Treaty of Oliva
The Treaty or Peace of Oliva of 23 April /3 May 1660 was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War. At Oliva, peace was made between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia. Sweden was accepted as sovereign in Swedish Livonia, Brandenburg was accepted as sovereign in Ducal Prussia, John II Casimir Vasa withdrew his claims to the Swedish throne, though he was to retain the title of a hereditary Swedish king for life. All occupied territories were restored to their pre-war sovereigns. Catholics in Livonia and Prussia were granted religious freedom; the signatories were the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg and King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland. Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie, head of the Swedish delegation and the minor regency, signed on behalf of his nephew, King Charles XI of Sweden, still a minor at the time. Negotiations had begun in Toruń in autumn of 1659. During the Second Northern War, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden had been engaged in a ravaging war since 1655 and both wanted peace, in order to attend to their remaining enemies and Denmark respectively.
In addition, the politically ambitious Polish queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, who had great influence over both the Polish king and Polish parliament, wanted a peace with Sweden because she wanted a son of her close relative, the French prince of Condé, to be elected as successor to the Polish throne. This could only be achieved with the consent of its ally Sweden. On the other hand, the Danish and Dutch envoys, as well as those of the Holy Roman Empire and Brandenburg, did what they could to derail the proceedings, their goal was assisted by the drawn-out formalities which always took place at negotiations of this age. Several months elapsed before the actual peace negotiations could begin, on 7 January 1660. So many hostile words were written in the documents being exchanged by the two parties that the head negotiator, French ambassador De Lumbres, found himself having to expurgate long sections which otherwise would have caused offense. A Polish contingent headed by the archbishop of Gniezno wanted the war to continue in order to expel the exhausted Swedish forces in Livonia.
The Danish delegates demanded of Poland conclude a treaty together with Denmark. Austria, which wished to drive Sweden out of Germany through continued warfare, promised Poland reinforcements, but Austrian intentions were treated with suspicion and the Polish Senate demurred. Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg offered assistance to Poland to continue the war, with the hope of conquering Swedish Pomerania. France, which in practice was governed by Cardinal Mazarin, wanted a continued Swedish presence in Germany to counterbalance Austria and Spain, which were traditional enemies of France. France feared that a continued war would increase Austria's influence in Germany and Poland; the Austrian and Brandenburgian intrusion into Swedish Pomerania was considered a breach of the Peace of Westphalia, which France was under the obligation to prosecute. France therefore threatened to contribute an army of 30,000 soldiers to the Swedish cause unless a treaty between Sweden and Brandenburg was concluded before February 1660.
When news of the death of king Charles X of Sweden arrived Poland and Brandenburg began increasing their demands. But a new French threat of assistance to Sweden made the Polish side give in; the treaty was signed in the monastery of Oliwa on 23 April 1660. In the treaty John II Casimir renounced his claims to the Swedish crown, which his father Sigismund III Vasa had lost in 1599. Poland formally ceded to Sweden Livonia and the city of Riga, under Swedish control since the 1620s; the treaty settled conflicts between Sweden and Poland left standing since the War against Sigismund, the Polish-Swedish War, the Northern Wars. The Hohenzollern dynasty of Brandenburg was confirmed as independent and sovereign over the Duchy of Prussia. In case of an end to the Hohenzollern dynasty in Prussia, the territory was to revert to the Polish crown; the treaty was achieved by Brandenburg's diplomat, Christoph Caspar von Blumenthal, on the first diplomatic mission of his career. The Treaty of Oliva, the Treaty of Copenhagen the same year and the Treaty of Cardis following year marked the high point of the Swedish Empire.
