Presidency of John Adams
The presidency of John Adams, began on March 4, 1797, when John Adams was inaugurated as the second President of the United States, ended on March 4, 1801. Adams, who had served as vice president under George Washington, took office as president after winning the 1796 presidential election; the only member of the Federalist Party to serve as president, his presidency ended after a single term following his defeat in the 1800 presidential election. He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party; when Adams entered office, the ongoing war between France and Great Britain was causing great difficulties for American merchants on the high seas and arousing intense partisanship among contending political factions nationwide. Attempts to negotiate with the French led to the XYZ Affair, in which French officials demanded bribes before they would assent to the beginning of negotiations; the XYZ Affair outraged the American public, the United States and France engaged in an undeclared naval conflict known as the Quasi-War, which dominated the remainder of Adams's presidency.
Adams presided over an expansion of the army and the navy, the navy won several successes in the Quasi-War. The increased expenditures associated with these actions required greater federal revenue, Congress passed the Direct Tax of 1798; the war and its associated taxation provoked domestic unrest, resulting in incidents such as Fries's Rebellion. In response to the unrest, both foreign and domestic, the 5th Congress passed four bills, collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Signed into law by president, these acts made it more difficult for immigrants to become U. S. citizens, allowed the president to imprison and deport non-citizens who were deemed dangerous or who were from a hostile nation, criminalized making false statements that were critical of the federal government. The Federalist majority argued that the bills strengthened national security during a time of conflict, while the Democratic-Republicans harshly criticized the laws. Opposition to the Quasi-War and the Alien and the Sedition Acts, as well as the intra-party rivalry between Adams and Alexander Hamilton, all contributed to Adams's loss to Jefferson in the 1800 election.
Historians have difficulty assessing Adams's presidency. Samuel Eliot Morison has written, he did know more than any other American James Madison, about political science. Nonetheless, Adams was able to avoid war with France, arguing that war should be a last resort to diplomacy. In this argument, he won the nation the respect of its most powerful adversaries. Although Adams was fiercely criticized for signing the Alien and Sedition Acts, he never advocated their passage nor implemented them, he pardoned the instigators of Fries's Rebellion. "Seen in this light," observed historian C. James Taylor, "Adams's legacy is one of reason, moral leadership, the rule of law, a cautious but active foreign policy that aimed both at securing the national interest and achieving an honorable peace." The election of 1796 was the first contested American presidential election. George Washington had been elected to office unanimously in the first two presidential elections, their competing visions of domestic and foreign policy caused a rift within the administration, led to the founding of the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party.
Thus, when Washington announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term, an intense partisan struggle developed over the presidency began. Like the previous two presidential elections, no candidates were put directly to voters in 1796; the Constitution instead provided that each state selected presidential electors, a vote of the presidential electors selected the president. As the election took place before the ratification of the 12th Amendment, each presidential elector cast two votes for president, though electors were not allowed to cast both votes for the same person; the Constitution prescribed that the person receiving the most votes would become president, provided that they won votes from a majority of the electors, while the person with the second most electoral votes would become vice president. Voters chose the presidential electors in seven states. In the remaining nine states, they were chosen by the state's legislature. Vice President John Adams and Hamilton both hoped to lead the Federalist Party, but Vice President Adams was viewed as Washington's "heir apparent," and he consolidated support among his party's electors.
