Washington Naval Treaty
The Washington Naval Treaty known as the Five-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major nations that had won World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, held in Washington, D. C. from November 1921 to February 1922, it was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Japan. It limited the construction of battleships and aircraft carriers by the signatories; the numbers of other categories of warships, including cruisers and submarines, were not limited by the treaty, but those ships were limited to 10,000 tons displacement each. The treaty was concluded on February 6, 1922. Ratifications of that treaty were exchanged in Washington on August 17, 1923, it was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on April 16, 1924. Naval arms limitation conferences sought additional limitations of warship building; the terms of the Washington treaty were modified by the London Naval Treaty of 1930 and the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936.
By the mid-1930s, Japan and Italy renounced the treaties, while Germany renounced the Treaty of Versailles which had limited its navy. Naval arms limitation became difficult for the other signatories. After World War I, the United Kingdom had the world's largest and most powerful navy, followed by the United States and more distantly by Japan and Italy; the High Seas Fleet of defeated Germany had been interned by the British. The allies had differing opinions concerning the final disposition of the German fleet, with the French and Italians wanting the German fleet divided between the victorious powers and the Americans and British wanting the ships destroyed; these negotiations became moot when the German crews scuttled most of their ships. News of the scuttling angered the French and Italians, with the French unimpressed with British explanations that their fleet guarding the Germans had been away on exercises at the time; the British joined their allies in condemning the German actions and no credible evidence emerged to suggest that the British had collaborated with the Germans with respect to the scuttling.
The Treaty of Versailles, signed soon after the scuttling of the German High Seas Fleet, imposed strict limits on the size and number of warships that the newly-installed German government was allowed to build and maintain. The US, UK, France and Japan had been allied for World War I. President Woodrow Wilson's administration had announced successive plans for the expansion of the US Navy from 1916 to 1919 that would have resulted in a massive fleet of 50 modern battleships. In response, the Japanese parliament authorized construction of warships to enable the Japanese Navy to attain its goal of an "eight-eight" fleet programme, with eight modern battleships and eight battlecruisers; the Japanese started work on four battleships and four battlecruisers, all much larger and more powerful than those of the classes preceding. The 1921 British Naval Estimates planned four battleships and four battlecruisers, with another four battleships to follow the subsequent year; the new arms race was unwelcome to the U.
S. public. The United States Congress disapproved of Wilson's 1919 naval expansion plan, during the 1920 presidential election campaign, politics resumed the non-interventionalism of the prewar era, with little enthusiasm for continued naval expansion. Britain could ill afford any resumption of battleship construction, given the exorbitant cost. During late 1921, the USA government became aware that Britain was planning a conference to discuss the strategic situation in the Pacific and Far East regions. To forestall the conference and satisfy domestic demands for a global disarmament conference, the Harding administration called the Washington Naval Conference during November 1921; the Conference agreed this Five-Power Naval Treaty, as well a Four-Power Treaty about Japan and a Nine-Power Treaty about China. At the first plenary session held November 21, 1921, US Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes presented his country's proposals. Hughes provided a dramatic beginning for the conference by stating with resolve: "The way to disarm is to disarm".
The ambitious slogan received enthusiastic public endorsement and abbreviated the conference while helping ensure his proposals were adopted. He subsequently proposed the following: A ten-year pause or "holiday" of the construction of capital ships, including the immediate suspension of all building of capital ships; the scrapping of existing or planned capital ships to give a 5:5:3:1.75:1.75 ratio of tonnage with respect to Britain, the United States, Japan and Italy respectively. Ongoing limits of both capital ship tonnage and the tonnage of secondary vessels with the 5:5:3 ratio; the proposals for capital ships were accepted by the UK delegation, but they were controversial with the British public. It would no longer be possible for Britain to have adequate fleets in the North Sea, the Mediterranean, the Far East simultaneously; that provoked outrage from parts of the Royal Navy. There was huge demand for the UK to agree; the risk of war with the United States was regarded as theoretical, as there were few policy differences between the two Anglophone powers.
Naval spending was unpopular in both the UK and its dominions. Furthermore, Britain was implementing major decreases of its budget because of the post–World War I recession; the Japanese delegation was divid
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and close proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce. Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits.