Swedish Livonia Polish Livonia List of Swedish wars List of treaties Bély, Lucien. Lucien Bély, ed. L'Europe des traités de Westphalie: esprit de la diplomatie et diplomatie de l'esprit. Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-049964-3. Evans, Malcolm. Religious Liberty and International Law in Europe. Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law. 6. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-04761-7. Frost, Robert I; the Northern Wars. War and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4. Starbäck, Carl Georg. Berättelser ur svenska historien. 6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Annotated edition of the Peace of Oliva at ieg-mainz.de
Archduchy of Austria
The Archduchy of Austria was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery; the Archduchy developed out of the Bavarian Margraviate of Austria, elevated to the Duchy of Austria according to the 1156 Privilegium Minus by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The House of Habsburg came to the Austrian throne in Vienna in 1282 and in 1453 Emperor Frederick III Austrian ruler adopted the archducal title. From the 15th century onwards, all Holy Roman Emperors but one were Austrian archdukes and with the acquisition of the Bohemian and Hungarian crown lands in 1526, the Habsburg "hereditary lands" became the centre of a major European power; the Archduchy's history as an Imperial State ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806. It was replaced with the Upper Austria crown lands of the Austrian Empire. Located in the Danube basin, Austria bordered on the Kingdom of Hungary beyond the March and Leitha rivers in the east.
In the south it was confined by the Duchy of Styria, with the border at the historic Semmering Pass, while in the north the Bohemian Forest and the Thaya river marked the border with Bohemia and Moravia. In the west, the Upper Austrian part bordered on the Bavarian stem duchy; the adjacent Innviertel region belonged to the Bavarian dukes, until it was occupied by Austrian forces during the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778 and incorporated into the archducal lands according to the Peace of Teschen. In the course of the German mediatisation in 1803, the Austrian archdukes acquired the rule over the Electorate of Salzburg and the Berchtesgaden Provostry. After Austria was detached from Bavaria and established as an Imperial estate in 1156, the Babenberg dukes acquired the neighbouring Duchy of Styria in 1192. After the extinction of the line in 1246 and the occupation by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, it was seized by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, who defeated Ottokar in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld and enfeoffed his son Albert I.
In 1358/59 the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV, in response of the Golden Bull of 1356 claimed the archducal title by forging the Privilegium Maius. Rudolf aimed to achieve a status comparable to the Empire's seven prince-electors, holders of the traditional Imperial'arch'-offices. By the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, his heirs divided the Habsburg lands, whereafter the Austrian duchy remained under the rule of the Albertinian line. On Epiphany 1453 Emperor Frederick III, regent of Austria for his minor Albertinian cousin Ladislaus the Posthumous acknowledged the archducal title, it was conferred to all Habsburg emperors and rulers, as well as to the non-ruling princes of the dynasty, however, it still did not carry the right to vote in the Imperial election. Frederick further promoted the rise of the Habsburg dynasty into European dimensions with the arrangement of the marriage between his son Maximilian I and Mary the Rich, heiress of Burgundy in 1477. After Maximilian's son Philip the Handsome in 1496 had married Joanna the Mad, Queen of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon, his son Charles V could come into an inheritance "on which the sun never sets".
Charles' younger brother Ferdinand I claimed his rights and became Archduke of Austria according to an estate distribution at the 1521 Diet of Worms, whereby he became regent over the Austrian archduchy and the adjacent Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Gorizia. By marrying Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, Ferdinand inherited both kingdoms in 1526. King of the Romans from 1531, he became the progenitor of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, which as Archdukes of Austria and Kings of Bohemia ruled as Holy Roman Emperors until the Empire's dissolution in 1806. In 1804, Emperor Francis II of Habsburg, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy promoted his territories within the Holy Roman Empire together with his Kingdom of Hungary to the Austrian Empire in reaction to Napoleon I's proclamation of the French Empire; the Archduchy of Austria continued to exist as a constituent crown land within the empire, although it was divided into Upper and Lower Austria for some purposes.
