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Treaty of Paris (1951)

The Treaty of Paris was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany and the three Benelux countries, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, which subsequently became part of the European Union. The treaty came into force on 23 July 1952 and expired on 23 July 2002 fifty years after it came into effect; the treaty was seen as producing diplomatic and economic stability in western Europe after the Second World War. Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, the key resources, central to the war effort; the Europe Declaration was signed by all the leaders present. It declared, it emphasised that the supranational principle was the foundation of the new democratic organisation of Europe. The supranational concept was opposed by Charles de Gaulle. Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community on The history of the European Union 1945-1957

Akira Aoyama

Akira Aoyama was a Japanese civil engineer who led the projects of the drainage canals of the Arakawa River and the Shinano River, Niigata Prefecture. He worked as one of the leaders of the land surveyor teams during the construction of the Panama Canal. Akira Aoyama was born in Iwata, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, in 1878. After elementary school there, he moved to Tokyo to study at the middle school, which would become Hibiya High School, at First High School, which would become the first and second years of the University of Tokyo. In 1903, he graduated with his major in civil engineering, he became a Christian at the influence of Kanzo Uchimura, teaching at the university. Upon graduation from the university, Aoyama went to the U. S. with an introduction letter by one of the university professors to William Hubert Burr who taught civil engineering at Columbia University. Burr at that time was on the Isthmian Canal Commission, recommended him to work on the Panama Canal. Aoyama first worked for the railroad in Panama.

He worked as a land surveyor for the canal construction becoming a leader of one of the surveyor teams, the only known Japanese who contributed to the canal construction. In 1911, he made a home leave to Japan, but never returned to Panama, due to the souring relationship between U. S. and Japan. In 1912, Aoyama started to work for the Home Ministry, led for 19 years the construction of the drainage canal of the Arakawa River, Tokyo; when there was a major accident of the breakage of Ōkōdu diversion facility of the Shinano River, Niigata Prefecture, in 1927, he became the manager to construct the Ōkōdu diversion canal, completed in 1931. In 1934, Aoyama was appointed the fifth Engineer of the Home Ministry, while in that position, started the multi-purpose management of the Japanese rivers proposed by Nagaho Monobe. From 1935, Aoyama served as the President of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. After retirement in 1946, Aoyama advised on Tokyo's committee on other activities. In the Arakawa Museum of Acqua in Tokyo there is a current exhibition of Akira Aoyama and his life during Panama Canal construction.

He died in 1963 at his home in Shizuoka Prefecture. Towards the end of World War II, the Japanese Imperial Navy, concerned that the Allied's battleships may be moved from the Atlantic arena to the Pacific at the possible defeat of Nazi Germany, tried to get Aoyama's consultation to make a hasty plan to destroy the Panama Canal. Aoyama rejected such consultation, is said to have replied: "I know how to construct the Panama Canal, but do not know how to destroy it". United States construction of the Panama canal, 1904–1914, of the Panama Canal Shinano Ohkouzu Museum Akira Aoyama Archives Office of Lower Stream of the Arakawa River

Nowogródek Voivodeship (1507–1795)

Nowogródek Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the capital in the town of Nowogródek. The Voivodeship was composed of three counties, Nowogródek, Wołkowysk, Słonim, as well as the Duchy of Słuck, it had two senators, two deputies for the Sejm, two deputies for the Lithuanian Tribunal. Its capital was the town of Nieśwież with the treasury of the Radziwiłł family. Nowogródek Voivodeship ceased to exist along with the sovereign state of Poland following the three Partitions of Poland, perpetrated by the neighboring empires towards the end of 18th century. Zygmunt Gloger in his monumental book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland provides this description of the Nowogródek Voivodeship: “Slavic lands along the upper Niemen, after collapse of the Kievan Rus’ were in 1241 ransacked by the forces of the Mongol Empire, under Batu Khan. After the Mongol raid, it turned into a desert, was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

