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Treaty ports

Treaty ports were the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade by the "unequal treaties" with the Western powers, as well as cities in Korea opened up in similar fashion by the Japanese Empire. The British established their first treaty ports in China at the conclusion of the First Opium War by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842; as well as ceding the island of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, the treaty established five treaty ports at Shanghai, Ningpo and Amoy. The following year the Chinese and British signed the Treaty of the Bogue, which added provisions for extraterritoriality and most favoured nation status for the latter country. Subsequent negotiations with the Americans and the French led to further concessions for these nations on the same terms as the British; the second group of treaty ports was set up following the end of the Arrow War in 1860 and more than 80 treaty ports were established in China alone, involving many foreign powers. Foreigners all lived in prestige sections newly built for them on the edges of existing port cities.

They enjoyed legal extraterritoriality. Foreign clubs and churches were established in major treaty ports; some of these port areas were directly leased by foreign powers such as in the concessions in China removing them from the control of local governments. Western images of the Chinese treaty ports focus on the distinctive geography of the “bund,” a long narrow strip of land in a prime location on the waterfront where the businesses, offices and residences of all foreigners were located; the Shanghai bund was most famous. The North Riverbank in Ningbo, was the first in China, opening in 1844, 20 years before the Shanghai bund. A typical bund contained British, French, American and other nationals. A modest pay scale would allow them to have numerous Chinese servants; the bund was a self-governing operation with its own shops, recreational facilities, churches. Courts and local government; the facilities were off-limits to the natives The British, who by far dominated foreign trade with China were by far the largest presence.

Businessmen and officials brought their own families with them and stayed for years but sent their older children back to England for education. Chinese sovereignty was only nominal; the foreign powers were not allowed to station military units in the bond, but in practice, there was a warship or two in the harbor. The treaty port system in China lasted one hundred years, it ended with the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. The major powers involved were the British, the French, the Americans, although by the end of the 19th century all the major powers were involved, including Latin American countries and the Congo Free State, it is not possible to put an exact date on the end of the treaty port era. The Russians relinquished their treaty rights in the wake of the Russian revolution in 1917, the Germans were forced to concede their treaty rights following their defeat in World War I. Norway voluntarily relinquished its treaty rights in a capitulation treaty of 1931; the three main treaty powers, the British, the Americans, the French, continued to hold their concessions and extraterritorial jurisdictions until the Second World War.

This ended when the Japanese stormed into their concessions in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor at the end of 1941. They formally relinquished their treaty rights in a new "equal treaties" agreement with Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government in exile in Chungking in 1943. Meanwhile, the pro-Japanese puppet government in Nanking signed a capitulation treaty with the Vichy French government in 1943; this was not recognized by Free French leader Charles de Gaulle. In 1946, in order to induce the Chinese to vacate the northern half of French Indochina, de Gaulle signed a capitulation treaty with Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government. Whatever residues of the treaty port era were left in the late 1940s were ended when the communists took over China in 1949. For encyclopedic detain on each one, see. Robert Nield's China’s Foreign Places: The Foreign Presence in China in the Treaty Port Era, 1840-1943. In these territories the foreign powers obtained, under a lease treaty, not only the right to trade and exemptions for their subjects, but a colonial control over each concession territory, de facto annexation: Japan opened two ports to foreign trade and Hakodate, in 1854, to the United States.

In 1858, with the Treaty of Amity and Commerce designated four more ports, Hyogo and Niigata. The treaty with the United States was followed by similar ones with Britain, the Netherlands and France; the ports permitted legal extraterritoriality for citizens of the treaty nations. The system of treaty ports ended in Japan in the years 1899 as a consequence of Japan's rapid transition to a modern nation. Japan had sought treaty revision earnestly, in 1894, signed a new treaty with Britain which revised or abrogated the previous "unequal" treaty. Other countries signed similar treaties; the new treaties came into force in July 1899. Following the Ganghwa Treaty of 1876, the Korean kingdom of Joseon agreed to the opening of three strategic ports and the extension of legal extraterritoriality to merchants from Meiji Japan; the first port opened in this manner was Busan, while Incheon and Wonsan followed shortly thereafter. These cities became important centers of merca

Morgan County, West Virginia

Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,541, its county seat is Berkeley Springs. The county was formed in 1820 from parts of Hampshire and Berkeley Counties and named in honor of General Daniel Morgan, prominent soldier of the American Revolutionary War. Morgan County is the home of an important mine producing special sand for the glass industry. Morgan County was created by an act of the Virginia General Assembly in February 1820 from parts of Berkeley and Hampshire counties, it was named in honor of General Daniel Morgan. He was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, moved to Winchester, Virginia as a youth, he served as a wagoner in Braddock's Army during the campaign against the Native Americans in 1755. During the campaign, a British Lieutenant became angry with him and hit him with the flat of his sword. Morgan punched the Lieutenant. Morgan was sentenced to 500 lashes. Morgan joked that the drummer who counted out the lashes miscounted and he received only 499 lashes.