Hungary preserved. The title of archduke continued to be used by members of the imperial family and the archduchy was only formally dissolved in 1918 with collapse of Austria-Hungary and the creation of the separate federal states of Lower and Upper Austria in the new Republic of German Austria. History of Austria List of rulers of Austria
Treaty of Stuhmsdorf
The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf or Sztumska Wieś was a treaty signed on 12 September 1635 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in the village of Stuhmsdorf, Royal Prussia, just south of Stuhm. The treaty introduced a truce for 26 and a half years. Sweden, weakened by its involvement in the Thirty Years' War, agreed to the terms that were favourable to the Commonwealth in terms of territorial concessions; the king of Poland regained many of the territories he had lost in the past decades of the Polish–Swedish War, but the treaty was beneficial to Sweden and her allies, which wanted Sweden to be able to concentrate on the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, without the need to worry about possible conflict with the Commonwealth. The truce lasted until 1655, when Sweden invaded the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Second Northern War; the Polish side was not unified. King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland, from the Swedish House of Vasa, wanted to regain the Swedish crown, held and lost by his father Sigismund III.
As this was a daunting task, his less ambitious motivations were to gain fame and strengthen his position in the Commonwealth, where Golden Liberties made the king's position among the weakest in Europe. He hoped these goals would be achievable during the war and argued that the commonwealth could gain more by warring with Sweden, he thought the negotiations gave him the opportunity to trade his right to the Swedish crown for a hereditary claim to one of the regained lands, entrusted this matter to the Prussian mediators. The szlachta advisors to Władysław, representing the Polish legislature, were not convinced that the war would be beneficial, although many agreed that the Swedes had to leave Poland by negotiations, if possible, by war, if necessary. Few, wished the war to continue for the sake of helping Władysław regain the Swedish crown, and, as usual, there was much disagreement between allies of the king, who wanted to strengthen his power, those who feared that any victory for the king would mean loss for the nobility.
After the recent setbacks that Sweden and its allies suffered in Germany, such as the Battle of Nördlingen and the defection of the Electorate of Saxony, Sweden's negotiating position was somewhat weakened. Nonetheless, the Swedes realised that their recent gains in Germany were much less easy to defend than the territories they captured from the commonwealth in Prussia and Livonia, so they were more ready to give up German than Prussian territories, they were, willing to give up their conquests in Prussia if Władysław would renounce his claim to the Swedish crown and they would retain their conquests in Livonia. Sweden's position was weakened by the disagreements within its government, as there was a power struggle between Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna and his opponents in the Swedish Riksdag; some of these struggles led to leaks. Many European powers were interested in the outcome of the negotiations, they were named as mediators by the 1629 Truce of Altmark, giving them ample opportunity to influence the outcome of the Polish–Swedish negotiations.
The peace between Poland and Sweden was supported by French Cardinal Richelieu, who wanted to weaken the Holy Roman Empire, using Sweden and German Protestants as a tool to keep Germany divided and embroiled in conflict. To this end, he needed Sweden to continue to take part in the Thirty Years' War and to ensure Poland's neutrality. Richelieu had no wish to see Poland open a second front in Prussia, thus he dispatched Claude d'Avaux, one of his trusted negotiators. French efforts were supported by the Dutch and English ambassadors at the conference, expedited by a lavish flow of money. England sent the former military commander Sir George Douglas with instructions to support Władysław as at that time there were negotiations between the commonwealth and England regarding the possible marriage between Władysław and an English princess. Dutch envoys included Andries Bicker and Joachim Andraee. George William, Duke of Prussia and Prince-elector of Brandenburg, was interested in a peaceful resolution of the Polish–Swedish conflict, as he did not want his lands to be affected by a new round of warfare.
