Puducherry known as Pondicherry, is a union territory in India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India, namely Pondichéry, Mahé and Yanam, it is named after Puducherry. Known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006. Puducherry lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula; the areas of Puducherry district and Karaikal district are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu, while Yanam district and Mahé district are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala respectively. Puducherry is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated of the states and union territories of India, it ranks 25th in India. The earliest recorded history of the municipality of Puducherry can be traced to the 2nd century AD; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions a marketplace named Poduke. G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, the location of Arikamedu. Huntingford noted that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937.
In addition, archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century CE" Subsequent investigation by Vimala Begley from 1989 to 1992 modified this assessment, now place the period of occupation from the 3rd or 2nd century BCE to the 8th century CE. to. In 1674, the municipality of Pondicherry became a French colony of the French colonial empire. Together with Chandernagor, Mahé, Yanam and Masulipatam, it formed the French colony of French India, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was interrupted by British occupations; the territories of French India were transferred to the Republic of India de facto on 1 November 1954, de jure on 16 August 1962, when French India ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent union territory of Pondicherry, still combining four coastal enclaves. The union territory of Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry district, Karaikal district and Yanam district on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé district on the Arabian Sea, covering a total area of 483 km2.
Puducherry and Karaikal have the largest areas and population, are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Kerala, respectively, its population, as per the 2011 Census, is 1,244,464. Some of Puducherry's regions are themselves amalgamations of non-contiguous enclaves called pockets in India; the Puducherry region is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are small and surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu. Mahé region is made up of three pockets; this unusual geography is a legacy of the colonial period with Puducherry retaining the borders of former French India. All four regions of Puducherry are located in the coastal region. Five rivers in Puducherry district, seven in Karaikal district, two in Mahé district and one in Yanam district drain into the sea, but none originates within the territory. Puducherry district is an enclave of Tamil Nadu. Mahé district is an enclave of Kerala. Yanam district is an enclave of Andhra Pradesh. Karaikal district is an enclave of Tamil Nadu.
Hinduism is the major religion with 87.3% of the population adhering to it. Other religions include Islam. Puducherry is a Union Territory of India rather than a state, which implies that governance and administration falls directly under federal authority. However, Puducherry is one of only two union territories in India, entitled by a special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial statehood; the Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas at the Park, the former palace of the French governor. The central government is more directly involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which have a central grant that they administer. Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes in the indirect category. According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of former French India territorial administration are permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters.
In many cases, such legislation may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India. Article II of the Treaty states: “The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status, in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.” French was the official language according to Article XXVIII of the "Traité de Cession" of 1956. According to the treaty, "the French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise". Through the 1963 Union Territories Act, Tamil and Malayalam became official languages used region-wise. French did not lose its official status after the adoption of The Pondicherry Official Language Act 1965; this act
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammad Ali Khan Walla Jah, was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was born to Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, by his second wife, Fakhr un-nisa Begum Sahiba, a niece of Sayyid Ali Khan Safavi ul-Mosawi of Persia, sometime Naib suba of Trichonopoly, on 7 July 1717 at Delhi. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah the Nawab of Arcot referred to himself as the Subedar of the Carnatic in his letters and correspondence with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, his official name was Amir ul Hind, Walla Jah,'Umdat ul-Mulk, Asaf ud-Daula, Nawab Muhammad'Ali Anwar ud-din Khan Bahadur, Zafar Jang, Sipah-Salar, Sahib us-Saif wal-qalam Mudabbir-i-Umur-i-'Alam Farzand-i-'Aziz-az Jan, Biradarbi Jan-barabar, Subadar of the Carnatic. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was granted the titles of Siraj ud-Daula, Anwar ud-din Khan Bahadur, Dilawar Jang, together with the Subadarship of the Carnatic Payeen Ghaut and a mensab of 5,000 zat and 5,000 sowar, the Mahi Maratib, etc. by Imperial firman on 5 April 1750.
