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Treaty of Stettin (1570)

The Treaty of Stettin of 13 December 1570, ended the Northern Seven Years' War fought between Sweden and Denmark with her internally fragmented alliance of Lübeck and Poland. It settled Swedish and Holy Roman Imperial claims regarding the Livonian War. Unfavourable for Sweden, it assured Danish hegemony in Northern Europe for a short period. Yet, because of its inconclusiveness it did not prevent further warfare between Denmark-Norway and Sweden ending only in the 1720s; the Kalmar Union comprising Sweden and Norway, had broken apart in 1523. Frederick II of Denmark attempted to restore the Union under his rule. Frederick underlined his claim by using the Union's three crowns in his coat of arms and invaded Sweden in 1563. While the Danes had the upper hand in land battles and captured Älvsborg, the Swedes performed better in naval battles and in Livonia, secularized before and now was a subject of territorial competition of the surrounding powers. In July 1570, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor initiated a peace congress in Stettin, aiming to mediate between Sweden and Denmark.

Several diplomats acted as mediators: The host, Pomeranian duke Johann Friedrich of Pomerania-Stettin, acted as head of the delegates sent by his emperor, Maximilian. Of the parties, Denmark was represented by Peder Bille, Jørgen Rosenkrantz, Henrik Rantzau, Niels Kaas, Joachim Henke. In the resulting treaty and Denmark-Norway agreed on the following: The Danish-Norwegian king, Frederick II of Denmark, renounced all claims upon Sweden; the Swedish king, John III of Sweden, renounced all pretensions to Gotland. Thus, Sweden acknowledged for the first time Blekinge and Halland as Danish provinces. Sweden was forced to pay 150,000 riksdaler for the ransom of Älvsborg Castle. To pay this extraordinarily high amount of money, Sweden taxed all moveables in the country, resulting in further impoverishment of the war-torn population. Unburned towns had to pay one twelfth, peasants one tenth, burned down towns one eighteenth of their properties' value. Sweden was forced to pay 75,000 daler to Lübeck. Sweden turned over her possessions in Livonia for a payment by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II.

With the treaty, Denmark became the supreme and dominating power in Northern Europe, yet failed to restore the Kalmar Union. The disputes concerning the three crowns insignia remained unsolved, the unfavorable conditions for Sweden led to a series of future conflicts ending only in 1720/21. Lübeck gained nothing from the treaty: though granted privileges by Sweden, these did not enhance Lübeck's position as John III of Sweden granted the same privileges to the Pomeranian port of Stralsund, his war-time ally; the payments promised to Lübeck were never transferred. Swedish pirates continued to capture Lübeck's shipments, the town as well as the whole Hanseatic League had to acknowledge her degradation to a second-class power. Neither did Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, pay the compensation promised to Sweden, therefore lost his influence on the Baltic affairs; the terms of the treaty regarding Livonia were ignored, the contemporary Livonian War dragged on. Denmark received all payments. John III was determined to keep his only port on the Scandinavian west coast, his efforts included the sale of warships and devaluation of the Swedish currency.

List of treaties Treaty of Stettin Treaty of Stettin Treaty of Stettin Scan of the Dano-Swedish treaty at IEG Mainz Scan of the German-Swedish treaty concerning Livonia at IEG Mainz Scan of the treaty between Lübeck and Sweden at IEG Mainz

Woodlark (1819 ship)

Woodlark was launched at Rotherhithe in 1819. She traded with the Mediterranean but switched to trading with Australia, the Dutch East Indies, Singapore, she was wrecked in April 1828 while sailing from Australia to the Cape of Good Hope on her way to England. Woodlark entered Lloyd's Register in 1819 with Middleton, Middleton and trade London–Trieste, she sailed to Buenos Aires, from where she returned to London on 21 April 1822. In 1823 her master changed from Turnbull to J. Brown, her trade was London–CGH. In 1813 the British East India Company had lost its monopoly on the trade between Britain. British ships were free to sail East of the Cape of Good Hope to Australia, the Indian Ocean, or India under a license from the EIC. A list of licensed vessels trading with Australia showed Woodlark, T. Brown, Buckles, sailing to New South Wales on 9 March 1823. On 20 March 1824 she sailed to Singapore. On 17 August 1827 Woodlark, A. Leary, sailed to New South Wales. Woodlark, master, left Sydney on 29 March 1828 and arrived at Hobart Town on 13 March.

