James III of Scotland
James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish, his reputation as the first Renaissance monarch in Scotland has sometimes been exaggerated, based on attacks on him in chronicles for being more interested in such unmanly pursuits as music than hunting and leading his kingdom into war. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V; such evidence as there is consists of portrait coins produced during his reign that display the king in three-quarter profile wearing an imperial crown, the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes, not commissioned by the king, an unusual hexagonal chapel at Restalrig near Edinburgh inspired by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
James was born to James II of Mary of Guelders. His exact date and place of birth have been a matter of debate. Claims were made that he was born in May 1452, or 10 or 20 July 1451; the place of birth was either the St Andrews Castle, depending on the year. His most recent biographer, the historian Norman Macdougall, argued for late May 1452 at St Andrews, Fife, he succeeded his father James II on 3 August 1460 and was crowned at Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire, a week later. During his childhood, the government was led by three successive factions, first the King's mother, Mary of Guelders James Kennedy, Bishop of St Andrews, Gilbert, Lord Kennedy Robert, Lord Boyd; the Boyd faction made itself unpopular with the king, through self-aggrandisement. Lord Boyd's son Thomas was married to the king's sister Mary. However, the family negotiated the king's marriage to Margaret of Denmark, daughter of Christian I of Denmark in 1469 as a part of ending the annual fee owed to Norway for the Western Isles, receiving Orkney and Shetland.
When James permanently annexed the islands to the crown in 1472, Scotland reached its greatest territorial extent. James married the 15 year old Margaret of Denmark in July 1469 at Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Shetland Islands to Scotland as a dowry; the service was overseen by Abbot Archibald Crawford. The marriage produced three sons: James IV of Scotland James Stewart, Duke of Ross John Stewart, Earl of Mar Conflict broke out between James and the Boyd family following the marriage to Princess Mary. Robert and Thomas Boyd were out of the country involved in diplomacy when their regime was overthrown. Mary's marriage was declared void in 1473; the family of Sir Alexander Boyd was executed by James in 1469. James became powerful enough to attempt to manage the Lord of the Isles who ruled over the Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland in 1475; the treaty made by the Lords with England at Ardtornish in 1462 was used as evidence of their usurpation of royal power. John of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles was censured for making his son Angus his lieutenant and for besieging Rothesay Castle in the Isle of Bute.
John, Lord of the Isles was ordered to appear for trial in Edinburgh on 1 December and when he did not attend, he was declared forfeit. The Earls of Lennox, Argyll and Huntly were ordered to put the forfeiture in practice. John, Lord of the Isles, came to Edinburgh in July 1476 and the forfeiture was rescinded, but he resigned to the crown the Earldom of Ross, lands in Kintyre and Knapdale, the offices of Sheriff of Inverness and Nairn. James made John a Lord of Parliament as Lord of the Isles. In April 1478 Parliament required John to answer for his assistance to rebels who held Castle Sween against the crown. In December John received confirmation of his 1476 charters. James's policies during the 1470s revolved around ambitious continental schemes for territorial expansion and alliance with England. Between 1471 and 1473 he suggested annexations or invasions of Brittany and Guelders; these unrealistic aims resulted in parliamentary criticism since the king was reluctant to deal with the more humdrum business of administering justice at home.
In 1474 a marriage alliance was agreed to with Edward IV of England by which the future James IV of Scotland was to marry Princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. It might have been a sensible move for Scotland, but it went against the traditional enmity of the two countries dating back to the reign of Robert I and the Wars of Independence, not to mention the vested interests of the border nobility; the alliance, therefore was at least one of the reasons why the king was unpopular by 1479. During the 1470s conflict developed between the king and his two brothers, Duke of Albany, John, Earl of Mar. Mar died suspiciously in Edinburgh in 1480 and his estates were forfeited given to a royal favourite, Robert Cochrane. Albany fled to France in 1479, breaking the alliance with England, but by 1479 the alliance was collapsing and war with England existed on an intermittent level in 1480–1482. In 1482 Edward IV launched a full-scale invasion led by the Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III, including the
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances. In Protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice, soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses, he refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the demands of what would become the Protestant Reformation, his Papal Bull of 1520, Exsurge Domine, condemned Martin Luther's condemnatory stance, rendering ongoing communication difficult.