However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Arguably, the first examples of integrated circuits would include the Loewe 3NF. Although far from a monolithic construction, it meets the definition given above. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D. C. on 7 May 1952.
He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
His work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon. Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a key concept behind the IC; this isolation allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon. Fairchild Semiconductor was home of the first silicon-gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits; the technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined Intel in order to develop the first single-chip central processing unit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010; the 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi Shima and Intel's Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology smaller features and la
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process; as of 2018, Secretary-General of the CITES Secretariat is Ivonne Higuero. CITES is one of sustainable use agreements in existence. Participation is voluntary, countries that have agreed to be bound by the Convention are known as Parties. Although CITES is binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws.
Rather it provides a framework respected by each Party, which must adopt their own domestic legislation to implement CITES at the national level. Domestic legislation is either non-existent, or with penalties with the gravity of the crime and insufficient deterrents to wildlife traders; as of 2002, 50% of Parties lacked one or more of the four major requirements for a Party: designation of Management and Scientific Authorities. Funding for the activities of the Secretariat and Conference of the Parties meetings comes from a Trust Fund derived from Party contributions. Trust Fund money is not available to Parties to improve compliance; these activities, all those outside Secretariat activities must find external funding from donor countries and regional organizations such as the European Union. Although the Convention itself does not provide for arbitration or dispute in the case of noncompliance, 36 years of CITES in practice has resulted in several strategies to deal with infractions by Parties.
The Secretariat, when informed of an infraction by a Party, will notify all other parties. The Secretariat will give the Party time to respond to the allegations and may provide technical assistance to prevent further infractions. Other actions the Convention itself does not provide for but that derive from subsequent COP resolutions may be taken against the offending Party; these include: Mandatory confirmation of all permits by the Secretariat Suspension of cooperation from the Secretariat A formal warning A visit by the Secretariat to verify capacity Recommendations to all Parties to suspend CITES related trade with the offending party Dictation of corrective measures to be taken by the offending Party before the Secretariat will resume cooperation or recommend resumption of tradeBilateral sanctions have been imposed on the basis of national legislation. Infractions may include negligence with respect to permit issuing, excessive trade, lax enforcement, failing to produce annual reports.
CITES addressed depletion resulting from demand for luxury goods such as furs in Western countries, but with the rising wealth of Asia in China, the focus changed to products demanded there those used for luxury goods such as ivory or shark fins or for superstitious purposes such as rhinoceros horn. As of 2013 the demand was massive and had expanded to include thousands of species considered unremarkable and in no danger of extinction such as manta rays or pangolins; the text of the Convention was finalized at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D. C. United States, on 3 March 1973, it was open for signature until 31 December 1974. It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory country, on 1 July 1975. Countries that signed the Convention become Parties by accepting or approving it. By the end of 2003, all signatory countries had become Parties. States that were not signatories may become Parties by acceding to the Convention; as of October 2016, the Convention has 183 parties, including the European Union.
The CITES Convention includes rules for trade with non-Parties. All member states of the United Nations are party to the treaty, with the exception of Andorra, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, South Sudan, East Timor, Tonga and Tuvalu. UN observer the Holy See is not a member; the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country in the Kingdom of Denmark, is treated as a non-Party to CITES. An amendment to the text of the Convention, known as the Gaborone Amendment allows regional economic integration organizations, such as the European Union, to have the status of a member state and to be a Party to the Convention; the REIO can vote at CITES meetings with the number of votes representing the number of members in the REIO, but it does not have an additional vote. In accordance with Article XVII, paragraph 3, of the CITES Convention, the Gaborone Amendment entered into force on 29 November 2013, 60 days after 54 (tw
North Atlantic Treaty
The North Atlantic Treaty referred to as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty that forms the legal basis of, is implemented by, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The treaty was signed in Washington, D. C. on 4 April 1949. The treaty was signed in Washington, D. C. on 4 April 1949 by a committee, chaired by US diplomat Theodore Achilles. Earlier secret talks had been held at the Pentagon between 22 March and 1 April 1948, of which Achilles said: The talks lasted about two weeks and by the time they finished, it had been secretly agreed that there would be a treaty, I had a draft of one in the bottom drawer of my safe, it was never shown to anyone except Jack. I wish I had kept it, but when I left the Department in 1950, I dutifully left it in the safe and I have never been able to trace it in the archives, it drew on the Rio Treaty, a bit of the Brussels Treaty, which had not yet been signed, but of which we were being kept supplied with drafts. The eventual North Atlantic Treaty had the general form, a good bit of the language of my first draft, but with a number of important differences.
