Edgar, King of Scotland
Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim, nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant", was King of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. He was the fourth son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex but the first to be considered eligible for the throne after the death of his father. Edgar claimed the kingship in early 1095, following the murder of his half-brother Duncan II in late 1094 by Máel Petair of Mearns, a supporter of Edgar's uncle Donald III, his older brother Edmund sided with Donald in return for an appanage and acknowledgement as the heir of the aged and son-less Donald. Edgar received limited support from William II of England. Rufus campaigned in northern England for much of 1095, during this time Edgar gained control only of Lothian. A charter issued at Durham at this time names him "... son of Máel Coluim King of Scots... possessing the whole land of Lothian and the kingship of the Scots by the gift of my lord William, king of the English, by paternal heritage."Edgar's claims had the support of his brothers Alexander and David — Ethelred was Abbot of Dunkeld, Edmund was divided from his siblings by his support of Donald — and his uncle Edgar Ætheling as these witnessed the charter at Durham.
William Rufus spent 1096 in Normandy which he bought from his brother Robert Curthose, it was not until 1097 that Edgar received the further support which led to the defeat of Donald and Edmund in a hard-fought campaign led by Edgar Ætheling. Although Geoffrey Gaimar claimed that Edgar owed feudal service to William Rufus, it is clear from Rufus's agreement to pay Edgar 40 or 60 shillings a day maintenance when in attendance at the English court that this was less than accurate. In any event, he did attend the court on occasion. On 29 May 1099, for example, Edgar served as sword-bearer at the great feast to inaugurate Westminster Hall. After William Rufus's death, Edgar ceased to appear at the English court, he was not present at the coronation of Henry I. Edgar was not heir by primogeniture, as kings would be, since Duncan II had a legitimate son and heir in the person of William fitz Duncan. With Donald and Edmund removed, Edgar was uncontested king of Scots, his reign incurred no major crisis.
Compared with his rise to power, Edgar's reign is obscure. One notable act was his gift of a camel a'souvenir' of the First Crusade, to his fellow Gael Muircheartach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland. In 1098, Edgar signed a treaty with Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, setting the boundary between Scots and Norwegian claims in the west. By ceding claims to the Hebrides and Kintyre to Magnus, Edgar acknowledged the practical realities of the existing situation. Edgar's religious foundations included a priory at Coldingham in 1098, associated with the Convent of Durham. At Dunfermline Abbey he sought support from Anselm of Canterbury with his mother's foundation from which the monks of Canterbury may have been expelled by Domnall Bán. Edgar was buried at Dunfermline Abbey. Unmarried and childless, he acknowledged his brother Alexander as his successor. Edgar's will granted David an appanage in "Cumbria", also in southern parts of Lothian. David would be known as Prince of the Cumbrians There is a contradictory account of his death, recorded by Orderic Vitalis.
According to this account, Edgar was killed by his uncle Donald III, while Donald III was killed by Alexander I. This account reports: "On the death of Malcolm, king of the Scots, great divisions rose among them, in reference to the succession to the crown. Edgar, the king's eldest son, assumed it as his lawful right, but Donald, King Malcolm's brother, having usurped authority, opposed him with great cruelty, at length the brave youth was murdered by his uncle. Alexander, his brother, slew Donald, ascended the throne. Benjamin Hudson dismisses the story as "completely false", but its existence points to the circulation of "incorrect" tales about the monarchs of the late 11th century. Verses of The Prophecy of Berchán allude to the murder of another Scottish king: "Alas a king will take sovereignty for four nights and one month. A son of the woman of the English... I think it is wretched, that his brother will kill him." The English woman is Saint Margaret, the Anglo-Saxon consort of Malcolm III.
But none of her children, male or female, are known to have been killed by one of their own siblings. The confusion derives from the murder of their half-sibling Duncan II of Scotland, son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. A note in the Annals of Ulster claims that Duncan II was murdered by his brothers Donmall and Edmund; as Duncan had no brothers by these names, the text points to his uncle Donald III and half-brother Edmund of Scotland, though texts identify a noble by the name of Máel Petair of Mearns as the actual murderer. Annals of Innisfallen at CELT Orderic Vitalis, the 1853 translation
Magnus VI of Norway
Magnus Haakonsson was King of Norway from 1263 to 1280. One of his greatest achievements was the modernisation and nationalisation of the Norwegian law-code, after which he is known as Magnus the Law-mender, he was the first Norwegian monarch known to have used an ordinal number, although counting himself as "IV". He was the youngest son of his wife Margaret Skuladotter, he was born in Tunsberg and was baptised in May 1238. He spent most of his upbringing in Bergen. In 1257 his older brother Håkon died, his father gave him the title of king the same year. On 11 September 1261, he married the Danish princess Ingeborg, the daughter of the late Danish King Erik Plogpenning, after she was abducted by King Håkon's men from the monastery she was living in; the struggle to claim Ingeborg's inheritance from her murdered father involved Norway in intermittent conflicts with Denmark for decades to come. Magnus and Ingeborg were crowned directly after their marriage, Magnus was given Ryfylke for his personal upkeep.
