Lake Zaysan is a freshwater lake, ca. 1,810 km², in eastern Kazakhstan, in a hollow between the Altai and the Tarbagatai Mountains. It is the largest lake in the East Kazakhstan Region; the lake lies at an altitude of 420 m, is 105 km long and 22–48 km wide, with a maximum depth of 15 m. Its major tributaries are the Kara Kendyrlyk from the east; the lake is frozen from the beginning of November to the end of April, but still has an abundance of fish. Since the construction of the Bukhtarma dam on the Irtysh downstream from the Zaysan, the lake has risen 6 m above its natural level; as the result, the area of lake increased, thus, in some sources the lake is indicated as part of an artificial reservoir. Lake Baikal is considered the most ancient lake in the world, as clear evidence shows that it is 25–30 million years old. Lake Zaysan may be older, of Cretaceous origin and at least 65 million years old, but its exact age is controversial and labelled with some uncertainty; the direct indication of the Lake Zaysan's age is difficult to find, although some geological studies of the Zaysan Basin have been reviewed.
Artificial reservoirs cover large surrounding areas. Modern geological analysis of the entire field supports an exceptionally old age for Lake Zaysan; the first Russian to reach the area was Ivan Bukholts who ascended the Irtysh to build a fort and search for gold. In 1715 he was driven back downriver by the Oirats, who has established the Zunghar Khanate in the region; the Chinese Qing Empire conquered the Zunghar state in the 1750s. This prompted an increase in the Russian authorities' attention to their borderland. Concerns were raised in Russia about the possibility of a Chinese fleet sailing from Lake Zaysan down the Irtysh and into Western Siberia. A Russian expedition visited Lake Zaysan in 1764, concluded that such a riverine invasion would not be likely. Nonetheless, a chain of Russian pickets was established on the Bukhtarma River, north of Lake Zaysan, thus the border between the two empires in the Irtysh basin became delineated, with a chain of guard posts on both sides. The situation on the Zaysan in the mid-19th century is described in a report by A.
Abramof. Though the Zaysan region was recognized by both parties as part of the Qing Empire, it had been annually used by fishing expeditions sent by the Siberian Cossack Host; these summer expeditions started in 1803, in 1822-25 their range was expanded through the entire Lake Zaysan and to the mouth of the Black Irtysh. Through the mid-19th century, the Qing presence on the upper Irtysh was limited to the annual visit of the Qing amban from Chuguchak to one of the Cossacks' fishing stations; the border between the Russian and the Qing empires in the Irtysh basin was established along the line similar to China's modern border with Russia and Kazakhstan by the Convention of Peking of 1860. The actual border line pursuant to the convention was drawn by the Protocol of Chuguchak, leaving Lake Zaysan on the Russian side; the Qing Empire's military presence in the Irtysh basin crumbled during the Dungan revolt. After the fall of the rebellion and the reconquest of Xinjiang by Zuo Zongtang, the border between the Russian and the Qing empires in the Irtysh basin was further readjusted, in Russia's favor, by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg.
Abramof, A. translated by John Michell, "The lake Nor-Zaysan and its neighborhood", Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, J. Murray, 35: 58–69, doi:10.2307/3698078 AAPG Studies in Geology #46, Chapter 29: "Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic Lacustrine Deposits of the Zaysan Basin, Eastern Kazakhstan." Spencer G. Lucas, Robert J. Emry, Viacheslav Chkhikvadze, Bolat Bayshashov, Lyubov A. Tyutkova, Pyruza A. Tleuberdina, Ayzhan Zhamangara. AAPG Special Volumes. Volume Lake Basins Through Space and Time, Pages 335 - 340 L. E. Popov, Michael G. Bassett, V. G. Zhemchuzhnikov, L. E. Holmer and I. A. Klishevich, "Gondwanan faunal signatures from Early Palaeozoic terranes of Kazakhstan and Central Asia: evidence and tectonic implications." Geological Society, Special Publications 2009, 325:23-64 A. Kröner, B. F. Windley, G. Badarch, O. Tomurtogoo, E. Hegner, B. M. Jahn, S. Gruschka, E. V. Khain, A. Demoux, M. T. D. Wingate, "Accretionary growth and crust formation in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and comparison with the Arabian-Nubian shield, Memoirs."
Ulaanbaatar anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag, its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,300 meters in a valley on the Tuul River, it is the country's cultural and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21; the city's official website lists Moscow, Seoul and Denver as sister cities.
Ulaanbaatar has been given numerous names in its history. Before 1911, the official name was Ikh Khüree or Daa Khüree, or Khüree; the Chinese equivalent, Dà kùlún, was rendered into Western languages as "Kulun" or "Kuren". Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name changed to Niĭslel Khüree, it is called Bogdiin Khuree in the folk song "Praise of Bogdiin Khuree". In western languages, the city at that time was most referred to as Urga; when the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulaanbaatar. On the session of the 1st Great People's Khuraldaan of Mongolia in 1924, a majority of delegates expressed their wish to change the capital city's name to Baatar Khot. However, under pressure from Turar Ryskulov, a Soviet activist of the Communist International, the city was named Ulaanbaatar Khot. In Europe and North America, Ulaanbaatar continued to be known as Urga or Khure until 1924, afterward as Ulan Bator.
The Russian spelling is the Russian phonetic equivalent of the Mongolian name, according to Russian spelling conventions. This form was defined two decades before the Mongolian name got its current Cyrillic script spelling and'Ulaanbaatar' transliteration. Today, English speakers sometimes refer to the city as UB. Human habitation at the site of Ulaanbaatar dates from the Lower Paleolithic, with a number of sites on Bogd Khan, Buyant-Ukhaa and Songinokhairkhan mountains, revealing tools which date from 300,000 years ago to 40,000–12,000 years ago; these Upper Paleolithic people hunted mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, the bones of which are found abundantly around Ulaanbaatar. A number of Xiongnu-era royal tombs have been discovered around Ulaanbaatar, including the tombs of Belkh Gorge near Dambadarjaalin monastery and tombs of Songinokhairkhan. Located on the banks of the Tuul River, Ulaanbaatar has been well within the sphere of Turco-Mongol nomadic empires throughout history. Wang Khan, Toghrul of the Keraites, a Nestorian Christian monarch whom Marco Polo identified as the legendary Prester John, is said to have had his palace here and forbade hunting in the holy mountain Bogd Uul.
The palace is said to be where Genghis Khan stayed with Yesui Khatun before attacking the Tangut in 1226. Founded in 1639 as a yurt monastery, Ulaanbaatar Örgöö, was first located at Lake Shireet Tsagaan nuur in what is now Burd sum, Övörkhangai, around 230 kilometres south-west from the present site of Ulaanbaatar, was intended by the Mongol nobles to be the seat of Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu. Zanabazar returned to Mongolia from Tibet in 1651, founded seven aimags in Urga establishing four more; as a mobile monastery-town, it was moved to various places along the Selenge and Tuul rivers, as supply and other needs would demand. During the Dzungar wars of the late 17th century, it was moved to Inner Mongolia; as the city grew, it moved less. The movements of the city can be detailed as follows: Shireet Tsagaan Nuur, Khoshoo Tsaidam, Khentii Mountains, Inner Mongolia, Tsetserlegiin Erdene Tolgoi, Usan Seer, Ikh Tamir, Eeven Gol, Burgaltai, Terelj, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal, Udleg, Selbe, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal and Selbe.
In 1778, the city moved from Khui Mandal and settled for good at its current location, near the confluence of the Selbe and Tuul rivers, beneath Bogd Khan Uul, at that time on the caravan route from Beijing to Kyakhta. One of the earliest Western mentions of Urga is the account of the Scottish traveller John Bell in 1721: What they call the Urga is the court, or the place where the prince and high priest reside, who are always encamped at no great distance from one ano
Xinjiang the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and India; the rugged Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai; the most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, it is China's largest natural gas-producing region, it is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Kazakhs, Hui, Kyrgyz and Russians.
More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory; the territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkistan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.
The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name, as well as Khotan, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay, Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, and, in Chinese, "Western Regions". In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu, meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road; the Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi. Qi refers to the Gobi Desert; the Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang" simplified as "Xinjiang".
The current Chinese name "Xinjiang", which means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned", or the new old land.. The term was given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Gansu Xinjiang; the name "East Turkestan" is used in the diaspora communities today, refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829. "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded. In 1955, Xinjiang province was renamed Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; the name, proposed was "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers.
It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region". Xinjiang consists of two main geographically and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one politic
Marquis Zeng Jize, one of China's earliest ministers to London and Saint Petersburg, played an important role in the diplomacy that preceded and accompanied the Sino-French War. Zeng Jize, a native of Hunan province, was the eldest son of Zeng Guofan, a leading reformist minister at the Qing court, a descendants of Zengzi. Zeng had inherited his father's title of Marquis in 1877, he received a traditional Chinese education, but was one of the few Chinese officials who learned English and took an interest in European affairs. With these advantages he was persuaded to represent China's interests abroad as a diplomat. Zeng was appointed minister to Britain and Russia in 1878, lived in Europe for seven years, he made his name as a diplomat in 1880 and 1881, by renegotiating the infamous 1879 Treaty of Livadia with Russia. The resulting Treaty of Saint Petersburg, which reversed most of the Russian gains of 1879, was considered a diplomatic triumph for China. Zeng's duties as minister to Paris were dominated by the confrontation between France and China over Tonkin that culminated in the Sino-French War.
Zeng's denunciations of French policy in Tonkin began enough in April 1882 after the capture of the citadel of Hanoi by Henri Rivière, grew more insistent as French ambitions became clearer in the summer of 1883, reached a climax after the Sơn Tây Campaign in December 1883. In July 1883 Zeng's optimistic assessment that the French government had no stomach for a full-scale war with China influenced the Qing government's decision to terminate the Shanghai negotiations between Li Hongzhang and Arthur Tricou over the future of Tonkin; the failure of the Shanghai negotiations stiffened France's resolve to confront the Black Flag Army to entrench its protectorate in Tonkin, arguably made war between France and China inevitable. In August 1883, during a series of discussions in Paris with the French foreign minister Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour, Zeng used the good offices of the American chargé d'affaires E. J. Brulatour to convey Chinese proposals to the French, in an attempt to give the impression that the United States was more associated with China's diplomatic position on Tonkin than it was.
The manoeuvre was detected, irritated both the French and the Americans. In January 1884, in the wake of Admiral Amédée Courbet's capture of Sơn Tây, Zeng wrote a provocative article that made wounding references to the Franco-Prussian War. To add insult to injury, he arranged for this article to be published in Germany, in the Breslau Gazette; this and earlier provocations goaded the French government into demanding his replacement in April 1884. The Qing court, dismayed by the rout of China's Guangxi Army in the Bắc Ninh Campaign, complied with this demand on 28 April, paving the way for the conclusion of the Tientsin Accord between France and China in May 1884. Xu Jingcheng, an emollient career diplomat, was appointed China's minister-general to France, Germany and Italy, Zeng was relieved of his position as minister to France, ostensibly to allow him to devote more time to his duties as minister to Britain and Russia. Pending Xu's arrival from China, the Chinese minister to Germany Li Fengbao was appointed interim minister to France.
Chere, L. The Diplomacy of the Sino-French War: Global Complications of an Undeclared War Eastman, L. Throne and Mandarins: China's Search for a Policy during the Sino-French Controversy Lung Chang, Yueh-nan yu Chung-fa chan-cheng
Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia to the north and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, Shaanxi to the east; the Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu covers an area of 453,700 square kilometres; the capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China; the Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor. Gansu is a compound of the names of Ganzhou and Suzhou, the seat of Jiuquan Prefecture the two most important Chinese settlements in the area. Gansu is abbreviated as "甘" or "陇", is known as Longxi or Longyou, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu. Gansu’s name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty of two Sui and Tang dynasty prefectures: Gan and Su, its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC; the Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. The Yuezhi lived in the western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE; the State of Qin to become the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, from the area. Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County. In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province; the Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan and Yangguan fort towns along it.
Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi and other nomadic tribes dwelt figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics. By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoes such as those at Mogao Caves and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and revealing murals. An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.
The province was the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims; the revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896; as a result of frequent earthquakes and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. The Muslim Conflict in Gansu was a conflict against the Guominjun. While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.
Xinjiang came under Kuomintang control. Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua. Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway; the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu. Gansu has an area of 454,000 square kilometres, the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 metres above sea level, it lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province; the province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at 35°50′40.9″N 103°27′7.5″E.
Part of the Gobi Desert is loca
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
East Kazakhstan Region
East Kazakhstan Region is a region of Kazakhstan. It occupies the easternmost part of Kazakhstan, along both sides of the Irtysh River and Lake Zaysan, its administrative center is Oskemen. The region borders Russia in the north and northeast and the People's Republic of China in the south and southeast; the easternmost point of the Oblast is within about 50 kilometres of the westernmost tip of Mongolia. East Kazakhstan Region borders the Kazakh regions of Pavlodar Region to the north west, Karaganda Region to the west, Almaty Region to the south, Russia's Altai Krai and Altai Republic to the north and China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to the east. Population: 1,396,593. 318,800 live in the capital. The area has Ukrainians; the area is 283,300 square kilometers. The region was created by the merger of two Soviet-era Kazakhstan oblasts: the old Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast and Semipalatinsk Oblast; the region occupies a diverse range of geographic and climatic regions with the Altai Mountains in the east and the eastern margins of the Kazakh steppes in the west of the region.
60,04% of the population is ethnic Kazakh and 35,11% is ethnic Russian. The region is administratively divided into fifteen districts and the cities of Oskemen, Kurchatov, Ridder and Zyryanovsk. Abay District, with the administrative center in the selo of Karauyl; the region finished third. Semipalatinsk Test Site Official regional administration website