Notwithstanding these divisions, he granted establishment to the Oratory of Divine Love. He spent money without circumspection. A significant patron of the arts, upon election Leo is alleged to have said, "Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it." Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo reorganised the Roman University, promoted the study of literature and antiquities, he is buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. He was the last pope not to have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy. Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici was born on December 11, 1475 in the Republic of Florence, the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, head of the Florentine Republic. From an early age he was destined for an ecclesiastical career, he was soon granted rich benefices and preferments. His father prevailed on his relative Innocent VIII to name him cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica on 8 March 1488 when he was age 13, although he was not allowed to wear the insignia or share in the deliberations of the college until three years later.
Meanwhile, he received an education at Lorenzo's humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena. From 1489 to 1491 he studied canon law at Pisa. On 23 March 1492, he was formally admitted into the Sacred College of Cardinals and took up his residence at Rome, receiving a letter of advice from his father; the death of Lorenzo on the following 8 April, temporarily recalled the 16-year-old Giovanni to Florence. He returned to Rome to participate in the conclave of 1492 which followed the death of Innocent VIII, unsuccessfully opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia, he subsequently made his home with his elder brother Piero in Florence throughout the agitation of Savonarola and the invasion of Charles VIII of France, until the uprising of the Florentines and the expulsion of the Medici in November 1494. While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Giovanni traveled in Germany, in the Netherlands, in France. In May 1500, he returned to Rome, where he was received with outward cordiality by Pope Alexander VI, where he lived for several years immersed in art and literature.
In 1503 he welcomed the accession of Pope Julius II to the pontificate. On 1 October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans, Julius II sent Giovanni with the papal army venturing against the French; the French captured Giovanni. This and other attempts to regain political control of Florence were frustrated until a bloodless revolution permitted the return of the Medici. Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, but Giovanni managed the government. Giovanni was elected Pope on 9 March 1513, this was proclaimed two days later; the absence of the French cardinals reduced the election to a contest between Giovanni and Raffaele Riario. On 15 March 1513, he was ordained priest, consecrated as bishop on 17 March, he was crowned Pope on 19 March 1513 at the age of 37. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. Leo had intended his nephew Lorenzo for brilliant secular careers.
He had named them Roman patricians. The death of Giuliano in March 1516, caused the pope to transfer his ambitions to Lorenzo. At the time that peace between France, Spain and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turks, Leo obtained 150,000 ducats towards the expenses of the expedition from Henry VIII of England, in return for which he entered the imperial league of Spain and England against France; the war lasted from February to September 1517 and ended with the expulsion of the duke and the triumph of Lorenzo. Francesco Guicciardini reckoned the cost of th
William Dunbar was a Scottish makar poet active in the late fifteenth century and the early sixteenth century. He was associated with the court of King James IV and produced a large body of work in Scots distinguished by its great variation in themes and literary styles, he was a native of East Lothian, as assumed from a satirical reference in The Flyting of Dumbar and Kennedie. His surname is spelled Dumbar. Dunbar first appears in the historical record in 1474 as a new student or determinant of the Faculty of Arts at the University of St Andrews. Since the customary age for entering a Scottish university at this time was fourteen, a birth-date of 1459 or 1460 has been assumed. At St Andrews, he obtained a bachelor's degree in 1477 and a master's degree in 1479. Details from his life suggest that he was ordained as a priest at some point, but the date is unknown. In 1491 and 1492 Dunbar accompanied an embassy to France in an unknown capacity. In 1501 and 1502 he participated in an embassy to England in the staff of Andrew Forman, Bishop of Moray.
From 1500 the poet was employed at the court of King James in a role for which he received an annual pension. His duties are not recorded. Several of Dunbar's poems were included in the Chepman and Myllar prints of 1508, the first books to be printed in Scotland. In 1510, his pension was set at the substantial annual sum of eighty pounds Scots. In comparison, Dunbar's contemporary Hector Boece received an annual salary of £26 13s for his role as Principal of King's College, Aberdeen; the last reliable reference to Dunbar is in the Treasurer's Accounts for May 1513, where he is recorded receiving a payment of his pension. James died at Flodden in September of the same year. In the dislocation that followed, the Treasurer's accounts cease for a period and, when resumed in 1515, Dunbar is no longer recorded as being employed by the crown. A poem, Quhen the Governour Past in France, describing the departure of the Regent Albany for France in 1517, is attributed to Dunbar in the Maitland Manuscripts, suggesting that he was still active at the time.