The clear favorite of Democratic-Republicans was Thomas Jefferson. The Democratic-Republicans in Congress held a nominating caucus and named Jefferson and Aaron Burr as their presidential choices. Jefferson at first declined the nomination, but he agreed to run a few weeks later. Federalist members of Congress held an informal nominating caucus and named Adams and Thomas Pinckney as their presidential candidates; the campaign, for the most part and sporadic, confined to newspaper attacks and political rallies. Federalists attacked Jefferson as a Francophile and atheist, while the Democratic-Republicans accused Adams of being an Anglophile and a monarchist. In early November, France's ambassador to the United States, Pierre Adet, inserted himself into the political debate on behalf of Jefferson, publishing statements designed to arouse anti-British sentiment and to leave the impression that a Jefferson victory would result in improved relations with France. Meanwhile, desiring
The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, was formed in 1775. The fleet cumulatively became substantial through the efforts of the Continental Navy's patron John Adams and vigorous Congressional support in the face of stiff opposition, when considering the limitations imposed upon the Patriot supply pool; the main goal of the navy was to intercept shipments of British matériel and disrupt British maritime commercial operations. The initial fleet consisted of converted merchantmen because of the lack of funding and resources, with designed warships being built in the conflict; the vessels that made it to sea met with success only and the effort contributed little to the overall outcome of the war. The fleet did serve to highlight a few examples of Continental resolve, notably launching Captain John Barry into the limelight, it provided needed experience for a generation of officers who went on to command conflicts which involved the early American navy.
With the war over and the Federal government in need of all available capital, the final vessel of the Continental Navy, was auctioned off in 1785 to a private bidder. The Continental Navy is the first establishment of; the original intent was to intercept the supply of arms and provisions to British soldiers, who had placed Boston under martial law. George Washington had informed Congress that he had assumed command of several ships for this purpose, individual governments of various colonies had outfitted their own warships; the first formal movement for a navy came from Rhode Island, whose State Assembly passed a resolution on August 26, 1775 instructing its delegates to Congress to introduce legislation calling "for building at the Continental expense a fleet of sufficient force, for the protection of these colonies, for employing them in such a manner and places as will most annoy our enemies...." The measure in the Continental Congress was met with much derision on the part of Maryland delegate Samuel Chase who exclaimed it to be "the maddest idea in the world."
John Adams recalled, "The opposition... was loud and vehement. It was... represented as the most wild, mad project, imagined. It was an infant taking a mad bull by his horns." During this time, the issue arose of Quebec-bound British supply ships carrying needed provisions that could otherwise benefit the Continental Army. The Continental Congress appointed Silas Deane and John Langdon to draft a plan to seize ships from the convoy in question. On June 12, 1775, the Rhode Island General Assembly, meeting at East Greenwich, passed a resolution creating a navy for the colony of Rhode Island; the same day, Governor Nicholas Cooke signed orders addressed to Captain Abraham Whipple, commander of the sloop Katy and commodore of the armed vessels employed by the government. The first formal movement for the creation of a Continental navy came from Rhode Island because its merchants' widespread shipping activities had been harassed by British frigates. On August 26, 1775, Rhode Island General Assembly passed a resolution that there be a single Continental fleet funded by the Continental Congress.
The resolution was tabled. In the meantime, George Washington had begun to acquire ships, starting with the schooner Hannah, chartered by Washington from merchant and Continental Army Lt. Colonel John Glover of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Hannah was launched on September 5, 1775 from the port of Beverly, Massachusetts; the United States Navy recognizes October 13, 1775 as the date of its official establishment, the passage of the resolution of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia that created the Continental Navy. On this day, Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships; the first ship in commission was the USS Alfred, purchased on November 4 and commissioned on December 3 by Captain Dudley Saltonstall. On November 10, 1775, the Continental Congress passed a resolution calling for two battalions of Marines to be raised for service with the fleet. John Adams drafted its first governing regulations, which were adopted by Congress on November 28, 1775 and remained in effect throughout the Revolutionary War.
The Rhode Island resolution was reconsidered by the Continental Congress and was passed on December 13, 1775, authorizing the building of thirteen frigates within the next three months: five ships of 32 guns, five with 28 guns, three with 24 guns. When it came to selecting commanders for ships, Congress tended to be split evenly between merit and patronage. Among those who were selected for political reasons were Esek Hopkins, Dudley Saltonstall, Esek Hopkins' son John Burroughs Hopkins. However, Abraham Whipple, Nicholas Biddle, John Paul Jones managed to be appointed with backgrounds in marine warfare. On December 22, 1775, Esek Hopkins was appointed the naval commander-in-chief, officers of the navy were commissioned. Saltonstall, Biddle and Whipple were commissioned as captains of the Alfred, Andrew Doria and Columbus, respectively. Hopkins led the first major naval action of the Continental Navy in early March 1776 with this small fleet, complemented by the Providence and Hornet; the battle occurred at Nassau, Bahamas where stores of much-needed gunpowder were seized for the use of the Continental Army.