For the rest of his life he claimed. The first English settlers in present-day Morgan County arrived during the 1730s; because most of these early pioneers were squatters, there is no record of their names. Historians claim that the first cabin in the county was built around 1745; as word of the county's warm springs spread eastward, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron decided that the county needed to be surveyed. In 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the survey party the surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Lord Fairfax, he returned to Bath several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill and hoped that the warm springs might improve his health. The springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area; as mentioned George Washington visited present-day Berkeley Springs several times with his half-brother, Lawrence. When he vacationed in the area in 1767, he noted. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.

As the town continued to grow, the Virginia General Assembly decided to formally recognize it. In October 1776, the town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city called Bath; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Seven acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." When West Virginia gained statehood, that area became West Virginia's first state park. Bath's population increased during and after the American Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities. Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. Bath became known as Berkeley Springs because the town's post office took that name to avoid confusion with another post office, located in southeastern Virginia, called Bath; because the mail was sent to and from Berkeley Springs, that name took precedence. Morgan County was one of fifty Virginia counties that were admitted to the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863.

That year, the counties were divided into civil townships, with the intention of encouraging local government. This proved impractical in the rural state, in 1872 the townships were converted into magisterial districts. Morgan County was divided into six districts: Allen, Cacapon, Rock Gap, Sleepy Creek, Timber Ridge. Except for minor adjustments, the historic magisterial districts remained unchanged until the 1980s, when they were consolidated into three new districts: District 1, District 2, District 3. A District 4 was subsequently discontinued. On April 10, 1919, racial violence broke out when the Morgan County race riot was sparked by big business using African-American strikebreakers against local striking white workers. On the same day of the riots one Hugh Ferguson, a Martinsburg African-American, was accused of criminally assaulting Mrs. Ernest Zimmerman at her home near Brosius, Morgan County. An angry mob of several hundred men formed around the jail hoping to lynch Ferguson. Sheriff C. R. Hovermale was forced to flee town with Ferguson.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 230 square miles, of which 229 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 522 West Virginia Route 9 Washington County, Maryland Berkeley County Frederick County, Virginia Hampshire County Allegany County, Maryland Potomac River Cacapon River Cherry Run Sir Johns Run Sleepy Creek Meadow Branch Warm Spring Run As of the census of 2000, there were 14,943 people, 6,145 households, 4,344 families living in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 8,076 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.30% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.83 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 6,145 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with

The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter

The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter is the third album by the Scottish psychedelic folk group, The Incredible String Band, was released in March 1968 on Elektra Records. The name was used by the late-1980s London-based psychedelic garage rock band Hangman's Beautiful Daughters, it saw the band continuing its development of the elements of psychedelic folk and enlarging on past themes, a process they had begun on their previous album, The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion. Instrumentally, it was the ISB's most complex and experimental album to date, featuring a wide array of exotic instruments. In addition, the album captured the band overdubbing. Upon release, the album peaked at number five on the UK Albums Chart and number 161 on the Billboard Top LP's listings in America, becoming the group's highest charting album in both countries; the album brought critical and financial success for the band, including their first solo tour and a Grammy nomination. It was considered their most ambitious work to date, having an impactful influence on the psychedelic folk genre.

In December 1967, the band completed their Hangman's Beautiful Daughter album at Sound Techniques in Chelsea, London. For the ISB's developments, they attempted to recreate as vividly as possible a live performance of their compositions. Lyrically, the compositions reflected upon past themes of life and religious properties in a free musical structure, esotericism becoming a consistent anchor in their recordings; the album features a series of vividly dreamlike Robin Williamson songs, such as "The Minotaur's Song", a surreal music-hall parody sung from the point of view of the mythical beast. Its centrepiece is Mike Heron's "A Very Cellular Song", a 13-minute reflection on life and amoebas, whose complex structure incorporates a Bahamian spiritual; the last part of "A Very Cellular Song", "May the Long Time Sun Shine", is sometimes wrongly referred to as a Sikh hymn or an Irish blessing, but is in fact an original song written by Mike Heron. The album's layered production style employs multitrack recording techniques and a wide array of instruments from across the world, including sitar, shenai, harpsichord and kazoo.

The album's cover art – which on original LP issues was the back cover, as the front showed just Williamson and Heron – consists of a photograph taken on Christmas Day 1967. It shows both musicians, their girlfriends Licorice McKechnie and Rose Simpson, friends Roger Marshall and Nicky Walton, several children of their friend Mary Stewart, Robin's dog Leaf. Regarding the title, Mike Heron said at the time: "The hangman is death and the beautiful daughter is what comes after. Or you might say that the hangman is the past twenty years of our life and the beautiful daughter is now, what we are able to do after all these years. Or you can make up your own meaning – your interpretation is just as good as ours." Owing to the band gaining much airplay from famous DJ John Peel, The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter was a major commercial success in the UK, staying in the charts for 21 weeks with a peak of number 5. In the US, the ISB always remained underground and the album struggled to number 161 during a two-month chart run.

