in the evenings during the warmer months. Cres has its own fresh water lake, highly guarded and illegal to swim or fish in, it supplies water to neighboring Lošinj as well. It is one of the deepest fresh water lakes in Eastern Europe, going down 76 meters at its deepest point. Cres is home to many different types of nonvenomous snakes, including Elaphe quatuorlineata, Zamenis longissi
The Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria—hence known as the Quadruple Alliance —was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I. It was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente; the Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879. Despite having nominally joined the Triple Alliance before, Italy did not take part in World War I on the side of the Central Powers; the Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in 1914. In 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the alliance; the name "Central Powers" is derived from the location of these countries. Finland and Lithuania joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed The Central Powers were composed of the following nations: In early July 1914, in the aftermath of the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the immediate likelihood of war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm II and the German government informed the Austro-Hungarian government that Germany would uphold its alliance with Austria-Hungary and defend it from possible Russian intervention if a war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia took place.
When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative. The Russian government promised Germany that its general mobilization did not mean preparation for war with Germany but was a reaction to the events between Austria-Hungary and Serbia; the German government regarded the Russian promise of no war with Germany to be nonsense in light of its general mobilization, Germany, in turn, mobilized for war. On 1 August, Germany sent an ultimatum to Russia stating that since both Germany and Russia were in a state of military mobilization, an effective state of war existed between the two countries; that day, France, an ally of Russia, declared a state of general mobilization. In August 1914, Germany waged war on Russia, the German government justified military action against Russia as necessary because of Russian aggression as demonstrated by the mobilization of the Russian army that had resulted in Germany mobilizing in response. After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war.
On 3 August 1914, Germany responded to this action by declaring war on France. Germany, facing a two-front war, enacted what was known as the Schlieffen Plan, that involved German armed forces needing to move through Belgium and swing south into France and towards the French capital of Paris; this plan was hoped to gain victory against the French and allow German forces to concentrate on the Eastern Front. Belgium would not accept German forces crossing its territory. Germany invaded the country to launch an offensive towards Paris; this caused Great Britain to declare war against the German Empire, as the action violated the Treaty of London that both nations signed in 1839 guaranteeing Belgian neutrality and defense of the kingdom if a nation reneged. Subsequently, several states declared war on Germany in late August 1914, with Italy declaring war on Austria-Hungary in 1915 and Germany on 27 August 1916, the United States declaring war on Germany on 6 April 1917 and Greece declaring war on Germany in July 1917.
EuropeUpon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an "imperial territory" incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germany's sovereign territory. AfricaGermany held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germany's African colonies occupied by Allied forces during the war. Cameroon, German East Africa, German Southwest Africa were German colonies in Africa. Togoland was a German protectorate in Africa. AsiaThe Kiautschou Bay concession was a German dependency in East Asia leased from China in 1898, it was occupied by Japanese forces following the Siege of Tsingtao. PacificGerman New Guinea was a German protectorate in the Pacific, it was occupied by Australian forces in 1914. German Samoa was a German protectorate following the Tripartite Convention, it was occupied by the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in 1914. Austria-Hungary regarded the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as being orchestrated with the assistance of Serbia.
The country viewed the assassination as setting a dangerous precedent of encouraging the country's South Slav population to rebel and threaten to tear apart the multinational country. Austria-Hungary formally sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding a full-scale investigation of Serbian government complicity in the assassination, complete compliance by Serbia in agreeing to the terms demanded by Austria-Hungary. Serbia submitted to accept most of the demands, however Austria-Hungary viewed this as insufficient and used this lack of full compliance to justify military intervention; these demands have been viewed as a diplomatic cover for what was going to be an inevitable Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia. Austria-Hungary had