On 16 December 1263 King Håkon died while fighting the Scottish king over the Hebrides, Magnus became the ruler of Norway. Magnus' rule brought about a change from the somewhat aggressive foreign policy of his father. In 1266 he gave up the Hebrides and the Isle of Man to Scotland, in return for a large sum of silver and a yearly payment, under the Treaty of Perth, by which the Scots at the same time recognised Norwegian rule over Shetland and the Orkney Islands. In 1269 the Treaty of Winchester cemented good relations with the English king Henry III. Magnus seems to have had good relations with the Swedish King Valdemar Birgersson, in the 1260s, the border with Sweden was defined for the first time; when Valdemar was deposed by his two brothers and fled to Norway in 1275, this stirred Magnus into gathering a leidang-fleet for the first and only time in his reign. With a large fleet, he met with the new Swedish King Magnus Ladulås to try to bring about a settlement between the two brothers, but without success, Magnus of Sweden would not give in to pressure and the Magnus of Norway retreated without engaging in hostile actions.
In internal politics, Magnus carried out a great effort to modernise the law-code, which gave him his epithet law-mender. These were adopted at the Things in the years 1274 and 1276. In 1274 he promulgated the new national law, known as Magnus Lagabøtes landslov, a unified code of laws to apply for the whole country, including the Faroe Islands and Shetland; this replaced the different regional laws. It was supplemented by a new municipal law in 1276, Magnus Lagabøtes bylov, a modified version was drawn up for Iceland. A unified code of laws for a whole country was at this time something quite new, which had until only been introduced in Sicily and Castile, his code introduced the concept that crime is an offense against the state rather than against the individual and thus narrowed the possibilities of personal vengeance. It increased the formal power of the king; the municipal law gave the cities increased freedom from rural control. A specific section fixed the law of succession to the throne, in accordance with the arrangements laid down by King Håkon Håkonsson in 1260.
The royal succession was an important and prickly matter, the last of the civil wars, fought for decades over disputed successions to the throne, having ended only in 1240. In 1273 Magnus gave his eldest son, five-year-old Eric, the title of king, his younger brother Håkon the title of duke, thus making it unequivocally clear who would be his heir. Although Magnus was by all accounts a very pious king, his work with the law-codes brought him into conflict with the archbishop, who resisted temporal authority over the church, sought to preserve the church's influence over the kingdom; the Tønsberg Concord signed in 1277 between King Magnus and Jon Raude, Archbishop of Nidaros, confirmed certain privileges of the clergy, the freedom of episcopal elections and similar matters. The church preserved considerable independence in judicial matters, but gave up its old claim that the Norwegian kingdom was a fief under the ultimate authority of the Catholic Church. In cultural terms Magnus continued his father's policy of introducing European courtly culture to Norway.
In 1277 he replaced the old Norse titles lendmann and skutilsvein with the European titles baron and riddar, at the same time giving them certain extra privileges and the right to be addressed as lord. Magnus is also the first Norwegian king to have named himself using an ordinal number - he called himself "Magnus IV". After his father's death, he commissioned the Icelander Sturla Þórðarson to write his father's saga, or biography. In 1278, he commissioned the same man to write his own saga; the Saga of Magnus the lawmender thus became the last of the medieval Norwegian kings' sagas. In the spring of 1280, Magnus fell ill in Bergen, he died on 9 May. Eric succeeded him at the age of 12. Real power fell to a circle of prominent among them Magnus' widow, Ingeborg. Magnus was remembered as a good ruler; some modern histor
Government of Ireland Act 1920
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act's long title was "An Act to provide for the better government of Ireland"; the Act was intended to establish separate Home Rule institutions within two new subdivisions of Ireland: the six north-eastern counties were to form "Northern Ireland", while the larger part of the country was to form "Southern Ireland". Both areas of Ireland were to continue as a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, provision was made for their future reunification under common Home Rule institutions. Home Rule never took effect in Southern Ireland, due to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted instead in the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the establishment in 1922 of the Irish Free State. However, the institutions set up under this Act for Northern Ireland continued to function until they were suspended by the British parliament in 1972 as a consequence of the Troubles; the remaining provisions of the Act still in force in Northern Ireland were repealed under the terms of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.