However, success was diluted with the appearance of disease spreading from ship to ship. On April 6, 1776, the squadron, with the addition of th
Silas Dinsmoor was an appointed U. S. Agent to the Cherokee and to the Choctaw, he served as a surveyor in Alabama before retiring to Boone County, where he is buried at the Dinsmore Homestead. Born in Windham, New Hampshire, Silas Dinsmore was of Scots-Irish descent and was part of a large group of inter-related families who settled in southern New Hampshire in the early 1700s. Through his mother, Martha McKeen, he was related to Joseph McKeen, the first president of Bowdoin College in Maine, he was a first cousin of Pennsylvania Governor Thomas McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Silas worked his way through Dartmouth College by teaching, a profession he continued to practice after his graduation. At nearby Atkinson Academy he taught a newly formed co-educational class of students, opening up the chance for young ladies to learn Logic and Rhetoric - topics reserved for male students. In 1793, Silas traveled to Philadelphia to look for a position with the government, he was offered the appointment of United States Agent to the Cherokee by President George Washington, a job that would last the next four years.
In that capacity, Dinsmoor was expected to keep peace between the Native Americans and white settlers, serve as treaty commissioner, introduce "civilization" to the Indians. This last task meant that he was to attempt to coax the males of the tribe to take up farming, traditionally the occupation of females, to teach the women to plant cotton and weave textiles, he spent much of his time at Tellico Blockhouse. As the agent, Dinsmoor was a witness to the First Treaty of Tellico, signed in 1798 between the U. S. Government and tribal leaders, which signed away land in eastern Tennessee. At the time, Silas wrote to his brother, "the Cherokees know the worth of their land too well to sell it for a song or anything under the value." In 1798, when his term expired, Dinsmoor again went to Philadelphia in hopes of another post. Instead, in 1799 he accepted the job of purser on the naval frigate, USS"George Washington". In that capacity he sailed with the ship on a historic mission, it being the first U. S. warship to enter the Mediterranean Sea.
Under the command of William Bainbridge, the frigate was sent to Algiers with trade items and tribute for the Barbary pirates. When they arrived in Algiers, the Dey ordered the Americans to carry an ambassador, several slaves, exotic animals to Constantinople for the Sultan of Turkey. Returning to the states, Dinsmoor was appointed by President Thomas Jefferson as Agent to the Choctaw and he proceeded to the small outpost of Washington, Mississippi Territory, located at the southern end of the Natchez Trace, it was presumed he would carry out a similar set of tasks as before, with the added expectation of encouraging the Choctaw to cede large sections of their land to the government. Again, the Native Americans were less than willing to give up their most valuable lands; the Treaty of Mt. Dexter, signed in 1805, which sold away more than four million acres of Choctaw land in southeastern Mississippi and parts of Alabama, angered President Jefferson because he had wanted the more valuable lands along the Mississippi River.
Dinsmoor witnessed the Treaty of Fort St. Stephens of 1816 and the Treaty of Doak's Stand of 1820. By this time, though, he was no longer serving as agent. In 1811 Dinsmoor found himself embroiled in a controversy with Andrew Jackson and by 1813 he was looking for a new government post; the controversy began with reports from the Natchez region that slaves were being encouraged to run away by traders from Tennessee. Dinsmoor was asked to protect the property of the local planters and he began instituting an ignored requirement that anyone traveling the Natchez Trace carry papers with them proving their ownership of any enslaved people they claimed. Jackson refused to do so and became quite furious when he heard the rule was being vigorously enforced, at one point threatening to arm his slaves on his next time through, kill Dinsmoor, burn the agency house to the ground. Though he never found the right moment to carry out his threat, his missives to the War Department may have had something to do with Dinsmoor being replaced in 1813.