He joined forces with Nasir Jung and the British in opposing Chanda Sahib, the French nominee for the Subadarship. He was defeated by the French at Gingee in December 1750, fled to Trichnopoly for a second time, he received an Imperial firman confirming his possession of the Carnatic and appointing him as Naib to Viceroy of the Deccan, 21 January 1751. Raised to the titles of Walla Jah and Sahib us-Saif wal-qalam Mudabbir-i-Umur-i-'Alam Farzand-i-'Aziz-az Jan by Emperor Shah Alam II in 1760, he was recognised by the Treaty of Paris as an independent ruler in 1763 and by the Emperor of Delhi 26 August 1765. Sir John Macpherson, writing to Lord Macartney in November 1781 declared, "I love the old man...mind me to my old Nabob. I have been sending him sheep and bags of rice by every ship, it is more than he did for me when I was fighting his battles." The Nawab was an ally of the British East India Company, but harboured great ambitions of power in the South Indian arena, where Hyder Ali of the Mysore, the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad were constant rivals.
The Nawab could be unpredictable and devious, his breach of promise in failing to surrender Tiruchirappalli to Hyder Ali in 1751 was at the root of many confrontations between Hyder Ali and the British. When Hyder Ali swept into the Carnatic towards Arcot on 23 July 1780, with an army estimated at 86–100,000 men, it was not the Nawab, but the British who had provoked Hyder Ali's wrath, by seizing the French port of Mahé, under his protection. Much of the ensuing war was fought on the Nawab's territory. For the defence of his territory, the Nawab paid the British 400,000 pagodas per annum and 10 out of the 21 battalions of the Madras army were posted to garrison his forts; the British derived income from his jagirs. For a period the situation of the Nawab was a significant factor in Westminster politics; the Nawab had borrowed heavily. Elections in the UK could be, were, influenced by nabob money, with the result that a group of about a dozen Members of Parliament formed a discernible "Arcot interest", as it was called.
By the 1780s issues affecting Arcot were therefore having a direct impact on British politics: the debts of the Nawab mattered in domestic terms. He died from gangrene poisoning, at Madras on 13 October 1795, he was buried outside the gate of the Gunbad of Trichinopoly. He was succeeded by his son Umdat ul-Umara, accused of supporting Tipu Sultan the heir of Hyder Ali during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. Nawabs of Arcot
Great Britain in the Seven Years' War
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763, although warfare in the European Theatre involving countries other than Britain and France only commenced in 1756. Britain emerged from the war as the world's leading colonial power, having gained a number of new territories at the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and established itself as the world's pre-eminent naval power; the war started poorly for Britain, which suffered many deaths from the plague and scurvy, at the hands of France in North America during 1754–55. The same year Britain's major ally Austria aligned itself with France. For the next seven years these two nations were ranged against a growing number of enemy powers led by France. After a period of political instability, the rise of a government headed by the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt the elder provided Britain with firmer leadership, enabling it to consolidate and achieve its war aims. In 1759 Britain enjoyed an Annus Mirabilis, "year of miracles", with success over the French on the continent, in North America, in India.
In 1761 Britain came into conflict with Spain. The following year British forces captured Havana and Manila, the western and eastern capitals of the Spanish Empire, repulsed a Spanish invasion of Portugal. By this time the Pitt-Newcastle ministry had collapsed, Britain was short of credit and the generous peace terms offered by France and its allies were accepted. Through the crown, Britain was allied to the Electorate of Hanover and Kingdom of Ireland, both of which fell under British military command throughout the war, it directed the military strategy of its various colonies around the world including British America. In India British possessions were administered by the East India Company; the last major conflict in Europe, the War of the Austrian Succession, had ended in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, following a bloody war which had left large parts of Central Europe devastated. The peace terms were unpopular with many, however, as they retained the status quo—which led the people of states such as France and Austria to believe they had not made sufficient gains for their efforts in the war.
By the early 1750s many saw another major war as imminent, Austria was preparing its forces for an attempt to retake Silesia from Prussia. The British Prime Minister, the Duke of Newcastle, had acceded to the premiership in 1754 following the sudden death of his brother Henry Pelham, led a government made up of Whigs. Newcastle had thirty years' experience as a Secretary of State and was a leading figure on the diplomatic scene. Despite enjoying a comfortable majority in the House of Commons he was cautious and vulnerable to attacks led by men such as William Pitt, leader of the Patriot Party. Newcastle fervently believed that peace in Europe was possible so long as the "Old System" and the alliance with Austria prevailed and devoted much of his efforts to the continuance of this. One of the major concerns for the British government of the era was colonial expansion. During the eighteenth century the British colonies in North America had become more populous and powerful – and were agitating to expand westwards into the American interior.