Various attempts had been made to give Ireland limited regional self-government, known as Home rule, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The First Home Rule Bill of 1886 was defeated in the House of Commons because of a split in the Liberal Party over the principle of Home Rule, while the Second Home Rule Bill of 1893, having been passed by the Commons was vetoed by the House of Lords; the Third Home Rule Bill introduced in 1912 by the Irish Parliamentary Party could no longer be vetoed after the passing of the Parliament Act 1911 which removed the power of the Lords to veto bills. They could be delayed for two years; because of the continuing threat of civil war in Ireland, King George V called the Buckingham Palace Conference in July 1914 where Irish Nationalist and Unionist leaders failed to reach agreement. Controversy continued over the rival demands of Irish Nationalists, backed by the Liberals, Irish Unionists, backed by the Conservatives, for the exclusion of most or all of the province of Ulster.
In an attempt at compromise, the British government put forward an amending bill, which would have allowed for Ulster to be temporarily excluded from the working of the Act. A few weeks after the British entry into the war, the Act received Royal Assent, while the amending bill was abandoned. However, the Suspensory Act 1914 meant that implementation would be suspended for the duration of what was expected to be only a short European war. A delay ensued because of the effective end of the First World War in November 1918, the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles, signed in June 1919. Starting in September 1919, with the British Government, now led by David Lloyd George, committed under all circumstances to implementing Home Rule, the British cabinet's Committee for Ireland, under the chairmanship of former Ulster Unionist Party leader Walter Long, pushed for a radical new solution. Long proposed the creation of two Irish home rule entities, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, each with unicameral parliaments.
The House of Lords accordingly amended the old Bill to create a new Bill which provided for two bicameral parliaments, "consisting of His Majesty, the Senate of Ireland, the House of Commons of Ireland." The Bill's second reading debates in late March 1920 revealed that a large number of Irish members of parliament present felt that the proposals were unworkable. After considerable delays in debating the financial aspects of the measure, the substantive third reading of the Bill was approved by a large majority on 11 November 1920. A considerable number of the Irish Members present voted against the Bill, including Southern Unionists such as Maurice Dockrell, Nationalists like Joe Devlin.. During the Great War Irish politics moved decisively in a different direction. Several events, including the Easter Rising of 1916, the subsequent reaction of the British Government, the Conscription Crisis of 1918, had utterly altered the state of Irish Politics, made Sinn Féin the dominant voice of Irish nationalism.
Sinn Féin, standing for'an independent sovereign Ireland', won 73 of the 105 parliamentary seats on the island in the 1918 general election. Its elected members established their own parliament, Dáil Éireann, which declared the country's independence as the Irish Republic. Dáil Éireann, after a number of meetings, was declared illegal in September 1919 by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. For a variety of reasons all the Ulster Unionist MPs at Westminster voted against the Act, they preferred that all or most of Ulster would remain within the United Kingdom, accepting the proposed northern Home Rule state only as the second best option. Thus, when the Act became law on 23 December 1920 it was out of touch with realities in Ireland; the long-standing demand for home rule had been replaced among Nationalists by a demand for complete independence. The Republic's army was waging the Irish War of Independence against British rule, which had reached a nadir in late 1920; the Act divided Ireland into two territories, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland, each intended to be self-governing, except in areas reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom: chief amongst these were matters relating to the Crown, to defence, foreign affairs, international trad
The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Outer Hebrides; these islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic, the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and prehistoric times; the Hebrides are the source of much of Gaelic music. Today the economy of the islands is dependent on crofting, tourism, the oil industry, renewable energy; the Hebrides have lower biodiversity than mainland Scotland, but there is a significant presence of seals and seabirds. The earliest written references that have survived relating to the islands were made circa 77 AD by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, where he states that there are 30 Hebudes, makes a separate reference to Dumna, which Watson concludes is unequivocally the Outer Hebrides.