Dinsmoor was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813. Dinsmoor moved with his wife, Mary Gordon, children to St. Stephens, the capital of the Alabama Territory, to Mobile, he served for a time as Principal Surveyor for the Land Office in New Orleans. Again, he had personal troubles with his superior, George Davis, was let go. Suffering financially from unpaid wages and a debt he had incurred as security for a friend, he was forced to go to Washington, D. C. in 1826 to plead for money. While he was away from Mobile, he learned of the death of a son and the burning of the bank where he had stored his valuable surveying journals, business papers, a silver sword Washington had presented to him during a visit to Mt. Vernon in 1798. In 1829 he moved to Cincinnati, a year he purchased land in Boone County, Kentucky; the 100 acre purchase included an orchard, a cabin, Loughery Island in the Ohio River. He lived here with his wife and son, until his death in 1847, he was buried in the family graveyard of his nephew, James Dinsmore, now part of the Dinsmore Homestead.
The papers he left are housed at Dartmouth. McLoughlin, William G. Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986; the Dinsmore Homestead Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1977. Pate, James
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or the Founding Fathers, were a group of philosophers and writers who led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Most were descendants of colonists settled in the Thirteen Colonies in North America. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison. Adams and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution; the constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York and Massachusetts were relied upon when creating language for the U. S. Constitution. Jay and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention.
All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, the governmental leader of Pennsylvania; the term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U. S. constitutional document. The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, during the 19th century, they were referred to as the "Fathers".
The term has been used to describe first settlers of the original royal colonies. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. In attendance was Patrick Henry, John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay; this congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, John Witherspoon of New Jersey.
Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation; the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration, he signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey convention that ratified the Federal Constitution. The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament; the U. S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789; the Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one.
The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress; the Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U. S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins: The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of the Protestant faith. All of them were leaders in their communities. Many were prominent in national affairs; every one had taken part in the American Revolution. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution. Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton or
The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800, which broke out during the beginning of John Adams's presidency. After the French Monarchy was abolished in September 1792 the United States refused to continue repaying its large debt to France which had supported it during its own War for Independence, it claimed. France was outraged over the Jay Treaty and that the United States was trading with Britain, with whom they were at war. In response France authorized privateers to conduct attacks on American shipping, seizing numerous merchant ships, leading the U. S. to retaliate. The war was called "quasi", it involved two years of hostilities at sea, in which both navies and privateers attacked the other's shipping in the West Indies. Many of the battles involved famous naval officers such as Stephen Decatur, Silas Talbot and William Bainbridge; the unexpected fighting ability of the newly re-established U. S. Navy, which concentrated on attacking the French West Indian privateers, together with the growing weaknesses and final overthrow of the ruling French Directory, led Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord to reopen negotiations with the US.
At the same time, President John Adams feuded with Alexander Hamilton over control of the Adams administration. Adams took sudden and unexpected action, rejecting the anti-French hawks in his own party and offering peace to France. In 1800 he sent William Vans Murray to France to negotiate peace. Hostilities ended with the signing of the Convention of 1800; when the United States won its independence it no longer had Britain's protection and therefore had the task of protecting its own ships and interests at sea. There were few American ships capable of defending the American coastline while trying to protect its merchant ships at sea; the Kingdom of France was a crucial ally of the United States in the American Revolutionary War. In March 1778, France signed a treaty of alliance with the rebelling colonists against Great Britain and had loaned the new Republic large sums of money. However, Louis XVI of France was deposed in September 1792; the monarchy was abolished. In 1794 the U. S. government reached an agreement with Great Britain in the Jay Treaty, ratified the following year.