Captain G. A. Leary, left Hobart Town on 24 March, bound for the Cape and London, he decide to sail via the Torres Straits. She bore up for Torres Straits when on 18 April she struck an unmarked shoal sixty miles from Wreck Reef. (Leary's last location calculation some hours before she struck put her at 21°54′S 153°53′E, just east of the Saumarez Reefs. After repairing the ship's longboat and constructing a raft, the crew sailed towards the coast, some 200 miles to their east. On 14 May the 18 men in the longboat reached Moreton Bay in a state of near starvation; the six men on the raft were not seen again. Lloyd's List reported on 2 December 1828 that his crew had arrived in Sydney. Three days it passed on an earlier report that the crew had been saved and had arrived at Moreton Bay. Citations References Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7. Nicholson, Ian Hawkins Via Torres Strait – A maritime history of the Torres Strait route and the ship's post office at Booby Island..

ISBN 0646250833

1971–72 Eerste Divisie

The Dutch Eerste Divisie in the 1971–72 season was contested by 21 teams, five more than in the previous year. Due to the disbandment of the Tweede Divisie, six teams were promoted to the Eerste Divisie; as a result of the disbandment, teams no longer could relegate to lower leagues. HFC Haarlem won the championship. Promoted from the 1970–71 Tweede Divisie: FC Eindhoven Fortuna Vlaardingen PEC Zwolle Roda JC De Volewijckers VVV-VenloRelegated from the 1970–71 Eredivisie: AZ'67 HFC Haarlem 1971–72 Eredivisie 1971–72 KNVB Cup

Sinclair Skinner

Sinclair Matthew Skinner is an American engineer, human rights activist, political adviser, serial entrepreneur and former elected official in Washington, D. C, he is a Bitcoin and Blockchain Technology evangelist and an advocate of the advancement of African communities in relation to the African Diaspora. He holds a B. S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Howard University and is a member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Skinner was first elected to public office in 1998 as an Advisory Neighborhood Commissioner in Washington, D. C.’s Ward 1 neighborhood. He is the co-founder and CEO of Pan African Bitcoin startup Bitmari. Born 1969 in Great Falls Montana and raised by his father, a US Air Force officer, his mother, a dedicated housewife. In 1987 he enrolled in Alabama’s Tuskegee University, he was elected President of the University’s Student Government Association. In 1993 the Skinner led a student protest of the “oppressive and misguided policies common at Historically Black Colleges and Universities ”, organized African-Americans throughout the south in HBCU preservation efforts and demonstrations.

Skinner’s campus activism would force him to leave Tuskegee University and transfer to Howard University to continue his goal of becoming an engineer. In the summer of 1995 while at Howard, Skinner helped organize students nationally for the Million Man March, the largest all male march held in the United States with an estimated 1 million African-American men in attendance. While at Howard and Nik Eames worked with civil-rights giant Lawrence Guyot, who encouraged them to get involved in local politics in Washington, DC leading them to run and win positions as advisory neighborhood commissioners—while still students. After graduating from Howard University, Skinner purchased a former crack house across the street from Howard, organized his neighbors to help eliminate drug trafficking on the block. In 1999, Skinner opened the Georgia Avenue Kleaners which grew to a chain of four locations; the dry-cleaners was not a financial success, but Skinner’s success and reputation as a philanthropist grew within the Washington, DC African-American community.

In 2005, Skinner led a group of Howard University students and area residents in an effort to paint over gang-related graffiti in the neighborhood with a mural depicting Black historical leaders on a Howard University-owned wall near Howard’s Georgia Avenue campus. The wall–which several university students and residents had complained about for years–took two weeks to paint. However, the University ordered the painting be removed after newer residents of the neighborhood complained. Skinner and the students were outraged that residents did not pursue the removal of the graffiti, but removed the image of Black leaders and positive families from this wall. Skinner’s Georgia Avenue organizing experience culminated when residents of D. C.’s wards 1 and 4 joined forces to reject the relocation of the Government of the District of Columbia’s Department of Motor Vehicles to the intersection of Georgia Avenue and New Hampshire Avenue, just blocks from Skinner’s home and dry-cleaners. The effort forced the creation of the Georgia Avenue Steering committee which led to the smart development framework that influenced the Planned Unit Development, up-zoning and over $100M in neighborhood oriented, mixed-use developments that exists at this intersection currently.