Writing about 80 years in 140-150 AD, drawing on the earlier naval expeditions of Agricola, writes that there are five Ebudes and Dumna. Texts in classical Latin, by writers such as Solinus, use the forms Hebudes and Hæbudes; the name Ebudes recorded by Ptolemy may be pre-Celtic. Islay is Ptolemy's Epidion, the use of the "p" hinting at a Brythonic or Pictish tribal name, although the root is not Gaelic. Woolf has suggested that Ebudes may be "an Irish attempt to reproduce the word Epidii phonetically rather than by translating it" and that the tribe's name may come from the root epos meaning "horse". Watson notes the possible relationship between Ebudes and the ancient Irish Ulaid tribal name Ibdaig and the personal name of a king Iubdán recorded in the Silva Gadelica; the names of other individual islands reflect their complex linguistic history. The majority are Norse or Gaelic but the roots of several other Hebrides may have a pre-Celtic origin. Adomnán, the 7th century abbot of Iona, records Colonsay as Colosus and Tiree as Ethica, both of which may be pre-Celtic names.
The etymology of Skye is complex and may include a pre-Celtic root. Lewis is Ljoðhús in Old Norse and although various suggestions have been made as to a Norse meaning the name is not of Gaelic origin and the Norse credentials are questionable; the earliest comprehensive written list of Hebridean island names was undertaken by Donald Monro in 1549, which in some cases provides the earliest written form of the island name. The derivations of all of the inhabited islands of the Hebrides and some of the larger uninhabited ones are listed below. Lewis and Harris is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain and Ireland, it incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are referred to as individual islands, although they are joined by a land border. Remarkably, the island does not have a common name in either English or Gaelic and is referred to as "Lewis and Harris", "Lewis with Harris", "Harris with Lewis" etc. For this reason it is treated as two separate islands below.
The derivation of Lewis may be pre-Celtic and the origin of Harris is no less problematic. In the Ravenna Cosmography, Erimon may refer to Harris; this word may derive from the Ancient Greek: ἐρῆμος (erimos "desert". The origin of Uist is unclear. There are various examples of Inner Hebridean island names that were Gaelic but have become replaced. For example, Adomnán records Sainea, Elena and Oideacha in the Inner Hebrides, which names must have passed out of usage in the Norse era and whose locations are not clear. One of the complexities is that an island may have had a Celtic name, replaced by a similar-sounding Norse name, but reverted to an Gaelic name with a Norse "øy" or "ey" ending. See for example Rona below; the names of uninhabited islands follow the same general patterns as the inhabited islands. The following are the ten largest in their outliers; the etymology of St Kilda, a small archipelago west of the Outer Hebrides, its main island Hirta, is complex. No saint is known by the name of Kilda, various theories have been proposed for the word's origin, which dates from the late 16th century.
Haswell-Smith notes that the full name "St Kilda" first appears on a Dutch map dated 1666, that it may have been derived from Norse sunt kelda or from a mistaken Dutch assumption that the spring Tobar Childa was dedicated to a saint. The origin of the Gaelic for "Hirta"—Hiort, Hirt, or Irt—which long pre-dates the use of "St Kilda", is open to interpretation. Watson offers the Old Irish hirt, a word meaning "death" relating to the dangerous seas. Maclean, drawing on an Icelandic saga describing an early 13th-century voyage to Ireland that mentions a visit to the islands of Hirtir, speculates that the shape of Hirta resembles a stag, hirtir being "stags" in Norse; the etymology of small islands may be no less complex. In relation to Dubh Artach, R. L. Stevenson believed that "black and dismal" was a translation of the name, noting that "as usual, in Gaelic, it is not the only one." The Hebrides were settled during the Mesolithic era around 6500 BC or earlier, after the climatic conditions improved enough
Treaty of Union
The Treaty of Union is the name now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", At the time it was more referred to as the Articles of Union. The details of the Treaty were agreed on 22 July 1706, separate Acts of Union were passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to put the agreed Articles into effect; the political union took effect on 1 May 1707. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland, last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, died without issue on 24 March 1603, the throne fell at once to her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, a member of House of Stuart and the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots. By the Union of the Crowns in 1603 he assumed the throne of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland as King James I; this personal union lessened the constant English fears of Scottish cooperation with France in a feared French invasion of England.