But in Sir David Lyndsay's work The Testament and Complaynt of the Papyngo of 1530, Dunbar is referred to as being deceased. The exact date of his death remains unknown. William Dunbar's poetry contained a wide variety of subjects and metres, he wrote many devout religious works and noble courtly pieces but he produced comic pieces which made use of scurrilous elements and uninhibited language. Some of Dunbar's poems were commissioned to mark public events, his allegory The Thrissil and the Rois commemorated the marriage of Margaret of England to King James in 1503 while the Eulogy to Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny welcomed the arrival of a distinguished Franco-Scottish soldier as the French ambassador in 1508. Local events were marked such as the visit of Queen Margaret to the'blyth and blisfull burgh of Aberdein' in 1511. Dunbar was an ordained priest of the pre-Reformation church and several of his works have religious subject matter. Rorate Celi Desuper, Of the Passioun of Christ and Done is a Battell on the Dragon Blak deal with the Nativity and Resurrection respectively.
Ane Ballat of Our Lady is a hymn in praise of Mary the Virgin. The Table of Confession discusses confession. Poems with a secular moral theme occur in his work such as Of Deming and the trilogy of short pieces Of Discretioun in Asking, Of Discretioun in Geving and Of Discretioun in Taking. Many of the poet's pieces appear to provide entertainment for the King, the Queen and his fellow courtiers with comic elements as a recurring theme; the well known A Dance in the Quenis Chalmer is a comic satire of court life. The notorious flyting with Kennedy was an exchange of outrageous poetic insults with his fellow makar Walter Kennedy while The Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins is a series of comic scenes set in Hell. Poems in the tradition of courtly love are represented in Dunbar's work including a short lyric Sweit Rois of Vertew and the extended allegory The Goldyn Targe. Other court entertainments were more personal. Of James Dog and its sequel He Is Na Dog, He Is a Lam describe the poet's dealings with the keeper of the Queen's wardrobe.
A recurring theme in Dunbar's work is satire. He satirised colleagues of whom he disapproved such as in The Fenyeit Freir of Tungland and he urged the burgesses of Edinburgh to show greater civic pride in To the Merchantis of Edinburgh. Tydings Fra The Sessioun criticised corruption in the Court of Session. William Dunbar was willing to reveal his personal affairs in his poetry and a number of his works are petitions to the King asking for personal advancement, he requested to be appointed to an office in the church, which he refers to as a benefice. A typical example is Quone Mony Benefices Vakit. On other occasions his requests were more modest. In The Petition of The Gray Horse, Auld Dunbar the poet asked the King for a new suit of clothes to mark Christmas; the poem Schir, Ye Have Mony Servitouris makes clear his comparative value to the country. Elsewhere, Dunbar seemed to reveal other aspects of his private life. Lament for the Makaris is a reflection on mortality in which he remembers his fellow-poets now deceased.
Meditatioun In Wyntir considers ageing and the poet's frustrated ambitions while On His Heid-Ake is an attempt to excuse a lack of productivity by recounting a migraine. Dunbar's reputation among his immediate successors was considerable. By criticism, stimulated in some measure by Scott's eulogy that he is "unrivalled by any which Scotland has produced", he has held the highest place among the makars. One hundred and one
Bishop of Hereford
The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury. The episcopal see is centred in the City of Hereford where the bishop's seat is in the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary and Saint Ethelbert; the diocese was founded for the minor sub-kingdom of the Magonsæte in 676. It now covers the whole of the county of Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes in Worcestershire and Monmouthshire; the arms of the see are gules, three leopard's faces reversed jessant-de-lys or, which were the personal arms of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe. Until 1534 the Diocese of Hereford was in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church and two of its Bishops were canonised. During the English Reformation the bishops of England and Wales conformed to the independent Church of England under Henry VIII and Edward VI, under Mary I, they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the accession of Elizabeth I the diocese has again been part of the Church of England and Anglican Communion.