Because the Duchy of Prussia failed to fulfill its feudal obligations as a vassal of Poland by not lending it military support, George William's rule in Prussia was suspended and he was replaced by the Polish king by a viceroy, Jerzy Ossoliński. Brandenburger mediators included Johan Georg Saucken and Peter Bergmann; the negotiations started on 24 January 1635 in the Prussian village of Preussisch Holland. Polish negotiators were led by Bishop and Chancellor Jakub Zadzik, included Hetman Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Voivode of Bełsk Rafał Leszczyński, Crown referendarz Remigian Zaleski, Starost of Dorpat, Ernest Denhoff and Starost of Stężyce, Abraham Gołuchowski. Swedish negotiators were led by Per Brahe and included the governor of Prussia, Herman Wrangel, advisors Sten Bielke, Achacy Axelson and Johan Nicodemi; the early negotiations were unsuccessful, as both sides played delaying tactics, disputing the titles of their monarchs, awaiting most of the international mediators. Although the Swedes
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
The Pragmatic Sanction was an edict issued by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 April 1713 to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions, which included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Netherlands, could be inherited by a daughter. Charles and his wife Elizabeth Christine had not, to that point, had children and since 1711 Charles had been the sole surviving male member of the House of Habsburg. Charles' elder brother Joseph I had died without male issue, leaving Joseph's daughter Maria Josepha as the heir presumptive; this presented two problems. First, a prior agreement with his brother known as the Mutual Pact of Succession had agreed that, in the absence of male heirs, Joseph's daughters would take precedence over Charles's daughters in all Habsburg lands. Though at that time Charles had no children, if he were to be survived by daughters alone, they would be cut out of the inheritance.
Secondly, because Salic law precluded female inheritance, Charles VI needed to take extraordinary measures to avoid a protracted succession dispute as other claimants would have contested a female inheritance. Charles VI was indeed succeeded by his own elder daughter Maria Theresa. However, despite the promulgation of the Pragmatic Sanction, her accession in 1740 resulted in the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession as Charles-Albert of Bavaria, backed by France, contested her inheritance. Following the war, Maria Theresa's inheritance of the Habsburg lands was confirmed by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, while the election of her husband Francis I as Holy Roman Emperor was secured by the Treaty of Füssen. In 1700, the senior branch of the House of Habsburg became extinct with the death of Charles II of Spain; the War of the Spanish Succession ensued, with Louis XIV of France claiming the crowns of Spain for his grandson Philip and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, claiming them for his son Charles.
In 1703, Charles and Joseph, Leopold's sons, signed the Mutual Pact of Succession, granting succession rights to the daughters of Joseph and Charles in the case of complete extinction of the male line but favouring the daughters of Joseph over those of Charles, as Joseph was older. In 1705, Leopold I died and was succeeded by his elder son, Joseph I. Six years Joseph I died leaving behind two daughters, Archduchesses Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia. Charles succeeded Joseph, according to the Pact, Maria Josepha became his heir presumptive. However, Charles decided to amend the Pact to give his own future daughters precedence over his nieces. On 19 April 1713, he announced the changes in a secret session of the council. Securing the right to succeed for his own daughters, who were not born yet, became Charles's obsession; the previous succession laws had forbidden the partition of the Habsburg dominions and provided for succession by females, but, hypothetical. The Pragmatic Sanction was the first such document to be publicly announced and so required formal acceptance by the estates of the realms affected.
For 10 years, Charles VI labored, with the support of his closest advisor, Johann Christoph von Bartenstein, to have his sanction accepted by the courts of Europe. Only the Electorate of Saxony and the Electorate of Bavaria did not accept it because it was detrimental to their inheritance rights. France accepted in exchange under the Treaty of Vienna. Spain's acceptance was gained under the Treaty of Vienna. In 1731, the 15-year-old Spanish prince Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, on the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese, he went on to conquer Naples and Sicily, after which he returned Parma to the Emperor by the Treaty of Vienna. In 1759, he became King of Spain as Charles III. Great Britain and the Dutch Republic accepted in exchange for the cessation of operations of the Ostend Company. King Frederick I of Prussia approved out of loyalty to the Emperor. Charles VI made commitments with Russia and Augustus of Saxony, King of Poland, which caused two wars: the War of the Polish Succession against France and Spain, which cost him Naples and Sicily, the Austro-Russian–Turkish War, which cost him Little Wallachia and northern Serbia, including the Fortress of Belgrade.