After this personal union, the new monarch, James I and VI, sought to unite the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a state which he referred to as "Great Britain". Acts of Parliament attempting to unite the two countries failed in 1606, in 1667, in 1689. Beginning in 1698, the Company of Scotland sponsored the Darien scheme, an ill-fated attempt to establish a Scottish trading colony in the Isthmus of Panama, collecting from Scots investments equal to one-quarter of all the money circulating in Scotland at the time. In the face of opposition by English commercial interests, the Company of Scotland raised subscriptions in Amsterdam and London for its scheme. For his part, King William III had given only lukewarm support to the Scottish colonial endeavour. England was at war with France, hence did not want to offend Spain, which claimed the territory as part of New Granada. England was under pressure from the London-based East India Company, anxious to maintain its monopoly over English foreign trade.
It therefore forced the Dutch investors to withdraw. Next, the East India Company threatened legal action, on the grounds that the Scots had no authority from the king to raise funds outside the king's realm, obliged the promoters to refund subscriptions to the Hamburg investors; this Scotland itself. The colonisation ended in a military confrontation with the Spanish in 1700, but most colonists died of tropical diseases; this was an economic disaster for the Scottish ruling class investors and diminished the resistance of the Scottish political establishment to the idea of political union with England. It supported the union, despite some popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh and elsewhere. Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne since she had acceded to the thrones of the three kingdoms in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, in 1705 the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a treaty of union.
It was agreed that England and Scotland would each appoint thirty-one commissioners to conduct the negotiations. The Scottish Parliament began to arrange an election of the commissioners to negotiate on behalf of Scotland, but in September 1705, the leader of the Country Party, the Duke of Hamilton, who had attempted to obstruct the negotiation of a treaty, proposed that the Scottish commissioners should be nominated by the Queen, this was agreed. In practice, the Scottish commissioners were nominated on the advice of the Duke of Queensberry and the Duke of Argyll. Of the Scottish commissioners who were subsequently appointed, twenty-nine were members of the governing Court Party, while one was a member of the Squadron Volante. At the head of the list was Queensberry himself, with the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Seafield. George Lockhart of Carnwath, a member of the opposition Cavalier Party, was the only commissioner opposed to union; the thirty-one English commissioners included government ministers and officers of state, such as the Lord High Treasurer, the Earl of Godolphin, the Lord Keeper, Lord Cowper, a large number of Whigs who supported union.
Most Tories in the Parliament of England were not in favour of a union, only one was among the commissioners. Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners began on 16 April 1706 at the Cockpit-in-Court in London; the sessions opened with speeches from William Cowper, the English Lord Keeper, from Lord Seafield, the Scottish Lord Chancellor, each describing the significance of the task. The commissioners did not carry out their negotiations face in separate rooms, they communicated their proposals and counter-proposals to each other in writing, there was a blackout on news from the negotiations. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade. After the negotiations ended on 22 July 1706, acts of parliament were drafted by both Parliaments to implement the agreed Articles of Union.
The Scottish proponents of union believed that failure to agree to the Articles would result in the imposition of a union under less favourable terms, English troops were stationed just south of the Scottish border and in northern Ireland as an "encouragement". Months of fierce debate in both capital cities and throughout both kingdoms followed. In Scotland, the debate on occasion dissolved int
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 until his death in 1286. Alexander was born at the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander III was the grandson of William the Lion. Alexander's father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249; the years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party, but though disgraced, they still retained great influence, two years seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties.
On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. He laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks. At length Haakon, weary of delay, only to encounter a terrific storm which damaged his ships; the Battle of Largs proved indecisive, but so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263; the Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained only Shetland in the area. Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 25 December 1251.
She died in 1275. Margaret, who married King Eric II of Norway Alexander, Prince of Scotland. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway"; the need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 18 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day, he had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was advised by them not to make the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but he travelled anyway. Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing; the 44-year-old king was found dead on the shore the following morning with a broken neck. Some texts have said. Although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found, there is a steep rocky embankment, which "would have been fatal in the dark."
After Alexander's death, his strong realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would lead to war with England. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey; as Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended with a miscarriage, Alexander's seven-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290; the inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land. The death of Alexander and the subsequent period of instability in Scotland was lamented in an early Scots poem recorded by Andrew of Wyntoun in his Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. Quhen Alexander our kynge was dede, That Scotlande lede in lauche and le, Away was sons of alle and brede, Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle. Our golde was changit into lede. Crist, borne in virgynyte, Succoure Scotlande, ramede, That is stade in perplexite.