It resolved several points of contention between the United States and Britain that had lingered since the end of the American Revolution. The treaty encouraged bilateral trade, enabled expanded trade between the United States and Britain, stimulating the American economy. From 1794 to 1801, the value of American exports nearly tripled, from US$33 million to US$94 million, but the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans, who were pro-France, always denigrated the Jay Treaty. The United States declared neutrality in the conflict between Great Britain and revolutionary France, U. S. legislation was being passed for a trade deal with Great Britain. When the U. S. refused to continue repaying its debt, saying that the debt was owed to the previous government, not to the French First Republic, French outrage led to a series of responses. First, France authorized privateers to seize U. S. ships trading with Great Britain, taking them back to port as prizes to be sold. Next, the French government refused to receive Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the new U.
S. Minister, when he arrived in Paris in December 1796, severing diplomatic relations. In President John Adams's annual message to Congress at the close of 1797, he reported on France's refusal to negotiate a settlement and spoke of the need "to place our country in a suitable posture of defense". Adams offered Washington a commission as lieutenant general on July 4, 1798, as commander-in-chief of the armies raised for service in that conflict. In April 1798, President Adams informed Congress of the "XYZ Affair", in which French agents demanded a large bribe before engaging in substantive negotiations with United States diplomats. Meanwhile, French privateers inflicted substantial losses on U. S. shipping. On 21 February 1797, Secretary of State Timothy Pickering told Congress that during the previous eleven months, France had seized 316 U. S. merchant ships. French marauders cruised the length of the Atlantic seaboard unopposed; the United States government had nothing to combat them, as it had abolished the navy at the end of the Revolutionary War and its last warship sold in 1785.
The United States had only a flotilla of small Revenue-Marine cutters and a few neglected coastal forts. Increased depredations by French privateers led to the government in 1798 to establish the Department of Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps to defend the expanding U. S. merchant fleet. Benjamin Stoddert was appointed as Secretary of Navy. Congress authorized the president to acquire and man not more than twelve ships of up to twenty-two guns each. Several merchantmen were purchased and refitted as ships of war. Congress rescinded the treaties with France on 7 July 1798; that date is now considered the beginning of the Quasi-War. Two days Congress passed authorization for the U. S. to attack French warships in U. S. waters. On 16 July Congress appropriated funds "to build and equip the three remaining frigates begun under the Act of 1794": USS Congress, launched at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on 15 August 1799. To make the most effective use of his limited resources, Secretary Stoddert established a policy that U.
S. forces would be concentrated on attacks against French forces in the Caribbean, wh
History of the United States Marine Corps
The history of the United States Marine Corps begins with the founding of the Continental Marines on 10 November 1775 to conduct ship-to-ship fighting, provide shipboard security and discipline enforcement, assist in landing forces. Its mission evolved with changing military doctrine and foreign policy of the United States. Owing to the availability of Marine forces at sea, the United States Marine Corps has served in nearly every conflict in United States history, it attained prominence when its theories and practice of amphibious warfare proved prescient, formed a cornerstone of the Pacific Theater of World War II. By the early 20th century, the Marine Corps would become one of the dominant theorists and practitioners of amphibious warfare, its ability to respond on short notice to expeditionary crises has made and continues to make it an important tool for U. S. foreign policy. In February 1776, the Continental Marines embarked on their maiden expedition; the Continental Marines were disbanded at the end of the war, along with the Continental Navy.
In preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Navy and the Marine Corps. The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred in the First Barbary War against the Barbary pirates. In the Mexican–American War, the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace, which overlooked Mexico City, their first major expeditionary venture. In the 1850s, the Marines would see service in Panama, in Asia. During the U. S. Civil War the Marine Corps played only a minor role after their participation in the Union defeat at the first battle of First Bull Run/Manassas, their most important task was blockade duty and other ship-board battles, but they were mobilized for a handful of operations as the war progressed. The remainder of the 19th century would be a period of declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's term, many Marine customs and traditions took shape. During the Spanish–American War, Marines would lead U.
