Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital, he sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Boileau, La Fontaine, Marais, Le Brun, Bossuet, Le Vau, Charles, Claude Perrault, Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished; the revocation forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis' long reign, France was the leading European power, it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. There were two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war.
He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, he was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years, his mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, when Louis XIV was four years old. In defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his son's behalf, his lack of faith in Queen Anne's political abilities was his primary rationale. He did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time.
Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed. Both were interested in food and theatre, it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother; this long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis' journal entries, such as: "Nature was responsible for the first knots which tied me to my mother. But attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed by blood." It was his mother who gave Louis his belief in the absolute and divine power of his monarchical rule. During his childhood, he was taken care of by the governesses Françoise de Lansac and Marie-Catherine de Senecey. In 1646, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the young king's tutor. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children François de Villeroy, divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. On 14 May 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Queen Anne had her husband's will annulled by the Parlement de Paris.
This action made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne exiled some of her husband's ministers, she nominated Brienne as her minister of foreign affairs. Anne nominated Saint Vincent de Paul as her spiritual adviser, which helped her deal with religious policy and the Jansenism question. Anne kept the direction of religious policy in her hand until 1661. Anne wanted to give her son a victorious kingdom, her rationales for choosing Mazarin were his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in 1643: the Duke of Beaufort and Marie de Rohan, she left the direction of the daily administration of policy to Cardinal Mazarin. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Séguier was the pers
Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)
The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia. After the Thirty Years' War, the province consisted of Farther Pomerania. Subsequently, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land and Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene river were joined into the province; the province was succeeded by the Province of Pomerania set up in 1815. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "Land at the Sea". Farther Pomerania was made a province of Prussia after the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648. During the war, the noble House of Pomerania, ruling Pomerania since the 1120s as Dukes of Pomerania, became extinct in the male line with the death of Bogislaw XIV in 1637. Throughout the existence of the Griffin duchy, Brandenburg claimed overlordship and was asserted of Pomerania inheritance in numerous treaties. Yet, Sweden had been one of the most important players in the war and as such, she was awarded some of her territorial gains in Pomerania, after the war by the Peace of Westphalia, thwarting Brandenburg-Prussia's ambitions for inheritance of the whole former Duchy of Pomerania.
During the Second Northern War, Brandenburg-Prussia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth concluded the Treaty of Wehlau on 19 September 1657, the subsequent Treaty of Bromberg. The Commonwealth therein gave Brandeburg-Prussia the Lauenburg and Bütow Land as a fief, pawned Draheim to Brandenburg; the Peace of Oliva on 3 May 1660, confirmed Brandenburg's rights in the Lauenburg and Bütow Land as well as in Draheim. Swedish Pomerania was occupied by Denmark and Brandenburg in the Brandenburg-Swedish theater of the Scanian War from 1675–1679, whereby Denmark claimed Rügen and Brandenburg the rest of Pomerania. Sweden reestablished control after the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 28 June 1679; this tempted Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, to utter "Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor! ". The strip of land on the east side of the Oder, except for Gollnow and Altdamm, was given to Brandenburg. Gollnow and Altdamm were held by Brandenburg as a pawn in exchange for reparations, until these were paid in 1693.
During the Great Northern War, Stettin was sieged by Russian and Saxon forces led by prince Menschikov, surrendered on 29 September. According to the Treaty of Schwedt on 6 October, Menschikov was paid his war costs by Prussia, Stettin was occupied by Holstein and Brandenburg troops. On 12 June 1714, king Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg-Prussia concluded a treaty with the Russian Empire confirming her gains in Swedish Ingermanland and Estonia, in turn received Russian confirmation of his gains in southern Swedish Pomerania. On 22 November 1714, King Charles XII of Sweden returned from Turkey to lead the Swedish defense in Pomerania in person. In turn, Holstein's forces in Stettin were arrested as a Swedish ally by Prussia. In February 1715, Charles seized Wolgast in an advance to reestablish Swedish control in Western Pomerania. On 1 May 1715, Prussia declared war on Sweden. In the same month and Denmark joined the Russian-Prussian treaty of 1714; the allied forces subsequently occupied all of Pomerania except for Stralsund.