In 1886, a monument to Alexander III was erected at the approximate location of his death in Kinghorn. Alexander III has been depicted in historical novels, they include: The Thirsty Sword by Robert Leighton. The novel depicts the "Norse invasion of Scotland" and the Battle of Largs, it includes his opponent Haakon IV of Norway. Alexander the Glorious by Jane Oliver; the novel covers the entire reign of Alexander III, "almost from Alexander's viewpoint". The Crown in Darkness by Paul C. Doherty. A crime fiction novel where Hugh Corbett
European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017
The European Union Act 2017 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to empower the Prime Minister to give to the Council of the European Union the formal notice – required by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union – for starting negotiations for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. The Act gave effect to the result of the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum held on 23 June in which 51.9% of voters chose to leave the European Union and directly follows the decision of the Supreme Court on 24 January 2017 in the judicial review case of R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union and was the first major piece of Brexit legislation to be passed by Parliament following the referendum. The Act's long title is To Confer power on the Prime Minister to notify, under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, the United Kingdom's intention to withdraw from the EU; the Act confers on the Prime Minister the power to give the notice required under the Treaty when a member state decides to withdraw.
Section 1 states that no provision of the European Communities Act 1972 or other enactment prevents the act taking effect. The Act's first reading as a bill in Parliament was on 26 January 2017, after the Supreme Court, in the Miller case, dismissed the government's appeal against the High Court's declaratory order, dated 7 November 2016, that "The Secretary of State does not have power under the Crown's prerogative to give notice pursuant to Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union for the United Kingdom to withdraw from the European Union."David Davis, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, formally introduced the bill for first reading in the House of Commons, two days in the following week were allocated for the second reading debate. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn said: "I am asking all our MPs not to block Article 50 and make sure it goes through next week". However, several Labour MPs were intending to rebel against the whip, including several of Corbyn's fellow opposition frontbenchers.
The vote for the bill's second reading was carried on 1 February by 498 to 114, the bill was committed to a Committee of the Whole House, with a three-day programme for the conclusion of all proceedings up to and including third reading. 47 of 229 Labour MPs voted against the bill, including 10 junior shadow ministers and 3 whips from the party. One Conservative voted against the bill, 2 of the 9 Liberal Democrat MPs abstained. Diane Abbott, the shadow home secretary whose constituency voted to remain in the EU, was accused of having "Brexit flu" as she did not attend the vote on Article 50 due to illness, despite attending a debate in Westminster Hall three hours before the vote. In the parliamentary debates on the bill before enactment, members expressed concerns about the prospective effects on trade and the economy, financial services, research and innovation policy and the rights of UK citizens in or entering the EU, EU citizens in or entering the UK; the House of Commons agreed to hold the Committee stage on 6, 7 and 8 February, followed by the report stage and third reading on 8 February.
Topics covered by the amendments submitted by MPs and selected for debate at the Committee stage included: Parliamentary scrutiny, the devolved administrations, the status of citizens of the EU and the European Economic Area in the UK, that of expatriate British citizens in other parts of the EU and the EEA outside of the UK. All amendments were outvoted in Committee. At third reading, the Commons passed the bill by 494 to 122 on 8 February 2017, the bill was sent for debate in the House of Lords. On 17 February 2017 the House of Commons Library issued a briefing paper on "Parliament's role in ratifying treaties", which quoted David Jones, Minister of State for Exiting the EU, as confirming in the debate the government's commitment to bringing forward a motion, for the approval of both Houses, that will cover the withdrawal agreement and the future relationship with the European Union, as stating that the government expected and intended this will be before the European Parliament debates and votes on the final agreement.
Before adjourning on 8 February 2017, the House of Lords gave the bill, as brought from the Commons, a first reading. The House of Lords announced that Lord Bridges of Headley would move the bill's second reading for debate on 20 and 21 February, that the Lord Privy Seal would move that Standing Orders be dispensed with so as to allow manuscript amendments to be tabled and moved for the third reading. In the second reading debate, one of the cross bench peers, Lord Hope, a Supreme Court Justice from 2009 until his retirement in 2013, mentioned that the wording of the bill sufficed for giving notice of withdrawal, as the Supreme Court's decision in the Miller case required, but it said nothing about the process of the two further stages stated in article 50: negotiation, the concluding of an agreement between the Union and the state, withdrawing. At the end of the second reading debate the House agreed that the bill would be considered by a committee of the whole house; this was timetabled for 27 February and 1 March 2017.
On 1 March, the House of Lords, debating in Committee, made an amendment to protect EU nationals living in the UK regardless of the rights of UK nationals continuing to live in member states of the EU. The amendment was voted for by 358 with 256 against. Eight other major amendments were rejected; the amendment adds to the bill a requirement that the gove