According to Achilles, another important author of the treaty was John D. Hickerson: More than any human being Jack was responsible for the nature and form of the Treaty... It was a one-man Hickerson treaty; the treaty was created with an armed attack by the Soviet Union against Western Europe in mind, but the mutual self-defense clause was never invoked during the Cold War. Rather, it was invoked for the first and only time in 2001 during Operation Eagle Assist in response to the September 11 attacks; the following twelve states signed the treaty and thus became the founding members of NATO. The following leaders signed the agreement as plenipotentiaries of their countries in Washington, D. C.: Belgium – Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak and Ambassador Baron Robert Silvercruys Canada – Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson and Ambassador H. H. Wrong Denmark – Foreign Minister Gustav Rasmussen and Ambassador Henrik Kauffmann France – Foreign Minister Robert Schuman and Ambassador Henri Bonnet Iceland – Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Bjarni Benediktsson and Ambassador Thor Thors Italy – Foreign Minister Carlo Sforza and Ambassador Alberto Tarchiani Luxembourg – Foreign Minister Joseph Bech and Ambassador Hugues Le Gallais Netherlands – Foreign Minister Dirk Stikker and Ambassador Eelco van Kleffens Norway – Foreign Minister Halvard M. Lange and Ambassador Wilhelm von Munthe af Morgenstierne Portugal – Foreign Minister José Caeiro da Mata and Ambassador Pedro Teotónio Pereira United Kingdom – Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin and Ambassador Oliver Franks, Baron Franks United States – Secretary of State Dean Acheson The following 17 states joined the treaty after the 12 founding states: The treaty includes Article 4, which triggers not military intervention but consultation over military matters when "the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened".
It has been invoked three times by Turkey: once in 2003 over the Second Persian Gulf War, once in June 2012 after the shooting down of a Turkish military jet, once again in October 2012 after Syrian attacks on Turkey and their counterattacks. An Article 4 meeting was invoked by Latvia and Poland in March 2014 as a response to the extraterritorial Crimean crisis. Turkey announced plans to convoke under Article 4 an extraordinary meeting on 28 July 2015, ostensibly in response to the 2015 Suruç bombing, which it attributed to ISIS, other security issues along its southern border. A press statement released by the Alliance declared that "Turkey requested the meeting in view of the seriousness of the situation after the heinous terrorist attacks in recent days, to inform allies of the measures it is taking." The US announced through The New York Times on 27 July that it had agreed "in general terms on a plan that envisions American warplanes, Syrian insurgents and Turkish forces working together to sweep Islamic State militants from a 60-mile-long strip of northern Syria along the Turkish border... long-range artillery could be used across the border."
Concerns were expressed that the plan would put allied warplanes closer than to areas that Syrian aircraft bomb. Turkish Prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu said the operations will continue as long as Turkey faces a threat, discussed the situation with UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon in a telephone call over the weekend of 26 July; the US said that Turkey "has a right to take action" against the PKK, a Kurdish insurrectionary group that has sought since 1984 autonomy from Turkey. A news report disclosed prior to the 28 July meeting that Turkey had violated Iraqi airspace in its pursuit of the PKK; the key section of the treaty is Article 5. Its commitment clause defines, it commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against them all. It has been invoked only once in NATO history: by the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001; the invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.