In c. 1500, thus Nowogródek Voivodeship was created. Like the neighbouring Brest Litovsk Voivodeship, Nowogródek Voivodeship was rather narrow but long, stretching from the upper Narew and Bialowieza Forest, to the spot where the Ptsich flows into the Pripyat Nowogródek Voivodeship was divided into three counties: those of Nowogródek and Slonim. Furthermore, it included the Duchy of Kopyl; each county had its own sejmik, with each electing two deputies to the Sejm, two to the Lithuanian Tribunal. It had only two senators, who were the Voivode and the Castellan of Nowogródek Northern part of the voivodeship the County of Nowogródek and the Duchy of Sluck were among most fertile lands in Lithuania, with hilly landscape and several beautiful towns, such as Tuhanowicze and Woroncza". Martynas Goštautas, appointed by King Casimir Jagiellon Albrecht Goštautas, to King Sigismund I the Old Jan Zabrzeziński Stanislovas Goštautas, to King Sigismund II Augustus Grzegorz Ostik Aleksander Chodkiewicz Alexander Polubinsky Ivan Ermine Paweł Sapieha Mikołaj VII Radziwiłł Teodor Skumin Tyszkiewicz Mikołaj Sapieha, to King Sigismund III Vasa Aleksander Słuszka Tomasz Sapieha Jury Hreptovich Nicholas Kshiftof Khaletskaya Peter Kazimierz Vezhevich Krzysztof Wołodkowicz Family Jan Kersnovskaya Dmitrij Polubinsky Alexander Bohuslav Unehovsky Stefan Tyzenhauz Jan Mikołaj Radziwiłł Mikołaj Faustin Radziwiłł Jerzy Radziwiłł Józef Aleksander Jabłonowski Józef Niesiołowski Nowogródek Voivodeship

John Collins (basketball)

John Martin Collins III is an American professional basketball player for the Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association. He played college basketball for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons. Collins was born in Utah, to John Collins Jr. and Lyria Rissing-Collins. His father served in the Navy and his mother was in the Air Force; as a result, the family moved a lot during Collins' youth, spending time in the Virgin Islands and Turkey. Collins attended Cardinal Newman High School in Florida. While at Newman, he was a three-time letter winner and was named the Florida Class 4A Player of the Year his senior year. On November 13, 2014, he signed a letter of intent to play college basketball at Wake Forest. Collins appeared in all 31 of his team's game during his freshman year, he led the team in field goal accuracy at 54.7%. As a starter his sophomore year, Collins led the team in scoring with 19.2 points per game. His performance earned him recognition as the ACC Most Improved Player and he was named first-team all-ACC.

After the season Collins entered the 2017 NBA Draft. On June 22, 2017, Collins was selected with the nineteenth overall pick in the 2017 NBA draft by the Atlanta Hawks. On July 1, 2017, he signed a rookie-scaled deal with the Hawks. During the 2017 NBA Summer League, he earned All-Summer League First Team honors due to his performances with the Hawks, which gave him averages of 15.4 points, 9.2 rebounds, 1.0 assists per game in 23.1 minutes of action in the five games he played there. His highlight play was him dunking on Pelicans center Cheick Diallo. Collins saw action in all five preseason games for the Hawks, coming off the bench with per game averages of 7.6 points, 7.0 rebounds, 0.6 assists in 19.2 minutes. On October 22, 2017, in his third NBA game, Collins recorded his first career double-double with 14 points and 13 rebounds in a 116–104 loss to the Brooklyn Nets, he followed it up the next night with another double-double performance against the Miami Heat, getting 14 points and 11 rebounds in a 104–93 loss.

Due to an injury to Luke Babbitt, Collins played 36 minutes and scored a career high 21 points in a 96–85 losing effort to the San Antonio Spurs on November 20, 2017. With Babbitt still sidelined, Collins drew his first career start two days against the Los Angeles Clippers. Although the Hawks ended up losing 116–103, he impressed with 14 points, 10 rebounds, 3 assists, 4 steals in a career high 38 minutes. Late in the November 30 loss against the Cleveland Cavaliers, Collins suffered a shoulder injury and was expected to be out for 2 to 3 weeks, he made his return on December 14 missing a total of six games. By the trade deadline on February 8, 2018, the Hawks had a losing record of 17–37. With the postseason out of reach, Collins saw an increase in minutes and made his fifth start of the season on February 14 in a rematch with the Pistons. Other than two missed games in March due to an ankle injury, he started for the Hawks the rest of the season. Although Atlanta managed just 24 wins, Collins had a solid rookie campaign, averaging 10.5 points and 7.3 rebounds on 57.6% shooting with 11 double-doubles.

