The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Signed by the Netherlands and England, it provided for the return of the colony of New Netherland to England and renewed the Treaty of Breda of 1667, it provided for a mixed commission for the regulation of commerce in the East Indies. It was signed on 19 February 1674 by Charles II of England and ratified by the States General of the Netherlands on 5 March 1674. England was forced to sign the treaty as Parliament would not allow more money to be spent on the war and had become aware of the secret Treaty of Dover in which Charles had promised Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism at an opportune moment; the English were dismayed by the unexpected fact that Dutch raiders managed to capture more English ships than vice versa and that New Amsterdam had been retaken by the Dutch in 1673. In 1672, England and France had jointly attacked the Dutch Republic. France had occupied a large part of the Republic but the Anglo-French fleet had been damaged by Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter.
During 1673, sustained efforts by the Royal Navy to defeat the Dutch fleet and land an army on the Dutch coast had failed. Repairs of the English warships proved to be costly. English mercantile shipping suffered through frequent attacks by Dutch privateers. Meanwhile, the English ally in the war, was forced to withdraw its troops from most of the territory of the United Provinces. France threatened to conquer the Spanish Netherlands; the war, a more or less private project of Charles and never popular among the English people, now to most seemed to have become a hopeless undertaking. The English nation had been convinced by Dutch propaganda that the war was part of a plot to make their country Roman Catholic again; the commander of the Royal Navy, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a devout Protestant, had begun to lead a vociferous movement aimed at breaking the French alliance. In late October, Charles asked Parliament for a sufficient war budget for 1674; the members were critical. They denied that it was still necessary to eliminate the Dutch as commercial rivals because English trade had satisfyingly grown between 1667 and 1672.
The proposed marriage of the king's brother, the Duke of York, with the Catholic Mary of Modena was lamented. Parliament demanded securities for the defence of the Anglican Church against papism, the disbanding of the standing army, commanded by York, removal of pro-French ministers; when the situation threatened to escalate, Charles, on advice of the French envoy but against the opinion of the Privy Council, prorogued Parliament. Charles made a last effort to continue the war without a war budget, he was promised increased subsidies by Louis XIV of France. He made plans to capture the regular treasure fleet sailing from the Dutch East Indies, he removed his enemies from office, among them Chancellor Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the main opponent of York's marriage. At the same time, he tried to lessen fears by reaffirming anti-Catholic measures such as the suspension of the Royal Declaration of Indulgence and publicising many of his secret treaties with France. To his dismay, parliamentarians became more adversarial, now incited by Shaftesbury.
Some called for William III of Orange, the stadtholder of Holland and grandson of Charles I of England, to become king, should Charles die, by exclusion of the Catholic York. This came as no surprise to William, who had secret dealings with Shaftesbury and many other English politicians. William had agents working for him among them his secretary Van Rhede. Spain assisted him at the same time bribing parliamentarians; the States-General had supported the pro-Dutch peace party of Lord Arlington in a more formal manner by making a peace proposal in October and by distributing manifests and declarations in England, explaining the official Dutch position and policy. In 1672, England and France had agreed never to conclude a separate peace; when in late December general François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg withdrew the bulk of the French occupation army from Maastricht to Namur, Charles lost faith and decided to disentangle himself from the entire affair. Charles felt that continuing the alliance with France had become a grave threat to his personal position and expected that Parliament would no longer fund the war.
He informed the French ambassador Colbert de Croissy that to his regret, he had to terminate the English war effort. He told the Dutch via the Spanish consul in London, the Marquess del Fresno, his main war aim to install his noble nephew as stadtholder having been attained, he no longer objected to concluding a lasting peace between the two Protestant brother nations, if only some minor "indemnities" could be paid. At first the States of Holland were disinclined to grant Charles's demands: as England had accomplished nothing in the war, it was, in their opinion, not entitled to any reward. Many members admitted their personal satisfaction in the thought that the British might be kept suffering a bit longer, but stadtholder William III of Orange convinced them that there was some chance of bringing Charles into the war against France and that this had to take precedence over petty considerations of retribution, unworthy of their high office. Furthermore, Spain had not yet declared war on France and was willing to do so only if England made peace, because it feared English attacks on its American colonies.