The eight official actions taken by NATO in response to the 9/11 attacks included Operation Eagle Assist and Operation Active Endeavour, a naval operation in the Mediterranean, designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction, as well as enhancing the security of shipping in general. Active Endeavour began on 4
The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans
The Iowa or Ioway, known as the Báxoǰe in their own language, are a Native American Siouan people. Today, they are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma and the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska; the Iowa and Otoe tribes were all once part of the Ho-Chunk people. They are all Chiwere language-speaking peoples, they left their ancestral homelands in Southern Wisconsin for Eastern Iowa, a state that bears their name. In 1837, the Iowa were moved from Iowa to reservations in Brown County and Richardson County, Nebraska. Bands of Iowa moved to Indian Territory in the late 19th century and settled south of Perkins, Oklahoma to become the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma; the Ioway tribe is known as the báxoje tribe. Their name has been said to come from the Sioux ayuhwa. Early European explorers adopted the names of tribes from the ethnonyms which other tribes gave them, not understanding that these differed from what the peoples called themselves. Thus, ayuhwa is not an Ioway word.
The word Ioway comes from Dakotan ayuxbe via French aiouez. Their autonym is Báxoje, which translates to "grey snow". Báxoje has been incorrectly translated as "dusted faces" or "dusty nose"; the state of Iowa, where they once lived, was named after this tribe. Their name has been applied to other locations, such as Iowa City and the Iowa River, their estimated 1760 population of 1,100 dropped to 800 by 1804, a decrease caused by smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity. Their numbers were reduced to 500 by 1900. In 1960, 100 Iowa lived in 100 in Oklahoma. By 1980 their population had recovered to 1,000. In 1990 there were 1,700 people. According to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, in 1995 there were 533 individuals living in the Iowa reservations of Kansas and 44 in Nebraska, while 857 people lived in the Oklahoma Iowa Tribe, amounting to a total of 2,934 people. According to the 2000 census, 1,451 people identified as full-blood Iowa, 76 were of mixed-Indian descent, 688 of mixed-race descent, 43 of mixed-race and tribe descent, amounting to 2,258 people.
The Iowa have had customs similar to those of the other Siouan-speaking tribes of the Great Plains, such as the Omaha and Osage. They were a semi-nomadic people who had adopted horses for hunting, but they had an agricultural lifestyle similar to the tribes inhabiting the Eastern woodlands, they planted maize and manufactured alum pipes, which they traded along with furs with the French colonizers. Their houses included bark lodges, at times, earth lodges—oven-shaped buildings covered with earth for protection from extremes of temperature and oriented to a cardinal direction. A smoke hole enabled ventilation from a central hearth. During the hunting season or in warfare, they used the portable tipi. Like the Osage or Kansa, Iowa men traditionally shaved their heads and decorated them with deer hide. Like Great Plains tribes, they valued three feats during a battle. In prehistoric times, the Iowa emigrated from the Great Lakes region to present-day Iowa. In the 16th century, they moved from the Mississippi River to the Great Plains, then separated from the Ho-Chunk tribe.
From the 15th to 18th centuries, they lived in the Red Pipestone Quarry region. In the early 19th century, the Iowa had reached the banks of the Platte River, where in 1804 Lewis and Clark visited their settlements. There they engaged in trading with the French and local tribes, thanks to their advantageous situation regarding the alum deposits. Between 1820 and 1840, the Iowa ceded their Minnesota and Missouri lands to the U. S. government. By 1837 most were relocated to a reservation along the Kansas-Nebraska border, led by their chief Chief Mahaska, they surrendered the Little Platte territory in Missouri in 1836. Other Missouri lands had been ceded in 1824. In 1837 they settled in a strip of land in Kansas, south of the Big Nemaha River, along with the Sauk and the Fox, tribes with which they had long had friendly relations, though speaking unrelated Algonquian languages); some 45 Iowa fought in the American Civil War in the Union Army, among them Chief James White Cloud, grandson of Mahaska In 1883 a number of Iowa moved to Indian Territory preferring to live in the older community village way of life.
The new reservation was located in Lincoln and Logan counties in the Indian Territory. However, despite their efforts to block allotment, their lands were divided anyway. Today the Iowa Reservation in Nebraska and Kansas is 2,100 acres in size, has more than 150 residents. In 2013 Tim Rhodd was chosen as chairman of the Iowa Tribe of Nebraska. Bobby Walkup is the current tribal chairperson of the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma; the Ioway Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska operates the Casino White Cloud at White Cloud, Kansas on the Ioway Reservation. The Ioway Tribe of Oklahoma operates the Cimarron Casino in Perkins and the Ioway Casino in Chandler, Oklahoma. Big Neck Marie Aioe Dorion Chief Mahaska Native American tribes in Nebraska Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, official website Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, official website Ioway Cultural Institute Download recording of a courtship song from the Library of Congress' Omaha Indian Music Collection.