In early 2005, Skinner accused D. C. City councilman of driving African-American businesses from the neighborhoods of Columbia Heights and the U Street corridor. In 2009, Skinner led a group of Washington, DC activists in the donation of a retired District of Columbia fire truck and ambulance to the poverty stricken town of Sosua, Dominican Republic. However, political pressure surrounding D. C. Mayor Adrian M. Fenty, public backlash halted the transaction; the vehicles made it to Miami, but were returned and auctioned off as scrap metal. In early 2011, Skinner called for an investigation into D. C. Councilman Jim Graham’s involvement in a bribery scandal involving his Chief of Staff, Ted Loza. Loza, Graham’s main confidant in the Council office and who month’s earlier was arrested by the FBI, had just pleaded guilty to two counts of accepting bribes; the indictment, handed down charged that Loza had accepted cash payments in exchange for promoting legislation concerning D. C. taxi cabs until 2010 when Loza was arrested and Councilman Graham was stripped of his chairmanship, Graham had served as Chairman of the Council’s committee that oversees taxi cab regulation.

Skinner has worked for numerous engineering companies including Inc.. Honeywell, Pillsbury, McDonnell Douglas Corporation and The Architect of the Capitol where he performed testing and development for the space shuttle’s main engine controllers, manufacturing for a flour mill company and designed roadways in Macon County, Alabama where he was an apprentice to Curtis Pierce, the first African American county engineer in Macon County, Alabama. Skinner became the first African American student named to the National Board of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. After completing his B. S. in mechanical engineering, Skinner worked in product development for Ohmeda, Inc. an international engineering company that designed incubators for premature babies. Skinner worked for the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office, received his Engineer in Training certification in 1998. In 2007, Skinner founded Liberty Engineering and Design, one of the few black owned engineering firms in Washington, D. C. In 1996, Skinner was the campaign manager for D.

C. city council candidate Nik Eames of the “Umoja” political party. Eames became the first member of his

Barry Meguiar

Barry James Meguiar in Pasadena, California is the President of Meguiar's, Inc. a California-based company of car care products founded in 1901. and former host of Discovery's Velocity series Car Crazy, Frank Meguiar Jr. Barry's grandfather, founded Meguiar's Inc. in the garage of his Indiana home in 1901. In 1913, Frank moved the business to Southern California, where the family focused on making products for the professional market. Barry's father, Malcolm Meguiar, his two brothers carried on the family business in 1950. Barry's involvement at Meguiar's began in grade school and continued throughout college where he served as the one-man accounting department generating $600,000 in annual gross sales. After graduating college, Barry oversaw the company's relations with GM, Ford and Chrysler and managed sales in the Eastern part of the United States. In 1969, Barry received approval to take Meguiar's products into the consumer marketplace. Barry set out to create a new brand of Meguiar's products.

After four years, Meguiar's Inc. launched its first consumer product, the Meguiar's Liquid Cleaner Wax, at the 1973 APAA Show in Chicago. Barry led a grassroots program to sell his products at car shows, which grew into the international marketing campaign that became the backbone of what made Meguiar's a global brand. By mid-1990, car shows and car clubs were suffering in attendance and decreasing in number with the aging population. With a passion for promoting and growing the hobby, Barry created "Car Crazy," a television show for auto enthusiasts that showcase interviews with celebrities and other "car crazed" enthusiasts. Soon after its debut in August 2000, Barry created a radio show of the same name, which emulated the television show and was syndicated to 100 stations throughout the U. S. by Talk America Radio Networks. Reviving the car hobby in the next generation, the "Car Crazy" TV Show stood as the longest running show on Fox's Speed Channel, an all-motorsports network since 1995.

It was moved to be broadcast through Discovery's Velocity Channel with the ending broadcast date around 2008 when Meguiars was acquired by the 3M Corporation. While no longer on Cable TV and no new shows being produced, past shows can now be seen on YouTube. In 2008, Meguiar's Inc. the 100-year-old family business that manufactures the leading Meguiar's brand of car care products, was acquired by 3M, a Fortune 500 global innovation company that produces thousands of products for dozens of diverse markets. In 2010, Barry contracted a rare virus during a filming of his show "Car Crazy" outside of the States, he was admitted into the hospital. Barry was diagnosed with an odd strain of viral pneumonia and was placed in an induced coma battling life-threatening conditions; as Barry's staff prepared his obituary, Barry made a dramatic recovery within 24 hours of intensive care and the illness subsided as as it had spread. In 1973, Barry encountered a man with a passion for leading people in the Christian faith and wanted to experience the same joy he had in his own life.