In the Battle of Stralsund Charles XII of Sweden led the defense until 22 December 1715, when he evacuated to Lund. In the Treaty of Stockholm, concluded on 21 January 1720, Prussia was allowed to retain its conquest, including Stettin. By this, Sweden ceded the parts east of the Oder River, won in 1648 as well as Western Pomerania south of the Peene river and the islands of Wollin and Usedom to Brandenburg-Prussia in turn for a 2 million Taler payment; the capital was moved to Stettin. After the Battle of Zorndorf in 1759, Russian troops made their way into Pomerania and laid a siege on Kolberg; when Kolberg withstood, the Russian troops ravaged Farther Pomerania. Sweden and Russia invaded Brandenburgian Pomerania throughout the years 1760 and 1761. Kolberg was again made a target, withstood a second siege, but not the third one in 1761. In the winter of the same year, the Russian troops made Farther Pomerania their winter refuge. In 1762, Prussia made peace with Russia. Brandenburgian Pomerania was left ravaged and the civilian death toll amounted to 72,000.
The Swedish forces left Kolberg and were replaced by Brandenburgian troops on 6 June 1653. Three days the prince elector called the nobility to assemble at a Landtag in Stargard, that constituted on 19 July 1654, to decide on the further administrative system of the province; the Landtag decrees along with a constitution were issued on 11 July 1654. Kolberg was made the new capital. Troops were to be permanently garrisoned in the town, this was to be paid for by the province; the province was to be governed by a "Regierung", a "Kammer", a "Rentei", for administration of the domains), a "Hofgericht" and a "Konsistorium". The first president was Ewald von Kleist; because the president was occupied with diplomatic missions and representation of the province in Berlin, the chancellor was instead supervising the province's administration. The province was divided into seven knightly districts the territories of eight local noble houses, the County of Naugard. Furthermore, there were the ducal domains ("Amt"
The Scanian War was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway and Sweden. It was fought from 1675 to 1679 on Scanian soil, in the former Danish provinces along the border with Sweden and in Northern Germany. While the latter battles are regarded as a theater of the Scanian war in English and Swedish historiography, they are seen as a separate war in German historiography, called the Swedish-Brandenburgian War; the war was prompted by Swedish involvement in the Franco-Dutch War. Sweden had allied with France against several European countries; the United Provinces, under attack by France, sought support from Denmark–Norway. After some hesitation, King Christian V started the invasion of Skåneland in 1675, while the Swedish were occupied with a war against Brandenburg; the invasion of Scania was combined with a simultaneous Norwegian front called the Gyldenløve War, forcing the defending Swedes to fight a two-front war in addition to their entanglements in the Holy Roman Empire.
The Danish objective was to retrieve the Scanian lands, ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde, after the Northern Wars. Although the Danish offensive was a great success, Swedish counter-offensives led by the 19-year-old Charles XI of Sweden nullified much of the gain. At the end of the war, the Swedish navy had lost at sea, the Danish army had been defeated in Scania by the Swedes, who in turn had been beaten in Northern Germany by the Brandenburgers; the war and the hostilities ended when Denmark's ally the United Provinces settled with Sweden's ally France and the Swedish king Charles XI married Danish princess Ulrike Eleonora, sister of Christian V. Peace was made on behalf of France with the treaties of Fontainebleau and Lund and Saint-Germain-en-Laye, restoring most of the lost territories to Sweden. In the 1660s and early 1670s, the Swedish Empire experienced a financial crisis. In hope of subsidies, Charles XI of Sweden had entered the anti-French Triple Alliance with the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of England, which broke apart when Charles II of England rapproached France in 1670, after the War of Devolution.
In April 1672, Sweden and France concluded an alliance, with France promising 400,000 riksdalers of subsidies in peace time, to be raised to 600,000 in war time, for Sweden maintaining a 16,000 men strong army in her German dominions. Sweden maintained good relations to the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp south of Denmark. By September 1674, Sweden had enlarged her army to 22,000 men after France had increased the subsidies to 900,000 riksdalers, which she threatened to withdraw if Sweden was not using this army, stationed in Swedish Pomerania, for an attack on her adversaries. By December, the Swedish army had grown to 25,000 to 26,000 men, 4,000 to 5,000 of whom stationed in Bremen, 2,000 to 3,000 in Wismar, 6,000 to 7,000 in Pomeranian garrisons, 13,000 free to operate under Lord High Constable and field marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel. Another defensive alliance formed in September 1672 between Denmark, Emperor Leopold I, the Electorate of Brandenburg, the duchies of Brunswick-Celle, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Hesse-Cassel.
This alliance maintained an army of 21,000 foot and 10,500 horse, since May 1673, an additional 12,000 men and twenty vessels maintained with Dutch subsidies. At that time in history, Brandenburg was the second most powerful German state, maintained its own standing army of 23,000 men; the Netherlands had been attacked by the French army in 1672, known as the rampjaar, the ensuing Franco-Dutch War would only be concluded by the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678. Roi soleil Louis XIV intended to weaken the anti-French alliance by engaging them on their eastern frontiers: he supported John Sobieski, candidate for the Polish throne, he supported a contemporary revolt of nobles in Hungary, aimed at binding the Brandenburgian army in a war with Sweden. In December 1674, Louis XIV of France called upon Sweden to invade Brandenburg. Wrangel advanced into the Uckermark, a region on the Brandenburg-Pomeranian frontier, securing quarters for his forces until the weather would permit him to turn westwards to Hanover.
Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg received the news in the Rhine valley, turned northeast to confront Wrangel. On 18 June or 28 June the armies met in the Battle of FehrbellinThe Fehrbellin affair was a mere skirmish, with actual casualties amounting to fewer than 600 men—but it was a defeat by a numerically inferior force from a territory Sweden had little regard for; as a result of this defeat, Sweden appeared vulnerable, encouraging neighbouring countries that had suffered invasion by Sweden in the prior Swedish campaigns to join in the Scanian War. Wrangel retreated to Swedish Demmin; when the United Provinces asked for Danish support against the French and their allies in the Franco-Dutch War, Danish-Norwegian King Christian V wanted to join them, go to war with Sweden to recapture the Danish provinces of Scania and Halland. Count Peder Griffenfeld, an influential royal adviser, advised against it, instead advocated a more pro-France policy, but when the numerically superior Swedes lost the Battle of Fehrbellin on June 28, 1675, it was the first such defeat of Swedish forces since the Thirty Years' War.
Christian V saw his chance, overcoming Griffenfeld's opposition, attacked. The second largest Swedish garrison in North Germany, after Swedish Pomerania, was the twin Duchy of Bremen-Verden. For political reasons, to prevent the Swedes from advertising and recruiting mercenaries, the Allies decid
Swedish Pomerania was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. Following the Polish War and the Thirty Years' War, Sweden held extensive control over the lands on the southern Baltic coast, including Pomerania and parts of Livonia and Prussia. Sweden, present in Pomerania with a garrison at Stralsund since 1628, had gained effective control of the Duchy of Pomerania with the Treaty of Stettin in 1630. At the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the Treaty of Stettin in 1653, Sweden received Western Pomerania, with the islands of Rügen and Wolin, a strip of Farther Pomerania; the peace treaties were negotiated while the Swedish queen Christina was a minor, the Swedish Empire was governed by members of the high aristocracy. As a consequence, Pomerania was not annexed to Sweden like the French war gains, which would have meant abolition of serfdom, since the Pomeranian peasant laws of 1616 was practised there in its most severe form.
Instead, it remained part of the Holy Roman Empire, making the Swedish rulers Reichsfürsten and leaving the nobility in full charge of the rural areas and its inhabitants. While the Swedish Pomeranian nobles were subjected to reduction when the late 17th century kings regained political power, the provisions of the peace of Westphalia continued to prevent the pursuit of the uniformity policy in Pomerania until the Holy Roman empire was dissolved in 1806. In 1679, Sweden lost most of her Pomeranian possessions east of the Oder river in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in 1720, Sweden lost her possessions south of the Peene and east of the Peenestrom rivers in the Treaty of Stockholm; these areas were integrated into Brandenburgian Pomerania. In 1720, Sweden regained the remainder of her dominion in the Treaty of Frederiksborg, lost to Denmark in 1715. In 1814, as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Swedish Pomerania was ceded to Denmark in exchange for Norway in the Treaty of Kiel, in 1815, as a result of the Congress of Vienna, transferred to Prussia.
The largest cities in Swedish Pomerania were Greifswald and, until 1720, Stettin. Rügen is today Germany's largest island. Pomerania became involved in the Thirty Years' War during the 1620s, with the town of Stralsund under siege by imperial troops, its ruler Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Stettin, concluded a treaty with King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in June 1628. On 10 July 1630, the treaty was extended into an'eternal' pact in the Treaty of Stettin. By the end of that year the Swedes had completed the military occupation of Pomerania. After this point Gustavus Adolphus was the effective ruler of the country, though the rights of succession to Pomerania, held by George William, Elector of Brandenburg due to the Treaty of Grimnitz, were recognised, the Swedish king still demanded that the Margraviate of Brandenburg break with Emperor Ferdinand II. In 1634 the Estates of Pomerania assigned the interim government to an eight-member directorate, which lasted until Brandenburg ordered the directorate disbanded in 1638 by right of Imperial investiture.
As a consequence Pomerania lapsed into a state of anarchy, thereby forcing the Swedes to act. From 1641 the administration was led by a council from Stettin, until the peace treaty in 1648 settled rights to the province in Swedish favour. At the peace negotiations in Osnabrück, Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, the part of the former Duchy of Pomerania east of the Oder River except Stettin. A strip of land east of the Oder River containing the districts of Damm and Gollnow and the island of Wolin and Western Pomerania with the islands of Rügen and Usedom, was ceded to the Swedes as a fief from Emperor Ferdinand III; the recess of Stettin in 1653 settled the border with Brandenburg in a manner favourable to Sweden. The border against Mecklenburg, along the Trebel and the Recknitz, followed a settlement of 1591; the nobility of Pomerania was established and held extensive privileges, as opposed to the other end of the spectrum, populated by a class of numerous serfs. By the end of the 18th century, the serfs made up two-thirds of the population of the countryside.
The estates owned by the nobility were divided into districts and the royal domains, which covered about a quarter of the country, were divided into amts. One fourth of the "knightly" estates in Swedish Pomerania were held by Swedish nobles; the ducal estates distributed among Swedish nobles and officials, became in 1654 administered by the former Swedish queen Christina. Swedish and Pomeranian nobility intermarried and became ethnically indistinguishable in the course of the 18th century; the position of Pomerania in the Swedish Realm came to depend on the talks that were opened between the Estates of Pomerania and the Government of Sweden. The talks showed few results until the Instrument of Government of 17 July 1663 could be presented, only in 1664 did the Pomeranian Estates salute the Swedish Monarch as their new ruler; the Royal Government of Pomerania was composed of the Governor-General, who always was a Swedish Privy Councillor, as chairman and five Councillors of the Royal Government, among them the President of the Appellate Court, the Chancellor and the Castle Captain of Stettin, over inspector of the Royal Amts.
When circumstances demanded, the estates, burgesses, — until the 1690s — the clergy could be summoned for meetings of a local parli
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden, were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, from on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; the territory belonging to the Duchies of Bremen and Verden covered a rough triangle of land between the mouths of the rivers Elbe and Weser on the North Sea, in today's German federal states of Hamburg and Bremen. This area included most of the modern counties of Cuxhaven, Rotenburg upon Wümme and Verden, now in Lower Saxony.
The city of Bremen and Cuxhaven did not belong to Bremen-Verden. The Land of Hadeln an exclave of Saxe-Lauenburg exclave around Otterndorf, was not part of Bremen-Verden until 1731. Stade was the capital. Bremen-Verden's coat of arms combined the arms of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, a black cross on white ground, with those of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, two keys crossed Bremen-Verden's seal), the symbol of Simon Petrus, the patron saint of Bremen. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War the predominantly Lutheran Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen maintained neutrality, as did most of the Protestant territories in the Lower Saxon Circle, a fiscal and military subsection of the Holy Roman Empire; the neighbouring Prince-Bishopric of Verden tried to maintain neutrality, being part of the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle, troubled by confrontation between Calvinist and Lutheran rulers and their territories, Verden soon became involved in the war. In 1623 Verden's cathedral chapter, consisting of Lutheran capitulars, elected Frederick II, Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden to be the ruler of the bishopric.
Since he was Lutheran, the Holy See denied him the title of bishop. He and administrators were referred to as prince-bishops. Frederick II was a son of King Christian IV of Norway. In 1626, Christian IV, Duke of Holstein, thus a vassal of the Emperor, joined the anti-imperial coalition of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and the Kingdom of England under James I. After Christian IV was defeated at the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge, on 27 August 1626, by the troops of the Catholic League under Johan't Serclaes, Count of Tilly, he and his remaining troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen and set up headquarters in Stade. Administrator John Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck, fled to Lübeck and left the Prince-Archbishopric to be ruled by the Chapter and the Estates. In 1626, Tilly and his Catholic League troops occupied Verden, he demanded that the Chapter of Bremen allow him to enter the Prince-Archbishopric and while the Chapter declared its loyalty to the Emperor, it delayed an answer to the request, arguing that it had to consult in a diet with the Estates, which would be a lengthy procedure.
Meanwhile, Christian IV arranged for Dutch and French troops to land in Bremen. The Chapter's pleas for a reduction of the contributions, Christian IV commented by arguing once the Leaguists would take over, his extortions will seem little. In 1627, Christian IV withdrew from the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, in order to fight Wallenstein's invasion of his Duchy of Holstein. Tilly invaded Bremen and captured its southern parts; the city of Bremen entrenched behind its improved fortifications. In 1628, Tilly besieged Stade with its remaining garrison of 3,500 Danish and English soldiers. On May 5, 1628 Tilly granted them safe-conduct to England and Denmark-Norway and the whole of ecclesiastical Bremen was in his hands. Now Tilly turned to the city of Bremen, which paid him a ransom of 10,000 rixdollars in order to save itself from a siege; the city remained unoccupied. The populations in both prince-bishoprics were subjected to measures of "re-Catholicisation" within the scope the Counter-Reformation, with Lutheran services suppressed and Lutheran pastors expelled.
In July 1630, Tilly and most of the Catholic occupants were withdrawn, since on June 26 Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden had landed with 15,000 soldiers at Peenemünde, opening a new front in the Thirty Years’ War. He had been won by French diplomacy to join a new anti-imperial coalition, soon joined by the United Netherlands. In February 1631 John Frederick, the exiled Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Bremen and Lübeck conferred with Gustavus II Adolphus and a number of Lower Saxon princes in Leipzig, all of them troubled by Habsburg's growing influence wielded by virtue of the Edict of Restitution in a number of Northern German Lutheran prince-bishoprics. John Frederick speculated to regain the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen and therefore in June/July 1631 allied himself with Sweden. For the war being John Frederick accepted Swedish overlordship, while Gustavus Adolphus pr
Old Style and New Style dates
Old Style and New Style are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January. Related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries; this change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries at much dates. In England and Wales and the British colonies, the change to the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar Act 1750. In Scotland, the legal start of the year had been moved to 1 January, but Scotland otherwise continued to use the Julian calendar until 1752.
Thus "New Style" can either refer to the start of year adjustment, or to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar. In Russia, new style dates came into use in early 1918. Other countries in Eastern Orthodoxy adopted new style dating for their civil calendars but most continue to use the Julian calendar for religious use. In English-language histories of other countries, the Anglophone OS/NS convention is used to identify which calendar is being used when giving a date; when recording British history it is usual to use the dates recorded at the time of the event, with the year adjusted to start on 1 January. But the start of the Julian year was not always 1 January, was altered at different times in different countries. From 1155 to 1752, the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March so for example the execution of Charles I was recorded at the time in parliament as happening on 30 January 1648. In newer English language texts this date is shown as "30 January 1649"; the corresponding date in the Gregorian calendar is 9 February 1649, the date by which his contemporaries in some parts of continental Europe would have recorded his execution.
The O. S./N. S. Designation is relevant for dates which fall between the start of the "historical year" and the official start date, where different; this was 25 March in England and the colonies until 1752. During the years between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar in continental Europe and its introduction in Britain, contemporary usage in England started to change. In Britain 1 January was celebrated as the New Year festival, but the "year starting 25th March was called the Civil or Legal Year, although the phrase Old Style was more used." To reduce misunderstandings about the date, it was normal in parish registers to place a new year heading after 24 March and another heading at the end of the following December, "1661/62", a form of dual dating to indicate that in the following few weeks the year was 1661 Old Style but 1662 New Style. Some more modern sources more academic ones use the "1661/62" style for the period between 1 January and 25 March for years before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in England..
Scotland had partly made the change: its calendar year had begun on 1 January since 1600. Through the enactment of the British Calendar Act 1750 and of the Irish Parliament's Calendar Act, 1750, Great Britain and the British Empire adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752, by which time it was necessary to correct by 11 days. Wednesday, 2 September 1752, was followed by Thursday, 14 September 1752. Claims that rioters demanded "Give us our eleven days" grew out of a misinterpretation of a painting by William Hogarth; the British tax year traditionally began on Lady Day on the Julian calendar and this became 5 April, the "New Style" equivalent. A 12th skipped Julian leap day in 1800 changed its start to 6 April, it was not changed when a 13th Julian leap day was skipped in 1900, so the tax year in the United Kingdom still begins on 6 April. The European colonies of the Americas adopted the new style calendar when their mother countries did. In what is now the continental United States, the French and Spanish possessions did so before the British colony.
In Alaska, the change took place after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia. Friday, 6 October 1867 was followed by 18 October. Instead of 12 days, only 11 were skipped, the day of the week was repeated on successive days, because at the same time the International Date Line was moved, from following Alaska's eastern border with Canada to following its new western border, now with Russia, it is common in English language publications to use the familiar Old Style and/or New Style terms when discussing events and personalities in other countries with reference to the Russian Empire and the very-early Russian Soviet. For example, in the article "The October Revolution" the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the format of "25 October" to describe the date of the start of the revolution; when this usage is encountered, the British adoption date is not intended. The'start of year' change and the calendar system change were not always adopted concurrently. Civil and religious adoption may not have happened at the
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster ending the European wars of religion, including the Thirty Years' War. The treaties of Westphalia brought to an end a calamitous period of European history which caused the deaths of eight million people. Scholars have identified Westphalia as the beginning of the modern international system, based on the concept of Westphalian sovereignty, though this interpretation has been challenged; the negotiation process was complex. Talks took place in two different cities, as each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control. A total of 109 delegations arrived to represent the belligerent states, but not all delegations were present at the same time. Three treaties were signed to end each of the overlapping wars: the Peace of Münster, the Treaty of Münster, the Treaty of Osnabrück; these treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, with the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies on one side, battling the Protestant powers allied with France.
The treaties ended the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch. The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace established by diplomatic congress. A new system of political order arose in central Europe, based upon peaceful coexistence among sovereign states. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, a norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs; as European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in Cologne in 1641; these negotiations were blocked by Cardinal Richelieu of France, who insisted on the inclusion of all his allies, whether sovereign countries or states within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg with the intervention of Richelieu.
The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. The main peace negotiations took place in Westphalia, in the neighboring cities of Münster and Osnabrück. Both cities were maintained as demilitarized zones for the negotiations. In Münster, negotiations took place between the Holy Roman Empire and France, as well as between the Dutch Republic and Spain. Münster had been, since its re-Catholicisation in 1535, a mono-denominational community, it housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted, while Lutheranism were prohibited. Sweden preferred to negotiate with the Holy Roman Empire in Osnabrück, controlled by the Protestant forces. Osnabrück was a bidenominational Lutheran and Catholic city, with two Lutheran churches and two Catholic churches; the city council was Lutheran, the burghers so, but the city housed the Catholic Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück and had many other Catholic inhabitants.
Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League from 1628 to 1633 and taken by Lutheran Sweden. The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the 109 delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649; the largest number of diplomats were present between January 1646 and July 1647. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, 66 Imperial States representing the interests of 140 Imperial States, 27 interest groups representing 38 groups; the French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. The Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius; the Imperial delegation was headed by Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. His aides were: In Münster, Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar. In Osnabrück, Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and Reichshofrat Johann Krane.
Philip IV of Spain was represented by two delegations: The Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, notably included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, Bernardino de Rebolledo. The Franche Comté and the Spanish Netherlands were represented by Antoine Brun; the papal nuncio in Cologne, Fabio Chigi, the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire sent delegations. Brandenburg sent several representatives, including Vollmar; the Dutch Republic sent a delegation of six, including two delegates from the province of Holland and Willem Ripperda from one of the other provinces. The Swiss Confederacy was represented by Johann Rudolf Wettstein. Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement; the Peace of Münster was signed by the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, was ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648. Two complementary treaties were signed on 24 October 1648: The Treaty of Münster, between the Holy Roman Emperor and France, along with their respective allies The Treaty of Osnabrück, between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden, along with their respective allies.
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