Richard Frith's election was confirmed on 17 October 2014 and he was installed as Bishop of Hereford on 22 November 2014 in Hereford Cathedral. The bishop's residence is Hereford. Note: The chronology prior to 1056 is conjectural
Richmond Palace was a royal residence on the River Thames in England which stood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Situated in what was rural Surrey, it lay upstream and on the opposite bank from the Palace of Westminster, located nine miles to the north-east, it was erected about 1501 by Henry VII of England known as the Earl of Richmond, in honour of which the manor of Sheen had been renamed "Richmond". Richmond Palace therefore replaced Shene Palace, the latter palace being itself built on the site of an earlier manor house, appropriated by Edward I in 1299 and, subsequently used by his next three direct descendants before it fell into disrepair. In 1500, a year before the construction of the new Richmond Palace began, the name of the town of Sheen, which had grown up around the royal manor, was changed to "Richmond" by command of Henry VII. However, both names and Richmond, continue to be used, not without scope for confusion. Curiously, today's districts of East Sheen and North Sheen, now under the administrative control of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, were never in ancient times within the manor of Sheen, but were rather developed during the 19th and 20th centuries in parts of the adjoining manor and parish of Mortlake.
Richmond remained part of the County of Surrey until the mid-1960s, when it was absorbed by the expansion of Greater London. Richmond Palace was a favourite home of Queen Elizabeth, who died there in 1603, it remained a residence of the kings and queens of England until the death of Charles I in 1649. Within months of his execution, the Palace was surveyed by order of Parliament and was sold for £13,000. Over the following ten years it was demolished, the stones and timbers being re-used as building materials elsewhere. Only vestigial traces now survive, notably the Gate House.. The site of the former palace is the area between Richmond Green and the River Thames, some local street names provide clues to existence of the former Palace, including Old Palace Lane and Old Palace Yard. Henry I divided the manor of Shene from the royal manor of Kingston and granted it to a Norman knight; the manor-house of Sheen was established by at least 1125. In 1299 Edward I took his whole court to the manor-house at Sheen, close by the river side.
In 1305, he received at Sheen the Commissioners from Scotland to arrange the Scottish civil government. It returned to royal hands in the reign of Edward II and after his deposition it was held by his wife, Queen Isabella; when the boy-king Edward III came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella. After her death he extended and embellished the manor house and turned it into the first Shene Palace. Edward III died at Shene on 21 June 1377. In 1368 Geoffrey Chaucer served as a yeoman at Sheen. Richard II was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence in 1383, he took his bride Anne of Bohemia there. Twelve years Richard was so distraught at the death of Anne at the age of 28, that he, according to Holinshed, "caused it to be thrown down and defaced. For 20 years it lay in ruins until Henry V undertook rebuilding work in 1414; the first, pre-Tudor, version of the palace was known as Sheen Palace. It was positioned at 51.460388°N 0.310219°W / 51.460388. In 1414 Henry V founded a Carthusian monastery there known as Sheen Priory, adjacent on the N. to the royal residence.
Henry VI continued the rebuilding in order that the palace might be worthy of the reception of his queen, Margaret of Anjou. Edward IV granted it to his queen for life. In 1492 a great tournament was held at the Palace by Henry VII. On 23 December 1497 a fire destroyed most of the wooden buildings. Henry named the new palace "Richmond" Palace after his title of Earl of Richmond; the earldom was seated at Richmond Castle, from which it took its name. In 1502, the new palace witnessed the betrothal of Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, to King James IV of Scotland. From this line came the House of Stuart. In 1509 Henry VII died at Richmond Palace. However, at Christmastide 1497 a horrific fire broke out in the king's private chambers, destroying a large portion of the palace: the Milanese ambassador, Raimondo Soncino, witnessed the blaze, estimated the damage at 60,000 ducats, in modern money about $10,138,450, or £7 million; the fire lasted three hours and tore through the rest of the palace, causing panic and hundreds to flee.