In 1976, Barry was convinced that his business was his pulpit and in 2000, embraced the vision for a ministry that encourages others to share their faith. Barry attributes the recovery from his illness in 2010 as the day he received marching orders from God for the rest of his life. In 2011, Barry founded Revival Outside the Walls, a ministry dedicated to bringing purpose and excitement to followers of Jesus Christ. Revival Outside the Walls was founded by Barry Meguiar in 2011 as a lay-led ministry. ROTW serves as an evangelical Christian organization that operates in respect to the traditional church. ROTW has a mission to serve as more of a resource than a ministry and is dedicated to providing tools for intentional faith sharing. ROTW has 60 second radio segments, the "60 Second Recharge," and features video resources to support the need for evangelism. Latest guests featured on the website include Brent Garrison, Director of CEO Relations at CEO Forum, Dr. James Dobson, Founder of Christian radio channel Family Talk.

• Pt. Loma Nazarene University's Alumnus of the Year • Church Board Member, Secretary and Chairman • General Council of the Assemblies of God's Layman of the Year • Chairman of Lay Ministries for the Assemblies of God • Chairman of David Wilkerson's World Challenge Board of Directors • Founder/President, Revival Outside the Walls Meguiar's homepage Revival Outside the Walls homepage

Erica De Mane

Erica De Mane is an American chef, food writer, teacher who specializes in Italian cooking. She is the author of The Flavors of Southern Italy, Pasta Improvvisata, Williams-Sonoma Pasta, contributed to the Italian section of the 1997 revision of Joy of Cooking, she is a member of the International Association of Culinary Professionals, the Italy-based international Slow Food movement, the Culinary Historians of New York. Erica developed her interest in cooking as a teenager, drawing inspiration from the recipes she grew up with in her family's southern Italian–American kitchen on Long Island, she studied journalism at the Fashion Institute of Technology from 1975 to 1977 and at New York University from 1977 to 1979, attended the New York Restaurant School from 1983 to 1984. In 1985, she began cooking including Le Madri and The Florent, her play, Kitchen Arts, a comedy about cooking, was produced at Manhattan's 13th Street Repertory Company in 1987. As the titles of her books imply, Erica's cooking is improvisation-driven and her style derived from the flavors of southern Italy: the bitter olive oil and oranges, the honey laced agrodolce, the salty anchovies and olives, the mix of peasant and regal that are hallmarks of the cooking of the mezzogiorno.

Her family's food, from inland Apulia, with its flavors of tomato and wild greens, inspired research that took her to Sicily and Calabria. There she studied the traditional cooking of the entire region, expanding her palate, soon began improvising while never straying too far from the flavors that give southern Italian cooking its distinctive charm. Southern Italians recognize Erica's dishes at their most creative, as being purely southern Italian in spirit, at least in part because of her continuous search for the best and most authentic ingredients available, she has stated that she never makes a dish the same way twice—a radically different approach from her family's, where the rules of traditional Italian cooking were set in stone. Erica's first published articles appeared in Food & Wine magazine in 1993, subsequently in The New York Times and Fine Cooking, among other publications, her monthly food column appeared in Marie Claire magazine from 1997 to 1999. A monthly column on the Mediterranean diet appeared in MyCurves, an online publication of Curves Fitness, the international fitness chain, from 2012 to 2014.

In 2015 she began writing for Weight Watchers. Her first book, Pasta Improvvisata, published by Scribner in 1999, was chosen by The New York Times as one of the best cookbooks of the season for its June 1999, twice-yearly cookbook roundup; that was followed by Pasta, for Williams-Sonoma, in 2003, The Flavors of Southern Italy, published by John Wiley & Sons in 2005. The latter was chosen by both Publishers Weekly and Food & Wine as one of the best cookbooks of the year, she is working on a collection of essays on Italian flavor combinations. A novel-in-progress about a hapless American magazine editor abroad in Italy, written with Barbara Calamari, is tentatively entitled Devil Lady. Since 1998, Erica's blog has offered many of her recipes, as well as essays on her cooking philosophy, reviews of her books, her chosen artwork, illustrated by a popular running feature, Women with Fish, she has appeared on Food Talk with Arthur Schwartz, on the Food Network, on Bloomberg Radio’s Dining with Peter Elliot, on the Heritage Radio Network, on other national and local radio and TV shows.

She has given cooking demonstrations at numerous gourmet shops, farmers’ markets, culinary events, including De Gustibus and The New York Times Style magazine’s “Taste of T.” She teaches private and group cooking classes on southern Italian cooking and diet. Erica De Mane is married to an editor at Forbes magazine, they live in Manhattan with her Japanese bobtails. Official website