S. forces ashore in the Philippines and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. Between 1900 and 1916, the Marine Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions in the Caribbean and Central and South America, which included Panama, Veracruz, Santo Domingo, Nicaragua. In World War I, battle-tested, veteran Marines served a central role in the United States' entry into the conflict. Between the world wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Major General John A. Lejeune, another popular commandant. In World War II, the Marines played a central role, under Admiral Nimitz, in the Pacific War, participating in nearly every significant battle; the Corps saw its peak growth as it expanded from two brigades to two corps with six divisions, five air wings with 132 squadrons. During the Battle of Iwo Jima, photographer Joe Rosenthal took the famous photo Raising of the Flag on Iwo Jima of five Marines and one naval corpsman raising a U. S. flag on Mount Suribachi. The Korean War saw the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade holding the line at the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, where Marine helicopters made their combat debut.
The Marines played an important role in the Vietnam War at battles such as Da Nang, Huế, Khe Sanh. The Marines operated in the northern I Corps regions of South Vietnam and fought both a constant guerilla war against the Viet Cong and an off and on conventional war against North Vietnamese Army regulars. Marines went to Beirut during the 1982 Lebanon War on 24 August. On 23 October 1983, the Marine barracks in Beirut was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history. Marines were responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Gulf War, as the Army made an attack to the west directly into Iraq; the I Marine Expeditionary Force had a strength of 92,990 making Operation Desert Storm the largest Marine Corps operation in history. The earliest lineal predecessor of the modern Marine Corps was the creation and evolution of marines dating back to the European naval wars, during the Second Hundred Years' War of the 17th and 18th century the Second Anglo-Dutch War; the European powers all contended with each other in naval power.
James II of England, the brother of King Charles II, was confirmed as Lord High Admiral, an office that had authoritative command over the English Royal Navy. The position at this time was exercised by a single person an admiral to oversee the structure and institution of naval affairs; as France and the Netherlands were opting to train seamen for infantry combat, England instead in 1664 formed a special regiment, the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot known as the "Lord High Admiral's Regiment", the progenitors of the modern Royal Marines. This maritime infantry regiment was directed to be under the complete control of the Admiralty; the Lord High Admiral's Regiment saw action in the Franco-Dutch War, the Third Anglo-Dutch War. However, due to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, King James II was overthrown by British Parliament, leading to the disbandment of the regiment. Two years two new regiments were formed, the 1st and 2nd Regiment of Marines, their functions assumed the same roles as the subsequent marine regiments in the past.
The general military service type of "marines" first appeared throughout the Dutch and French wars, but the majority of the marine infantry
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Navy must be a civilian by law, at least 5 years removed from active military service; the Secretary is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense; the Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, has statutory authority to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense.
In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, unless exempted by law, is derivative of the authority vested in the Secretary of the Navy. Enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in the before-mentioned section are: recruiting, supplying, training and demobilizing; the Secretary oversees the construction and repair of naval ships and facilities. SECNAV is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs that are consistent with the national security policies and objectives established by the President or the Secretary of Defense; the Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. Furthermore, the Secretary has several statutory responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to the administration of the military justice system for the Navy & the Marine Corps, including the authority to convene general courts-martial and to commute sentences.
The principal military advisers to the SECNAV are the two service chiefs of the naval services: for matters regarding the Navy the Chief of Naval Operations, for matters regarding the Marine Corps the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary; the United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, any changes to it can only be approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Whenever the United States Coast Guard operates as a service within the Department of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy has the same powers and duties with respect to the Coast Guard as the Secretary of Homeland Security when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy; the Office of the Secretary of the Navy known within DoD as the Navy Secretariat or just as the Secretariat in a DoN setting, is the immediate headquarters staff that supports the Secretary in discharging his duties.
The principal officials of the Secretariat include the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the General Counsel of the Department of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, the Naval Inspector General, the Chief of Legislative Affairs, the Chief of Naval Research. The Office of the Secretary of the Navy has sole responsibility within the Department of the Navy for acquisition, auditing and information management, legislative affairs, public affairs and development; the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps. Military awards of the United States Department of the Navy Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards Stephen Mallory, the only Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States of America Official website