On May 22, 2018, he was named to the NBA All-Rookie Second Team. On January 23, 2019, John Collins recorded a career high 35 points in a 121–101 win over the Chicago Bulls. On April 10, 2019, John Collins scored 20 points and recorded a career-high 25 rebounds in a 135–134 loss to the Indiana Pacers in the Hawks' season finale. On November 5, 2019, Collins was suspended by the NBA for 25 games without pay for violating the league's anti-drug policy, he tested positive for pralmorelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide 2. He stars in several commercials for a car dealership in Roswell, GA. Wake Forest Demon Deacons bio profile


Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABARAP gene. Gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission; this gene encodes GABA receptor-associated protein, positively charged in its N-terminus and shares sequence similarity with light chain-3 of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B. This protein clusters neurotransmitter receptors by mediating interaction with the cytoskeleton. Moreover, GABARAP has an important function in autophagosome mediated autophagy, since it is crucial for autophagosome formation and sequestration of cytosolic cargo into double-membrane vesicles, leading to subsequent degradation after fusion with lysosomes. In addition, GABARAP can mediate selective autophagy because it binds to so-called autophagic receptors, which bind and recruit specific cargo. GABARAP has been shown to interact with TFRC, ULK1 and GABRG2. A bound structure for GABARAP to GABRG2 consistent with experimental observations has been computationally derived

1850 United States Census

The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 Census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves. Although the official date of the census date was June 1, 1850, completed census forms indicate that the surveys continued to be made throughout the rest of the year; this was the first census where there was an attempt to collect information about every member of every household. Slaves were included by gender and estimated age on Slave Schedules, listed by the name of the owner. Prior to 1850, census records had recorded only the name of the head of the household and broad statistical accounting of other household members; this was the first census to ask about place of birth of free residents. Hinton Rowan Helper made extensive use of the 1850 census results in his politically notorious book The Impending Crisis of the South.

The 1850 census, Schedule 1, Free Inhabitants, collected the following information: name age sex color for each person whether deaf and dumb, insane or idiotic value of real estate owned profession, occupation or trade of each male over 15 years of age place of birth whether married within the year whether attended school within the year whether unable to read and write whether a pauper or convictFull documentation for the 1850 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The 1850 United States Census collected a great amount of data that gave insight into the state of the U. S. economy in 1850. Some of the data revealed the growth of the economy with regard to agricultural and manufactured production, international trade, federal debt, transportation and land expansion. Agricultural Production This census calculated the total land by state, the total production of major goods and livestock per state, the total value of each good produced, the total number of plantations per state, various other statistics.

The total agricultural production between in 1850 was calculated at about 1.3 billion dollars. Manufactured Production This census included the total manufactured production, the total amount of capital invested, the total value of wages paid, the percent of profit, the profit by state of major industries, other less significant statistics. Total manufactured production was valued at just over one billion dollars; this is a great increase over the totals estimated in 1820 and 1840. In total, the manufacturing industry recorded an overall profit of 43%. International Trade The 1850 census contains the total value of imports and exports by state and names of the major imports and exports, the total values of shipping by state, the value of imports and exports with various individual countries; the United States traded most with the United Kingdom. The imports and exports with the United Kingdom were both valued around 145 million dollars. Federal Debt This census contains yearly federal debt totals, total federal revenues, total expenditures from 1790 to 1853.

The total debt of the United States on July 1, 1854, was 47.2 million dollars. Taxation The census contains some calculation of total annual federal taxes, it does however, give state taxation totals. Transportation and Communication This census calculates the total cost and quantity of railroads and canals; the funded debt for railroads and canals in 1853 was 130 million. Their gross earnings were more than 38 million dollars; this census contains estimates for growth in mileage of telegraphic lines in the United States. In 1853 the country contains 89 telegraph lines; when published in 1854, the country had an estimated 30,000 miles of telegraphic lines, a drastic increase. Education This census displays the advances of the United States in education and literacy by documenting the number of libraries, the number of schools, state literacy rates, the total newspaper production and consumption, the educational levels of differing races, the total value of tuition costs, the amount of federal land given for education, other various statistics.

Land Expansion The 1850 census shows the great amount of territorial expansion that took place in the United States, following the Admission of Texas, the Oregon Treaty, the Treaty with Mexico following the war in 1848. These three pieces of territory totaled an addition of more than a million square miles to the nation. In 1850, the United States contained 4 organized territories. Significance The 1850 United States Census can be seen as a historical document that gives insight into the state of the nation's economy in 1850, it provides more information than the 1840 census. This census was conducted during a important period of growth and innovation in the United State, the Industrial Revolution; the statistics in this census provide data on the rate of growth, taking place in 1850, which resulted in the emergence of the United States as an economic world power. Many of the statistics were compared to those of other world powers; this shows where the United States stood economically relative to the rest of the wo