On 4 January 1674, the States General of the Netherlands drafted a fi
Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft is a German shipbuilding company located in Flensburg. The company trades as Flensburger and is abbreviated FSG. Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft was founded in 1872 by a group of five local shipowners who had all their steamboats built in England as most German shipowners did in the 19th century; the first ship, the iron tall ship Doris Brodersen, was delivered to one of the founding partners in 1875. The cargo steamer Septima was commissioned a year later. Since Flensburger has delivered more than 700 units of different types of cargo steamers and motor vessels and has built sailing ships, floating dry docks, fishing vessels, passenger ships, naval ships and submarines. Flensburger was acquired by Egon Oldendorff in March 1990 and sold to the management in December 2008. Doris Brodersen, first ship built, a tall ship delivered in 1875 Septima, first steamer delivered 1876 Deutschland and Bremen, two merchant submarines delivered 1916 Civil transport: UND Adriyatik, a ro-ro ship delivered 2001 to U.
N Ro-Ro İşletmeleri A.Ş, a Turkish-based shipping company. Three Coastal class ferries for BC Ferries, British Columbia, Canada. Northern Expedition for the BC Ferries route from Port Hardy to Prince Rupert Eight ConRo220 freight ferries for Cobelfret. Six RoRo3900 freight ferries for DFDS. Eight RoRo3750 freight ferries for Ulosoy Sealines. Two ConRo220 freight ferries for Bore Ltd/Rettig Group Ltd. Four RoRo2200 freight ferries for Seatruck Ferries. MV Loch Seaforth, a ro-ro ship delivered in 2014 to Caledonian MacBrayne, a Scottish ferry company. MV W. B. Yeats, a ro-ro ship delivered in 2018 to Irish Ferries MV Honfleur, a ro-ro ship under construction for Brittany FerriesNaval ships: Three Oste class electronic surveillance ships for the German Navy. Two Elbe class replenishment ships for the German Navy. Two Berlin class replenishment ships for the German Navy. Four of six Point class ro-ro strategic transports for the UK Ministry of Defence. A gallery of vessels built by Flensburger. Homepage of Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft Documents and clippings about Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
The Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal Album is an award presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony, established in 1958 and called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for quality works in the vocal jazz music genre. Awards in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position"; until 2001 this award was titled the Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal Performance. From 1981 to 1991 this category was presented as separate awards for Best Jazz Vocal Performance and Best Jazz Vocal Performance, Male. Years reflect the year in which the Grammy Awards were presented, for works released in the previous year. 1977: Ella Fitzgerald and Pass... Again 1978: Al Jarreau, Look to the Rainbow 1979: Al Jarreau, All Fly Home 1980: Ella Fitzgerald and Mellow 1985: Joe Williams, Nothin' but the Blues Official site of the Grammy Awards
South Korea is a major energy importer, importing nearly all of its oil needs and the second-largest importer of liquefied natural gas in the world. Electricity generation in the country comes from conventional thermal power, which accounts for more than two thirds of production, from nuclear power. Energy producers were dominated by government enterprises, although operated coal mines and oil refineries existed; the National Assembly enacted a broad electricity sector restructuring program in 2000, but the restructuring process was halted amid political controversy in 2004 and remains a topic of intense political debate. South Korea has no proven oil reserves. Exploration until the 1980s in the Yellow Sea and on the continental shelf between Korea and Japan did not find any offshore oil. Coal supply in the country is insufficient and of low quality; the potential for hydroelectric power is limited because of high seasonal variations in the weather and the concentration of most of the rainfall in the summer.