Hungary, which had an elective kingship, had accepted the house of Habsburg as hereditary kings in the male line without election in 1687 but not semi-Salic inheritance. The Emperor-King agreed that if the Habsburg male line became extinct, Hungary would once again have an elective monarchy. Maria Theresa, still gained the throne of Hungary; the Hungarian Parliament voted its own Pragmatic Sanction of 1723 in which the Kingdom of Hungary accepted female inheritance supporting her to become queen of Hungary. Croatia was one of the crown lands that supported Emperor Charles's Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and supported Empress Maria Theresa in the War of the Austrian Succession of 1741–48 and the Croatian Parliament signed their own Pragmatic Sanction of 1712. Subsequently, the empress made significant contributions to Croatian matters by making several changes in the administrative control of the Military Frontier, the feudal and tax system, she gave the independent port of Rijeka to Croatia in 1776.
Charles VI spent the time of his reign preparing Europe for a female ruler, but he did not prepare his daughter, Maria T
House of Medici
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, prospered until it was able to fund the Medici Bank; this bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, it facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence, although they remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, Pope Pius IV and Pope Leo XI —and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici and Marie de' Medici. In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after territorial expansion; the Medicis ruled the Grand Duchy from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the early grand dukes, but was bankrupt by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici.
The Medicis' wealth and influence was derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana. Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medicis dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, created an environment in which art and humanism flourished, they and other families of Italy inspired the Italian Renaissance, such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, the Gonzaga in Mantua. The Medici Bank, from when it was created in 1397 to its fall in 1494, was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe, the Medici family was considered the wealthiest in Europe for a time. From this base, they acquired political power in Florence and in wider Italy and Europe, they were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. The Medici family bankrolled the invention of the piano and opera, funded the construction of Saint Peter Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore, patronized Leonardo, Michelangelo and Galileo.
They were protagonists of the counter-reformation, from the beginning of the reformation through the Council of Trent and the French wars of religion. The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region north of Florence, they are first mentioned in a document of 1230; the origin of the name is uncertain. Medici is the plural of medico, meaning "medical doctor"; the dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank in Florence in 1397. For most of the 13th century, the leading banking center in Italy was Siena, but in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, the city of Siena lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence. Until the late 14th century, prior to the Medici, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted; the city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class. The main challengers to the Albizzi family were the Medicis, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici.
The Medici controlled the Medici Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled; the next year, however, a pro-Medici Signoria led by Tommaso Soderini, Oddo Altoviti and Lucca Pitti was elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. Cosimo and Lorenzo held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders; the Medici family was connected to most other elite families of the time through marriages of convenience, partnerships, or employment, so the family had a central position in the social network: several families had systematic access to the rest of the elite families only through the Medici similar to banking relationships.
Some examples of these families include the Bardi, Ridolfi and the Tornabuoni. This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici family. Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medici in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt of 1378-82, one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in 1396. Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, son of Averardo de' Medici, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, became one of the richest men in the city of Florence. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his supp
Duchy of Lorraine
The Duchy of Lorraine Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy, it was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lower duchy was dismantled, while Upper Lorraine came to be known as the Duchy of Lorraine; the Duchy of Lorraine was coveted and occupied by the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France. In 1737, the Duchy was given to Stanisław Leszczyński, the former king of Poland, who had lost his throne as a result of the War of the Polish Succession, with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; when Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province. Lorraine's predecessor, was an independent Carolingian kingdom under the rule of King Lothair II, its territory had been a part of Middle Francia, created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, when the Carolingian empire was divided between the three sons of Louis the Pious.