The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived in the region of what is now Green Bay, when first encountered by the French in 1667. Their autonym is oθaakiiwaki, their exonym is Ozaagii in Ojibwe; the latter name was transliterated into English by colonists of those cultures. Today they have three federally recognized tribes, together with the Meskwaki, located in Iowa and Kansas; the Sauk, an Algonquian languages people, are believed to have developed as a people along the St. Lawrence River, they were driven by pressure from other tribes the powerful Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee. It is believed by some historians that they migrated to what is now eastern Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay; this leads to the theory that, due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, they called themselves the autonym of Oθaakiiwaki Some native Ojibwe oral histories place the Sauk in the Saginaw Valley some time before the arrival of Europeans.
However, this location near Lake Huron for the Sauk at that time may be in error. In the early 17th century, when natives told French explorer Samuel de Champlain that the Sauk nation was located on the west shore of Lake Michigan, Champlain mistakenly placed them on the western shore of Lake Huron; this mistake was copied on subsequent maps, future references identified this as the place of the Sauks. Champlain himself never visited. There is little archaeological evidence; the neighboring Anishanabeg Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples referred to them by the exonym Ozaagii, meaning "those at the outlet". French colonists transliterated that as Sac and the English as "Sauk". Anishinaabe expansion and the Huron attempt to gain regional stability drove the Sac out of their territory; the Huron were armed with guns supplied by their French trading partners. The Sac moved south to territory in parts of what are now Wisconsin. A allied tribe, the Meskwaki, were noted for resisting French encroachment, having fought two wars against them in the early 18th century.
After a devastating battle of September 9, 1730, in Illinois, in which hundreds of warriors were killed and many women and children taken captive by French allies, Fox refugees took shelter with the Sac, making them subject to French attack. The Sac continued moving west to Kansas. Two important leaders arose among the Sac: Black Hawk. At first Keokuk accepted the loss of land as inevitable in the face of the vast numbers of white soldiers and settlers coming west, he tried to preserve tribal land and his people, to keep the peace. Having failed to receive expected supplies from the Americans on credit, Black Hawk wanted to fight, saying his people were "forced into war by being deceived". Led by Black Hawk in 1832, the Sac band resisted the continued loss of lands Their warfare with United States forces resulted in defeat at the hands of General Edmund P. Gaines in the Black Hawk War. About this time, one group of Sac moved into Missouri, to Kansas and Nebraska. In 1869 the larger group of Sac moved into reservations in Oklahoma, where they merged with the Meskwaki as the federally recognized Sac and Fox Nation.
A smaller number returned to the Midwest from Oklahoma They joined the Mesquakie at the Mesqwaki Settlement, Iowa. The Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent and inheritance was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Bear, Potato, Beaver and Wolf; the tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, the warriors. Chiefs were recognized in three categories: civil and ceremonial. Only the civil chiefs were hereditary; the other two chiefs were recognized by bands after they demonstrated their ability or spiritual power. This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by the United States appointing leaders through their agents at the Sac and Fox Agency, or reservation in Indian Territory. In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form, they elect their chiefs. Today the federally recognized Sac and Fox tribes are: Sac and Fox Nation, headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma.
Sauk is one of the many Algonquian languages. It is closely related to the varieties spoken by the Meskwaki and the Kickapoo tribes; each of the dialects contains innovations that distinguish them from each other. Sauk and Meskwaki appear to be the most related of the three, reflecting the peoples' long relationship. Sauk is considered to be mutually intelligible, to a point, with Fox. In their own language, the Sauk at one time called themselves asakiwaki, "people of the outlet"; the Sauk people have a syllabic orthography for their language. They published a Primer Book in 1975, based on a "traditional" syllabary that existed in 1906, it is intended to help modern-day Sauk to learn to speak their ancestral tongue. A newer orthography was proposed around 1994 to aid in language revival; the former syllabary was aimed at remaining native speakers of Sauk.