As of 2017, South Korean President Moon Jae-in has vowed to end the country’s reliance on coal and said the nation would move away from nuclear energy. He has taken a major step in that direction in June, saying his country would not try to extend the life of its nuclear plants, would close existing coal-fired plants, would not build any new coal plants. Final energy consumption by source: Coal: 27.6 Mtoe Petroleum: 100.5 Mtoe LNG: 21.9 Mtoe Electricity: 37.3 Mtoe Heat: 1.7 Mtoe Renewable: 5.8 Mtoe The Korea Electric Power Corporation provided electricity in the country. When KEPCO's predecessor, KECO, was founded in 1961, annual power production was 1,770 GWh. Production reached 73,992 GWh in 1987. In that year, residential customers used 17.9% of total production and service businesses used 16.2%, the industrial sector used 65.9%. Sources of power generation were nuclear power, coal and liquefied natural gas. Of the 54,885 GWh of electricity generated in 1985, 22% came from nuclear plants in operation, 74% from non-nuclear thermal plants, 4% from hydroelectric sites.
It was predicted in 1988 that the generation structure by the year 2000 would be 10.2% hydroelectric, 12.2% oil, 22.9% coal, 10.2% LNG, 44.5% nuclear. KEPCO controls 5 regional gencos who sell via KPX to the grid: Korea East-West Power Korea Midland Power Korea South-Eastern Power Korea Southern Power Korea Western Power KOGAS acts as importer of LNG for the power generators. Korea District Heating Corporation supplies CHP to the Seoul area and Daegu. GS Power and SH Corp are local providers. KDHC is the world's largest district heating company. South Korea placed a heavy emphasis on nuclear power generation; the country's first nuclear power plant, the Kori Number One located near Pusan, which opened in 1977. Eight plants operated in 1987 when atomic power generation was an estimated 71,158 million kilowatts, or 53.1% of total electric power. The government decision in July 2008 to increase investment in renewable energy to reduce reliance on foreign oil imports may provide an incentive for conglomerates' solar plans.
The Ministry of Knowledge and Economy said the country intends to spend 194.4 billion won on technologies and projects, including solar and biofuels, in 2008. South Korea is fast-growing gigawatt-market for photovoltaics. In 2014, the country ranked among the world-leading top-ten installers of PV systems. Hydro comes under Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Ltd. In December 2017, Hyundai Electric announced a plan to build a 150MW grid storage battery near Ulsan for Korea Zinc. According to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC South Korea is among the top ten, namely ninth, highest country in carbon dioxide emissions in the period 1950-2005; the United States and Russia are the countries with the highest carbon dioxide emissions from 1950-2005. Economy of South Korea Environment of South Korea One Less Nuclear Power Plant Wind power in South Korea Solar power in South Korea Renewable energy by country
Shabana Azmi is an Indian actress of film and theatre. The daughter of poet Kaifi Azmi and stage actress Shaukat Azmi, she is an alumna of Film and Television Institute of India of Pune. Azmi made her film debut in 1974 and soon became one of the leading actresses of Parallel Cinema, a new-wave movement known for its serious content and neo-realism and received government patronage during the times. Regarded as one of the finest actresses in India, Azmi's performances in films in a variety of genres have earned her praise and awards, which include a record of five wins of the National Film Award for Best Actress and several international honours, she has received five Filmfare Awards, was honoured among "women in cinema" at the 30th International Film Festival of India. In 1988, the Government of India awarded her with Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian honour of the country. Azmi has appeared in over 120 Hindi and Bengali films in both mainstream and independent cinema, since 1988, she has acted in several foreign projects.
Several of her films have been cited as a form of progressivism which portrays Indian society, its customs and traditions. In addition to acting, Azmi is women's rights activist, she is married to screenwriter Javed Akhtar. She is a Goodwill Ambassador of the United Nations Population Fund. In appreciation of Azmi's life and works, the President of India gave her a nominated membership of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of parliament. Shabana Azmi was born in Hyderabad, India, her parents are Kaifi Azmi and Shaukat Azmi, both of whom were members of the Communist Party of India. Her brother, Baba Azmi, is a cinematographer, her sister-in-law, Tanvi Azmi, is an actress. Shabana was named at the age of eleven by Ali Sardar Jafri, her parents used to call her Munni. Baba Azmi was named by Prof. Masood Siddiqui as Ahmer Azmi, her parents had an active social life, their home was always thriving with people and activities of the communist party. It was not unusual for her to wake up in the morning and find members of the communist party sleeping about, from a previous night's communist social that ran late.