Middle Francia was allotted to Emperor Lothair I, therefore called Lotharii Regnum. On his death in 855, it was further divided into three parts, of which his son Lothair II took the northern one, his realm comprised a larger territory stretching from the County of Burgundy in the south to the North Sea. In French, this area became known as Lorraine, while in German, it was known as Lothringen. In the Alemannic language once spoken in Lorraine, the -ingen suffix signified a property; as Lothair II had died without heirs, his territory was divided by the 870 Treaty of Meerssen between East and West Francia and came under East Frankish rule as a whole by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont. After the East Frankish Carolingians became extinct with the death of Louis the Child in 911, Lotharingia once again attached itself to West Francia, but was conquered by the German king Henry the Fowler in 925. Stuck in the conflict with his rival Hugh the Great, in 942 King Louis IV of France renounced all claims to Lotharingia.
In 953, the German king Otto. In 959, Bruno divided the duchy into Lower Lorraine; the Upper Duchy was further "up" the river system. Upper Lorraine was first denominated as the Duchy of the Moselle, both in charters and narrative sources, its duke was the dux Mosellanorum; the usage of Lotharingia Superioris and Lorraine in official documents begins around the fifteenth century. The first duke and deputy of Bruno was Frederick I of Bar, son-in-law of Bruno's sister Hedwig of Saxony. Lower Lorraine disintegrated into several smaller territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant. After the duchy of the Moselle came into the possession of René of Anjou, the name "Duchy of Lorraine" was adopted again, only retrospectively called "Upper Lorraine". At that time, several territories had split off, such as the County of Luxembourg, the Electorate of Trier, the County of Bar and the "Three Bishoprics" of Verdun and Toul; the border between the Empire and the Kingdom of France remained stable throughout the Middle Ages.
In 1301, Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of his lands as a fief by King Philip IV of France. In 1475, the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold campaigned for the Duchy of Lorraine, but was defeated and killed at the 1477 Battle of Nancy. In the 1552 Treaty of Chambord, a number of insurgent Protestant Imperial princes around Elector Maurice of Saxony ceded the Three Bishoprics to King Henry II of France in turn for his support. Due to the weakening of Imperial authority during the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, France was able to occupy the duchy in 1634 and retained it until 1661 when Charles IV was restored. In 1670, the French invaded again. France returned the Duchy in the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick ending the Nine Years' War and Charles' son Leopold, became duke and was known as'Leopold the Good. In 1737, after the War of the Polish Succession, an agreement between France, the Habsburgs and the Lorraine House of Vaudémont assigned the Duchy to Stanisław Leszczyński, former king of Poland.
He was father-in-law to King Louis XV of France, who lost out to a candidate backed by Russia and Austria in the War of the Polish Succession. The Lorraine duke Francis Stephen, betrothed to the Emperor's daughter Archduchess Maria Theresa, was compensated with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, where the last Medici ruler had died without issue. France promised to support Maria Theresa as heir to the Habsburg possessions under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Leszczyński received Lorraine with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; the title of Duke of Lorraine was of course given to Stanisław, but retained by Francis Stephen, it figures prominently in the titles of his successors, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. When Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province by the French government. Two regional languages survive in the re
Stanisław I Leszczyński was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire. Stanisław was born into a powerful magnate family of Greater Poland, he had the opportunity to travel to western Europe in his youth. In 1702 King Charles XII of Sweden marched into the country as part of a continuing series of conflicts between the powers of northern Europe. Charles forced the Polish nobility to depose Poland’s king, Augustus II the Strong, placed Stanisław on the throne; the early 18th century was turmoil for Poland. In 1709 Charles was defeated by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava and fled to exile in the Ottoman Empire, leaving Stanisław without any real and stable support. Augustus II regained the Polish throne, Stanisław left the country to settle in the French province of Alsace. In 1725 Stanisław’s daughter Marie Leszczyńska married Louis XV of France When Augustus died in 1733, Stanisław sought to regain the Polish throne with the help of French support for his candidacy.