The territory most prized by the new settlers was the Ohio Country, claimed by France. As well as having economic potential, it was considered strategically key. French control of that territory would block British expansion westwards and French territory would surround the British colonies, pinning them against the coast. A number of colonial delegations to London urged the government to take more decisive action in the Ohio dispute; the Ohio Country located between Britain's Thirteen Colonies and France's New France saw France and Britain clash. In 1753 the French sent an expedition south from Montreal that began constructing forts in the upper reaches of the Ohio River. In 1754 the Province of Virginia sent the Virginia Regiment led by George Washington to the area to assist in the construction of a British fort at present-day Pittsburgh, but the larger French force had driven away a smaller British advance party and built Fort Duquesne. Washington and some native allies ambushed a company of French scouts at the Battle of Jumonville Glen in late May 1754.
In the skirmish the French envoy Joseph Coulon de Jumonville was left dead leading to a diplomatic incident. The French responded in force from Fort Duquesne, in July Washington was forced to surrender at the Battle of Fort Necessity. Despite the conflict between them, the two nations were not yet formally at war; the government in Britain, realising that the existing forces of America were insufficient, drew up a plan to dispatch two battalions of Irish regular troops under General Edward Braddock and intended to massively increase the number of Provincial American forces. A number of expeditions were planned to give the British the upper hand in North America including a plan for New England troops to defeat Fort Beauséjour and Fortress Louisbourg in Acadia, others to act against Fort Niagara and Fort Saint-Frédéric from Albany, New York; the largest operation was a plan for Braddock to dislodge the French from the Ohio Country. In May 1755 Braddock's column blundered into an enemy force composed of French and Native Americans at the Battle of the Monongahela near Fort Duquesne.
After several hours' fighting the British were defeated and forced to retreat, Braddock died a few days of his wounds. The remainder of his force returned to Philadelphia and took up
French India, formally the Établissements Français dans l'Inde, was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent. The possessions were acquired by the French East India Company beginning in the second half of the 17th century, were de facto incorporated into the Republic of India in 1950 and 1954; the French establishments included Pondichéry, Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal. French India included several loges in other towns, but after 1816, the loges had little commercial importance and the towns to which they were attached came under British administration. By 1950, the total area measured 510 km2. In 1936, the population of the colony totalled 298,851 inhabitants, of which 63% lived in the territory of Pondichéry. France was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India trade. Six decades after the foundation of the English and Dutch East India companies, at a time when both companies were multiplying factories on the shores of India, the French still did not have a viable trading company or a single permanent establishment in the East.
Historians have sought to explain France's late entrance in the East India trade. They cite geopolitical circumstances such as the inland position of the French capital, France's numerous internal customs barriers and parochial perspectives of merchants on France's Atlantic coast, who had little appetite for the large-scale investment required to develop a viable trading enterprise with the distant East Indies; the first French expedition to India is believed to have taken place in the first half of the 16th century, in the reign of King Francis I, when two ships were fitted out by some merchants of Rouen to trade in eastern seas. In 1604 a company was granted letters patent by King Henry IV. Fresh letters patent were issued in 1615, two ships went to India, only one returning. From 1658, François Bernier, a French physician and traveller, was for several years the personal physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. La Compagnie française des Indes orientales was formed under the auspices of Cardinal Richelieu and reconstructed under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, sending an expedition to Madagascar.
In 1667 the French India Company sent out another expedition, under the command of François Caron, which reached Surat in 1668 and established the first French factory in India. In 1669, Marcara succeeded in establishing another French factory at Masulipatam. In 1672, Saint Thomas was taken. Chandernagore was established in 1692, with the permission of Nawab Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal. In 1673, the French acquired the area of Pondicherry from the qiladar of Valikondapuram under the Sultan of Bijapur, thus the foundation of Pondichéry was laid. By 1720, the French had lost their factories at Surat and Bantam to the British East India Company. On 4 February 1673, Bellanger de l'Espinay, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondichéry, thereby commencing the French administration of Pondichéry. In 1674 François Martin, the first Governor, initiated ambitious projects to transform Pondichéry from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-town; the French, found themselves in continual conflict with the Dutch and the English.