Early in childhood, the environment in her home inculcated into her a respect for family ties and human values. Azmi attended Mumbai, she completed a graduate degree in Psychology from St. Xavier's College and followed it with a course in acting at the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, she explained the reason she decided to attend the film institute, saying: "I had the privilege of watching Jaya Bhaduri in a film, I was enchanted by her performance because it was unlike the other performances I had seen. I marvelled at that and said,'My god, if by going to the Film Institute I can achieve that, that's what I want to do.'" Azmi topped the list of successful candidates of 1972. Azmi graduated from the FTII in 1973 and signed on to Khwaja Ahmad Abbas' Faasla and began work on Kanti Lal Rathod's Parinay as well, her first release, was Shyam Benegal's directorial debut Ankur. Belonging to the arthouse genre of neo-realistic films, Ankur is based on a true story which occurred in Hyderabad.
Azmi played Lakshmi, a married servant and villager who drifts into an affair with a college student who visits the countryside. Azmi was not the original choice for the film, several leading actresses of that time refused to do it; the film went on to become a major critical success, Azmi won the National Film Award for Best Actress for her performances. Famous independent filmmaker Satyajit Ray commented "In Ankur she may not have fitted into her rustic surroundings, but her poise and personality are never in doubt. In two high pitched scenes, she pulls out the stops to establish herself as one of our finest dramatic actresses", she went on to receive the National Film Award consecutively for three years from 1983 to 1985 for her roles in Arth and Paar. Godmother earned her another National Film Award. Azmi's acting has been characterised by a real-life depiction of the roles played by her. In Mandi, she acted as a madam of a whorehouse. For this role, she put on weight and chewed betel. Real life portrayals continued in all her movies.
These included the role of a woman named Jamini resigned to her destiny in Khandhar and a typical urban Indian wife and mother in Masoom. She acted in experimental and parallel Indian cinema. Deepa Mehta's 1996 film Fire depicts her as Radha, in love with her sister-in-law; the on-screen depiction of lesbianism drew severe protests and threats from many social groups as well as by the Indian authorities. Her role as Radha brought her international recognition with the Silver Hugo Award for Best Actress at the 32nd Chicago Film Festival and Jury Award for Best Actress at Outfest, Los Angeles, she was the initial choice for Deepa Mehta's Water, planned to hit the floors in 2000. A few scenes were shot. Azmi had to shave her head with Nandita Das to portray the character of Shakuntala. However, due to political reasons, the film was shelved and shot in 2005 with Seema Biswas replacing Azmi; some of her notable films are Shyam Benegal's Nishant, Junoon and Antarnaad.
KTMU is an American non-commercial educational radio station licensed to serve the community of Muenster, Texas. The station's broadcast license is held by Randall Christy's South Central Oklahoma Christian Broadcasting Inc. KTMU broadcasts a Southern Gospel music format as an affiliate of the Gospel Station Network. In October 2007, 1 A Chord, Inc. applied to the Federal Communications Commission for a construction permit for a new broadcast radio station to serve Muenster, Texas. The FCC granted this permit on December 12, 2008, with a scheduled expiration date of December 12, 2011; the new station was assigned call sign "KTMU" on February 6, 2009. After construction and testing were completed, the station was granted its broadcast license on January 6, 2012. In February 2012, license holder 1 A Chord, Inc. applied to the FCC to transfer the KTMU license to Randall Christy's South Central Oklahoma Christian Broadcasting, Inc. in exchange for $1,000. The Commission approved the transfer on April 25, 2012, the sale was consummated on December 1, 2012.
The Gospel Station official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KTMU Radio-Locator information on KTMU Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KTMU