After travelling to Warsaw in disguise, he was elected king of Poland by an overwhelming majority of the Diet. However, before his coronation and Austria, fearing Stanisław would unite Poland in the Swedish-French alliance, invaded the country to annul his election. Stanisław was once more deposed, under Russian pressure, a small minority in the Diet elected the Saxon elector Frederick Augustus II to the Polish throne as Augustus III. Stanisław retreated to the city of Danzig to wait for French assistance. Fleeing before the city fell to its Russian besiegers, he journeyed to Königsberg in Prussia, where he directed guerrilla warfare against the new king and his Russian supporters; the Peace of Vienna in 1738 recognised Augustus III as king of Poland but allowed Stanisław to keep his royal titles while granting him the provinces of Lorraine and Bar for life. In Lorraine, Stanisław promoted economic development, his court at Lunéville became famous as a cultural centre, he founded an academy of science at Nancy and a military college.
In 1749 he published a book entitled Free Voice to Make Freedom Safe, an outline of his proposed changes in the Polish constitution. Editions of his letters to his daughter Marie, to the kings of Prussia, to Jacques Hulin, his minister at Versailles, have been published. In Nancy, Place Stanislas was named in his honour. Born in Lwów in 1677, he was the son of Rafał Leszczyński, voivode of Poznań Voivodeship, Anna Katarzyna Jabłonowska, he married Katarzyna Opalińska, by whom he had a daughter, who became Queen of France as wife of Louis XV. In 1697, as Cup-bearer of Poland, he signed the confirmation of the articles of election of August II the Strong. In 1703 he joined the Lithuanian Confederation, which the Sapiehas with the aid of Sweden had formed against August; the following year, Stanisław was selected by Charles XII of Sweden after a successful Swedish invasion of Poland, to supersede Augustus II, hostile towards the Swedes. Leszczyński was a young man of blameless antecedents, respectable talents, came from an ancient family, but without sufficient force of character or political influence to sustain himself on so unstable a throne.
With the assistance of a bribing fund and an army corps, the Swedes succeeded in procuring his election by a scratch assembly of half a dozen castellans and a few score of gentlemen on 12 July 1704. A few months Stanisław was forced by a sudden inroad of Augustus II to seek refuge in the Swedish camp, but on 24 September 1705, he was crowned king with great splendor. Charles himself supplied his nominee with a new crown and scepter in lieu of the ancient Polish regalia, carried off to Saxony by August. During this time the King of Sweden sent Peter Estenberg to King Stanislaw to act as an ambassador and correspondence secretary; the Polish king's first act was to cement an alliance with Charles XII whereby the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth engaged to assist Sweden against the Russian tsar. Stanisław did. Thus, he induced Ivan Mazepa, the Cossack hetman, to desert Peter the Great at the most critical period of the Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden, Stanisław placed a small army corps at the disposal of the Swedes.
But Stanisław depended so on the success of Charles' arms that after the Battle of Poltava Stanisław's authority vanished as a dream at the first touch of reality. During this period Stanisław resided in the town of Rydzyna; the vast majority of Poles hastened to make their peace with August. Henceforth a mere pensioner of Charles XII, Stanisław accompanied Krassow's army corps in its retreat to Swedish Pomerania. On the restoration of Augustus, Stanisław resigned the Polish Crown in exchange for the little principality of Zweibrücken. In 1716, an assassination was attempted by a Saxon officer, but Stanisław was saved by Stanisław Poniatowski, father of the future king. Stanisław Leszczyński resided at Wissembourg in Alsace. In 1725, he had the satisfaction of seeing his daughter Maria become queen consort of Louis XV of France. From 1725 to 1733, Stanisław lived at the Château de Chambord. Stanislaw's son-in-law Louis XV supported his claims to the Polish throne after the death of August II the Strong in 1733, which led to the War of the Polish Succession.
In September 1733, Stanisław himself arrived at Warsaw, hav