The case of France was upheld for many years at the court of the sultan of Golconda, Qutb Shah, by a French huguenot physician named Antoine d'Estremau. In 1693 the Dutch augmented the fortifications; the French regained the town in 1699 through the Treaty of Ryswick, signed on 20 September 1697. From their arrival until 1741, the objectives of the French, like those of the British, were purely commercial. During this period, the French East India Company peacefully acquired Yanam in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast in 1725 and Karaikal in 1739. In the early 18th century, the town of Pondichéry was laid out on a grid pattern and grew considerably. Able governors like Pierre Christophe Le Noir and Pierre Benoît Dumas expanded the Pondichéry area and made it a large and rich town. Soon after his arrival in 1741, the most famous governor of French India, Joseph François Dupleix, began to cherish the ambition of a French territorial empire in India in spite of the pronounced uninterested attitude of his distant superiors and of the French government, which didn't want to provoke the British.
Dupleix's ambition clashed with British interests in India and a period of military skirmishes and political intrigues began and continued in rare periods when France and Great Britain were at peace. Under the command of the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleix's army controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin, but Robert Clive arrived in India in 1744, a British officer who dashed the hopes of Dupleix to create a French empire in India. After a defeat and failed peace talks, Dupleix was summarily dismissed and recalled to France in 1754. In spite of a treaty between the British and French agreeing not to interfere in regional Indian affairs, their colonial intrigues continued; the French expanded their influence at the court of the Nawab of Beng
France in the Seven Years' War
France was one of the leading participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763. France entered the war with the hope of achieving a lasting victory against Prussia and their German allies and with the hope of expanding its colonial possessions. While the first few years of war proved successful for the French, in 1759 the situation reversed and they suffered defeats on several continents. In an effort to reverse their losses, France finished an alliance with their neighbor, Spain, in 1761. In spite of this the French continued to suffer defeats throughout 1762 forcing them to sue for peace; the 1763 Treaty of Paris confirmed the loss of French possessions in North America and Asia to the British. France finished the war with heavy debts, which they struggled to repay for the remainder of the 18th century; the previous major conflict in Europe, the War of the Austrian Succession, ended in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. This peace agreement was unpopular with the French populace who saw the terms as excessively lenient to France's enemies Britain and the Dutch Republic, many regarded it as a breathing space before war resumed.
France and Britain were engaged in an intensifying global rivalry after they superseded Spain as the leading colonial powers. Hoping to establish supremacy, both countries engaged in several minor wars in North America. French colonies in Louisiana and Canada had surrounded British colonies strung out in a narrow strip along the coast. All the French needed to envelop the British was control of the Ohio Country. Attempting to gain control of this territory, France built a complex system of alliances with the area's Native American tribes and brought them into conflict with Britain. In the mid-18th century, France was an absolute monarchy: all power resided with the King. Louis XV was a weak personality manipulated by his advisors and confidants. Chief amongst them was Madame Pompadour, his mistress who exercised enormous influence over appointments and matters of grand strategy. Other advisors rose and fell with rapid succession, continuing the lack of the stability which had plagued the monarchy in the early 18th century.
While the war began in North America, in 1756 France became drawn into a major war in Europe. Allied to Austria and Russia the French tried to defeat the Prussians who had only the British as major allies. Despite repeated attempts between 1757 and 1762, the French and their allies failed to win the conclusive victory against Prussia despite a constant war of attrition, they were frustrated by an army led by the Duke of Brunswick made up of British forces and troops from the smaller German states which operated in West Germany. France had opened the war against Britain in Europe by capturing Menorca and until 1759 they believed they held the upper hand; the British navy, had initiated a tight blockade of the French coast which prevented supplies and troops moving and sapped morale. Realizing that Prussia was unlikely to be defeated until its ally Britain was, the French foreign minister, Choiseul developed a plan to invade Britain in three separate places at Portsmouth and Scotland, he oversaw the construction of a massive fleet of transports to convey the troops during 1759.
Defeats of the French navy at Lagos and Quiberon Bay put an end to these plans and he was forced to call off the invasion in the late autumn. A diversionary force under François Thurot had managed to land in Northern Ireland before he was hunted down and killed by the British navy. In the wake of the disaster at Quiberon, Thurot was lionised as a hero in France. By this stage France's finances were in a poor state, despite the efforts of Silhouette to keep down expenditure, France was only kept afloat by a major loan from neutral Spain. Despite the Spanish government's official policy of neutrality, they were shifting towards supporting an outright pro-French position, encouraged by Choiseul. In December 1761, war broke out between Britain and Spain - but the Spanish involvement did not provide the relief to the French, hoped. Instead French troops were needed to bolster Spanish efforts to invade Portugal, became bogged down there. Spain suffered defeats in Cuba and the Philippines in 1762, by the end of the year both Spain and France were urgently seeking peace.
France began asserting control over the Ohio Country as early as 1749, issuing warnings and threats to British colonial traders active in the region. When the French began constructing a series of forts in the Ohio River watershed in 1753, the British responded with claims and demands of their own. In 1754, George Washington sparked the beginning of the war with an attack on a French scouting party near present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; when they learned that the British were planning to send regular army troops to the area for the 1755 campaign, the French sent a large body of troops to New France before the British could blockade their ports. These troops, combined with a strong alliances with native tribes and poor British military administration, gave France a string of victories from 1755 to 1757. France was able to maintain control of the Ohio Country as well as the strategically important Great Lakes. After their initial successes in North America, France began to starve the theatre of forces and supplies, preferring to concentrate on the war in Europe rather than risk large numbers of troops on expeditions across the British-dominated Atlantic Ocean.
This contrasted with the British, who put great emphasis on t
The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company, they were fought on the territories in India which were dominated by the Nizam of Hyderabad up to the Godavari delta. As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company established its dominance among the European trading companies within India; the French company was pushed to a corner and was confined to Pondichéry. The East India Company's dominance led to control by the British Company over most of India and to the establishment of the British Raj. In the 18th century, the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad. Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died in 1707. He was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I, but there was a general decline in central control over the empire during the tenure of Jahandar Shah and emperors.
Nizam-ul-Mulk established Hyderabad as an independent kingdom. A power struggle ensued after his death between his son, Nasir Jung, his grandson, Muzaffar Jung, the opportunity France and England needed to interfere in Indian politics. France aided Muzaffar Jung. Several erstwhile Mughal territories were autonomous such as the Carnatic, ruled by Nawab Dost Ali Khan, despite being under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad. French and English interference included those of the affairs of the Nawab. Dost Ali's death sparked a power struggle between his son-in-law Chanda Sahib, supported by the French, Muhammad Ali, supported by the English. One major instigator of the Carnatic Wars was the Frenchman Joseph François Dupleix, who arrived in India in 1715, rising to become the French East India Company's governor in 1742. Dupleix sought to expand French influence in India, limited to a few trading outposts, the chief one being Pondicherry on the Coromandel Coast. Upon his arrival in India, he organized Indian recruits under French officers for the first time, engaged in intrigues with local rulers to expand French influence.
However, he was met by the challenging and determined young officer from the British Army, Robert Clive. "The Austrian War of Succession in 1740 and the war in 1756 automatically led to a conflict in India...and British reverses during the American War of Independence in the 1770s had an impact on events in India." In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Great Britain was drawn into the war in 1744, opposed to its allies; the trading companies of both countries maintained cordial relations in India while their parent countries were bitter enemies on the European continent. Dodwell writes, "Such were the friendly relations between the English and the French that the French sent their goods and merchandise from Pondicherry to Madras for safe custody." Although French company officials were ordered to avoid conflict, British officials were not, were furthermore notified that a Royal Navy fleet was en route. After the British captured a few French merchant ships, the French called for backup from as far afield as Isle de France, beginning an escalation in naval forces in the area.
In July 1746 French commander La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive action off Negapatam, after which the British fleet withdrew to Bengal. On 21 September 1746, the French captured the British outpost at Madras. La Bourdonnais had promised to return Madras to the English, but Dupleix withdrew that promise, one to give Madras to Anwar-ud-din after the capture; the Nawab sent a 10,000-man army to take Madras from the French but was decisively repulsed by a small French force in the Battle of Adyar. The French made several attempts to capture the British Fort St. David at Cuddalore, but the timely arrivals of reinforcements halted these and turned the tables on the French. British Admiral Edward Boscawen besieged Pondicherry in the months of 1748, but lifted the siege with the advent of the monsoon rains in October. With the termination of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, the First Carnatic War came to an end. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Madras was given back to the British in exchange for the French fortress of Louisbourg in North America, which the British had captured.
The war was principally notable in India as the first military experience of Robert Clive, taken prisoner at Madras but managed to escape, who participated in the defence of Cuddalore and the siege of Pondicherry. Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, the proxy war continued in India. On one side was Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protege Muhammad Ali, supported by the English, on the other was Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying to become the Nawab of Arcot. Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib were able to capture Arcot while Nasir Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, Salabat Jung became Nizam. In 1751, Robert Clive led British troops to capture Arcot, defend it; the war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry, signed in 1754, which recognised Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah as the Nawab of the Carnatic. Charles Godeheu replaced Dupleix; the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in Europe in 1756 resulted in renewed conflict between French and British forces in India.
The Third Carnatic War
Nawabs of the Carnatic ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801. The Carnatic was a dependency of Hyderabad Deccan, was under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad, until their demise, they had their capital at Arcot in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Their rule is an important period in the history of Carnatic and Coromandel regions, in which the Mughal Empire gave way to the rising influence of the Maratha Empire, the emergence of the British Raj; the old province known as the Carnatic, in which Madras was situated, extended from the Krishna river to the Kaveri river, was bounded on the West by Mysore kingdom and Dindigul. The Northern portion was known as the'Mughal Carnatic', the Southern the'Maratha Carnatic' with the Maratha fortresses of Gingee and Ranjana-gad. Carnatic thus was the name given to the region of Southern India that stretches from the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh in the North, to the Maratha fort of Ranjana-Gad in the south and Coromandal Coast in the east to Western Ghats in the west.
The Nawabs of the Carnatic trace their origin back to second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. The Nawab of the Carnatic was established by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who in 1692 appointed Zulfikhar Ali Khan as the first Nawab of the Carnatic, with his seat at Arcot as a reward for his victory over the Marathas led by Rajaram. With the Vijayanagara Empire in serious decline, the Nawabdom of the Carnatic controlled a vast territory south of the Krishna river; the Nawab Saadatullah Khan I moved his court from Gingee to Arcot. His successor Dost Ali conquered and annexed Madurai in 1736. In 1740, the Maratha forces descended on Arcot, they attacked Dost Ali Khan, in the pass of Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, a number of prominent persons lost their lives; this initial success at once enhanced Maratha prestige in the south. From Damalcherry the Marathas proceeded to Arcot. Chanda Saheb and his son were sent to Nagpur. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah became the ruler in 1765.
The growing influences of the English and the French and their colonial wars had a huge impact on the Carnatic. Wallajah supported the English against the French and Hyder Ali, placing him in debt; as a result, he had to surrender much of his territory to the East India Company. Paul Benfield, an English business man, made one of his mayor loans to the Nawab for the purpose of enabling him, who with the aid of the English, had invaded and conquered the Mahratta state of Tanjore; the thirteenth Nawab, Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan, died without issue, the British annexed the Carnatic Nawabdom, applying the doctrine of lapse. Ghouse Khan's uncle Azim Jah was created the first Prince of Arcot in 1867 by Queen Victoria, was given a tax free-pension in perpetuity. Silver Shaded Rows signify the French East India Company Yellow Shaded Rows signify the British East India Company signed the Carnatic Treaty ceding tax rights Carnatic Wars Amir Mahal Nawabs of Bahawalpur Nawab of Masulipatam Nawab of Banganapalle History of Tamil Nadu List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Indian Princely States on www.uq.net.au The House of Arcot