Hammerbeam roofs of the Middle Ages were a structural necessity as much as they were pretty architecture as they kept the heavy timbered roofs from caving in. In as large a fire as described by Soncino the English oak beams of the great hall, a centrepiece of a royal Christmas, would have stood no chance of remaining upright and intact, they would have been engulfed in flames in the high temperatures well exceeding 270 °C. Much of the tapestry work of earlier ages was burnt to cinders, losses included crown jewels and much of the royal wardrobe including a large amount of cloth of gold, at this time a luxury item only wearable by royalty and in the case of Sheen Palace it was a feature of the bedding. Accounts refer to Henry Tudor
Union of the Crowns
The Union of the Crowns was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, the consequential unification for some purposes of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603. The Union of Crowns followed the death of Elizabeth I of England, the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, James's unmarried and childless first cousin twice removed; the Union was a personal or dynastic union, with the Crown of Scotland remaining both distinct and separate—despite James's best efforts to create a new "imperial" throne of "Great Britain". England and Scotland continued as autonomous states sharing a monarch with Ireland, until the Acts of Union of 1707 during the reign of the last Stuart monarch, Anne. In August 1503, James IV of Scotland married Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England, the spirit of the new age was celebrated by the poet William Dunbar in The Thrissil and the Rois; the marriage was the outcome of the Treaty of Perpetual Peace, concluded the previous year, which, in theory, ended centuries of Anglo-Scottish rivalry.
The marriage brought Scotland's Stuarts into England's Tudor line of succession, despite the improbability of a Scottish prince acceding the English throne at the time. However, many on the English side were concerned by the dynastic implications of matrimony, including some Privy Councillors. In countering these fears Henry VII is reputed to have said: our realme wald receive na damage thair thorow, for in that caise Ingland wald not accress unto Scotland, bot Scotland wald acress unto Ingland, as to the most noble heid of the hole yle...evin as quhan Normandy came in the power of Inglis men our forbearis. The peace did not last in "perpetuity". In response France invoked the terms of her ancient bond with Scotland. James duly invaded Northern England leading to the Battle of Flodden. In the decades that followed, England's relations with Scotland were turbulent. By the middle of Henry's reign, the problems of the royal succession, which seemed so unimportant in 1503, acquired bigger dimensions, when the question of Tudor fertility – or the lack thereof – entered directly into the political arena.
Margaret's line was excluded from the English succession, during the reign of Elizabeth I concerns were once again raised. In the last decade of her reign it was clear to all that James VI of Scotland, great-grandson of James IV and Margaret, was the only acceptable heir. From 1601, in the last years of Elizabeth I's life, certain English politicians, notably her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil, maintained a secret correspondence with James to prepare in advance for a smooth succession. Cecil advised James not to press the matter of the succession upon the queen but to treat her with kindness and respect; the approach proved effective: "I trust that you will not doubt," Elizabeth wrote to James, "but that your last letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the same, but yield them you in grateful sort." In March 1603, with the queen dying, Cecil sent James a draft proclamation of his accession to the English throne. Strategic fortresses were put on alert, London placed under guard.
Elizabeth died in the early hours of 24 March. Within eight hours, James was proclaimed king in London, the news received without protest or disturbance. On 5 April 1603, James left Edinburgh for London, promising to return every three years, progressed from town to town, in order to arrive in the capital after Elizabeth's funeral. Local lords received James with lavish hospitality along the route; as James entered London, he was mobbed. The crowds of people, one observer reported, were so great that "they covered the beauty of the fields. James's English coronation took place on 25 July, with elaborate allegories provided by dramatic poets such as Thomas Dekker and Ben Jonson, though the festivities had to be restricted because of an outbreak of the plague. All London turned out for the occasion: "The streets seemed paved with men," wrote Dekker. "Stalls instead of rich wares were set out with children, open casements filled up with women". Whatever residual fears many in England may have felt at the prospect of being ruled by a Scot, James's arrival aroused a mood of high expectation.
The twilight years of Elizabeth had been a disappointment. But James's honeymoon was of short duration; the greatest and most obvious of these was the question of his exact title. James intended to be King of Great Ireland, his first obstacle along this imperial road was the attitude of the English Parliament. In his first speech to his southern assembly on 19 March 1604 James gave a clear statement of the royal manifesto: What God hath conjoined let no man separate. I am the husband and the whole isle is my lawful wife.
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce