Treaty of St. Louis (1804)
The Treaty of St. Louis is the name of a series of treaties signed between the United States and various Native American tribes from 1804 through 1824; the fourteen treaties were all signed in Missouri area. The Treaty of St. Louis of 1804 was a treaty signed by William Henry Harrison for the United States and representatives of the Sauk and Meskwaki tribes led by Quashquame, signed on November 3, 1804, proclaimed on February 21, 1805. Despite the name, the treaty was conducted at Portage des Sioux, located north of St. Louis, Missouri. In exchange for an annual payment of $1,000 in goods to be delivered to the tribe in St. Louis, the tribes gave up a swath of land stretching from northeast Missouri through all of Illinois north of the Illinois River as well as a large section of southern Wisconsin; this treaty was resented by the Sauk Black Hawk, who felt that Quashquame was not authorized to sign treaties. This treaty led to many Sauk siding with the British during the War of 1812; the specific terms for the boundary were: The general boundary line between the lands of the United States and of the said Indian tribes shall be as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point on the Missouri river opposite to the mouth of the Gasconade river.
And the said tribes, for and in consideration of the friendship and protection of the United States, now extended to them, of the goods which are now delivered, of the annuity hereinafter stipulated to be paid, do hereby cede and relinquish forever to the United States, all the lands included within the above-described boundary. Included in this cessation were the historic villages along the Rock River Saukenuk. William Henry Harrison, the representative for the United States, was governor of the Indiana territory and of the District of Louisiana, superintendent of Indian Affairs for the said territory and district; the party of Sauk who signed the treaty, led by Quashquame, were not expecting to negotiate land and did not include important tribal leaders who would ordinarily have been in such negotiations. Black Hawk never recognized the treaty as valid and this led him to side with the British against settlers in the area during the War of 1812; the treaty was upheld again in the Treaties of Portage des Sioux in 1815 at the end of the war.
Black Hawk led the Black Hawk War to fight its terms. In his autobiography, Black Hawk recalled: Quashquame, Pashepaho and Hashequarhiqua were sent by the Sacs to St. Louis to try and free a prisoner who had killed an American; the Sac tradition was to see. They were willing to pay for the person killed, thus covering the blood and satisfying the relations of the murdered man. Upon return Quashquame and party came up and gave us the following account of their mission:On our arrival at St. Louis we met our American father and explained to him our business, urging the release of our friend; the American chief told us. We agreed to give him some on the west side of the Mississippi more on the Illinois side opposite Jeffreon; when the business was all arranged we expected to have our friend released to come home with us. About the time we were ready to start, he started and ran a short distance when he was SHOT DEAD! This was all they could remember of what had been done, it subsequently appeared. This was all myself and nation knew of the treaty of 1804.
It has since been explained to me. I found by that treaty, that all of the country east of the Mississippi, south of Jeffreon was ceded to the United States for one thousand dollars a year. I will leave it to the people of the United States to say whether our nation was properly represented in this treaty? Or whether we received a fair compensation for the extent of country ceded by these four individuals? Osage Treaty, several treaties List of treaties Indian Boundary Park - Chicago First Treaty of Prairie du Chien Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien Third Treaty of Prairie du Chien Fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien Treaty of Chicago Kappler Project - Text of the 1804 Treaty
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the name for each instance of that project; the project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, translations. Conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library; the project began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later; the project holds works that are either in the public domain or licensed. Verification was made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project's texts; some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
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The Odawa, said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada. They have long had territory that crosses the current border between the two countries, they are federally recognized as Native American tribes in the United States and have numerous recognized First Nations bands in Canada, they are one of the Anishinaabeg, related to but distinct from the Potawatomi peoples. After migrating from the East Coast in ancient times, they settled on Manitoulin Island, near the northern shores of Lake Huron, the Bruce Peninsula in the present-day province of Ontario, Canada, they considered this their original homeland. After the 17th century, they settled along the Ottawa River, in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as through the Midwest south of the Great Lakes in the latter country. In the 21st century, there are 15,000 Odawa living in Ontario, Michigan and Oklahoma; the Ottawa dialect is part of the Algonquian language family.
This large family has numerous smaller tribal groups or “bands,” called “Tribe” in the United States and “First Nation” in Canada. Their language is considered a divergent dialect of Ojibwe, characterized by frequent syncope. Odawaa; the Potawatomi spelling of Odawa and the English derivative "Ottawa" are common. The Anishinaabe word for "Those men who trade, or buy and sell" is Wadaawewinini. Fr. Frederic Baraga, a Catholic missionary in Michigan, transliterated this and recorded it in his A Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language as "Watawawininiwok," noting that it meant "men of the bulrushes", associated with the many bulrushes in the Ottawa River. But, this recorded meaning is more appropriately associated with the Matàwackariniwak, a historical Algonquin band who lived along the Ottawa River; the only American tribe, Odawa are the Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, the rest are considered Ottawa. Their neighbors applied the "Trader" name to the Odawa because in early traditional times, during the early European contact period, they were noted as intertribal traders and barterers.
The Odawa were described as having dealt "chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil and skins, rugs and mats and medicinal roots and herbs."Like the Ojibwe, the Odawa identify as Nishnaabe, meaning "original people". The Odawa name in its English transcription is the source of the place names of Ottawa and the Ottawa River; the Odawa home territory at the time of early European contact, but not their trading zone, was well to the west of the city and river named after them. The tribe is the namesake for Tawas City and Tawas Point, which reflect the syncope-form of their name. Ottawa, Ohio is the county seat of Putnam County, developed at the site of the last Ottawa reservation in Ohio; the Odawa dialect is considered one of several divergent dialects of the Ojibwe language group, noted for its frequent syncope. In the Odawa language, the general language group is known as Nishnabemwin, while the Odawa language is called Daawaamwin. Of the estimated 5,000 ethnic Odawa and additional 10,000 people with some Odawa ancestry, in the early 21st century an estimated 500 people in Ontario and Michigan speak this language.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma has three fluent speakers. According to Anishinaabeg tradition, from recordings in Wiigwaasabak, the Odawa people came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, from along the East Coast. Directed by the miigis beings, the Anishinaabe peoples moved inland along the Saint Lawrence River. At the "Third Stopping Place" near what is now Detroit, the southern group of Anishinaabeg divided into three groups, the Ojibwe and Potawatomi. There is archaeological evidence that the Saugeen Complex people, a Hopewell-influenced group who were located on the Bruce Peninsula during the Middle Woodland period, may have evolved into the Odawa people; the Hopewell tradition was a extended trading network operating from about 200BCE to 500 CE. Some of these peoples constructed earthwork mounds for burials, a practice that ended about 250 CE; the Saugeen mounds have not been excavated. The Odawa, together with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi, were part of a long-term tribal alliance called the Council of Three Fires, which fought the Iroquois Confederacy and the Dakota people.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a nation which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez" near the French River mouth. Of these, he said: "Their arms consisted only of a bow and arrows, a buckler of boiled leather and the club, they wore no breech clouts, their bodies were tattooed in many fashions and designs, their faces painted and their noses pierced." In 1616, Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez," who lived westward from the lands of the Huron Confederacy. The Jesuit Relations of 1667 report three tribes living in the same town: the Odawa, the Kiskakon Odawa, the Sinago Odawa. All three tribes spoke the same language. Due to the extensive trade network maintained by the Odawa, many of the North American interior nations became known by names which their trading partners used for them, rather than by the nations’ own names. For example, these exonyms include Winnebago for t
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may be known as an agreement, covenant, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are examples of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, any party that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law. A treaty is an official, express written agreement that states use to bind themselves. A treaty is the official document. Since the late 19th century, most treaties have followed a consistent format. A treaty begins with a preamble describing the High Contracting Parties and their shared objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events. Modern preambles are sometimes structured as a single long sentence formatted into multiple paragraphs for readability, in which each of the paragraphs begins with a gerund.
The High Contracting Parties. His Majesty The King of X or His Excellency The President of Y, or alternatively in the form of "Government of Z". However, under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties if the representative is the head of state, head of government or minister of foreign affairs, no special document is needed, as holding such high office is sufficient; the end of the preamble and the start of the actual agreement is signaled by the words "have agreed as follows". After the preamble comes numbered articles, which contain the substance of the parties' actual agreement; each article heading encompasses a paragraph. A long treaty may further group articles under chapter headings. Modern treaties, regardless of subject matter contain articles governing where the final authentic copies of the treaty will be deposited and how any subsequent disputes as to their interpretation will be peacefully resolved; the end of a treaty, the eschatocol, is signaled by a clause like "in witness whereof" or "in faith whereof", the parties have affixed their signatures, followed by the words "DONE at" the site of the treaty's execution and the date of its execution.
The date is written in its most formal, longest possible form. For example, the Charter of the United Nations was "DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five". If the treaty is executed in multiple copies in different languages, that fact is always noted, is followed by a stipulation that the versions in different languages are authentic; the signatures of the parties' representatives follow at the end. When the text of a treaty is reprinted, such as in a collection of treaties in effect, an editor will append the dates on which the respective parties ratified the treaty and on which it came into effect for each party. Bilateral treaties are concluded between entities, it is possible, for a bilateral treaty to have more than two parties. Each of these treaties has seventeen parties; these however are still bilateral, not multilateral, treaties. The parties are divided into the Swiss and the EU and its member states; the treaty establishes rights and obligations between the Swiss and the EU and the member states severally—it does not establish any rights and obligations amongst the EU and its member states.
A multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries. The agreement establishes obligations between each party and every other party. Multilateral treaties are regional. Treaties of "mutual guarantee" are international compacts, e.g. the Treaty of Locarno which guarantees each signatory against attack from another. Reservations are caveats to a state's acceptance of a treaty. Reservations are unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modify the legal obligation and its effects on the reserving state; these must be included at the time of signing or ratification, i.e. "a party cannot add a reservation after it has joined a treaty". Article 19 of Vienna Convention on the law of Treaties in 1969. International law was unaccepting of treaty reservations, rejecting them unless all parties to the treaty accepted the same reservations. However, in the interest of encouraging the largest number of states to join treaties, a more permissive rule regarding reservations has emerged. While some treaties still expressly forbid any reservations, they are now permitted to the extent that they are not inconsistent with the goals and purposes of the treaty.
When a state limits its treaty obligations through reservations, other states par