It was nominated for a Grammy in the folk music category. The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter has been acclaimed by many critics, it was voted number 406 in the third edition of Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums. It appears at number 88 in Joe S. Harrington's Top 100 Albums and was listed by Keenan in The Best Albums Ever... Honest. In its entry in Robert Dimery's book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die, Max Reinhardt describes the album as "a potent seed of the current'world music' movement", adding: " revealed a sustained grandeur of vision and musicality that the group were never to approach again … Each track is closer to a suite than a song, as Celtic folk, rock'n' roll, plainsong harmonies, near qwaali moments, North African and Indian sonics all drift effortlessly before the ears." In the February 2016 edition of UNCUT magazine it was placed 98th in the top 100 Albums of All Time. The artwork has been referenced on the cover to David Keenan's book England's Hidden Reverse, Current 93's album cover to their LP Earth Covers Earth, Devendra Banhart's Cripple Crow LP, Feathers' eponymous debut.

Robert Plant credited The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter with influencing the direction of Led Zeppelin's first album."A Very Cellular Song" was adopted as a closing prayer by Harbhajan Singh Khalsa’s kundalini yoga students during the 1960s. The amoeba section of "A Very Cellular Song" was covered by actor Nigel Planer, in character as "Neil the Hippy" from the UK television show The Young Ones, on his 1984 LP Neil's Heavy Concept Album. All tracks are written by Robin Williamson, except tracks 5 and 9 by Mike Heron. Robin Williamson – vocals, gimbri, penny whistle, pan pipe, oud, jaw harp, water harp, harmonica Mike Heron – vocals, Hammond organ, hammered dulcimer, harpsichord Dolly Collinsflute organ, piano David Snellharp Licorice McKechnie – vocals, finger cymbals Richard Thompson – vocals on "The Minotaur's Song" Judy Dyble – vocals on "The Minotaur's Song"

Rakhiot Peak

Rakhiot Peak is a peak in the Himalayas range of the Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. It is one of the many subsidiary summits of the Nanga Parbat massif, it lies just south of the Indus River in the Diamer District. Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram range. From the article: Nanga Parbat The core of Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending southwest-northeast; the southwestern portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Ridge, has a number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction from the summit, the main ridge starts as the East Ridge before turning more northeast at Rakhiot Peak, about 4 km northeast of the Nanga Parbat summit; the Silver Saddle is about halfway in-between Rakhiot Nanga Parbat summit. The south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the Rupal Face referred to as the highest mountain face in the world: it rises an incredible 4,600 m above its base; the north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is more complex. It is split into the Rakhiot face by a long ridge.

There are a number of subsidiary summits, including the North Peak some 3 km north of the main summit. Nanga Parbat Eight-thousander List of highest mountains on Earth Nanga Parbat on Peakware Nanga Parbat on BBC Story on Rescue of Tomaz Humar A mountain list ranked by local relief and steepness showing Nanga Parbat as the World #1 Northern Pakistan detailed placemarks in Google Earth

Ojai Playwrights Conference

The Ojai Playwrights Conference is a theatre festival held annually each August in Ojai, California hosted on the campus of Besant Hill School. The mission of the conference is to offer play development resources to dramatists with the aim of supporting the creation of new work for the American theatre. Over ten days writers participate in a development workshop tailored to fit the needs of their project; each writer is provided with a director and full cast of actors. The conference culminates in a public festival in which the works in progress are presented as readings and audiences are invited to join discussions about each play; the readings occur at the Zalk Theater on the campus of Ojai's Besant Hill School. Founded in 1998 by members of the Los Angeles based Echo Theater Company and the Ojai based Theater 150 the conference went on to achieve its own not-for-profit status and is now run by its board of directors and a small professional staff headed by Artistic Director Robert Egan; the Ojai Playwrights Conference is not a producing organization.

Many of the plays developed at the Ojai Playwrights Conference have gone on to productions on stages in Los Angeles, Seattle and New York. Some of these venues include The Mark Taper Forum, The Public Theater, Playwrights Horizons, The Long Wharf Theatre, A Contemporary Theater, American Repertory Theatre and Victory Gardens Theater. Ojai participants have included Tony Award– and Pulitzer Prize–winning writers as well as first time emerging voices. Ojai Playwrights Conference City of Ojai Ojai Festivals Theater 150 Besant Hill School

Mac King

Mac King is an American magician who has performed on television specials as a co-host. He has his own family-friendly show, "The Mac King Comedy Magic Show", at the Harrah's Las Vegas in the Clint Holmes Theater. After performances, King greets show attendees as they exit, signing autographs on pictures or books, his typical autograph reads: "I'm Mac King." After college graduation King began touring the comedy clubs with his one-man comedy magic act. Over the next nineteen years his career took off, to such an extent that for years he did over 200 shows a year. In the nineties he began to do television specials, to appear at Las Vegas casinos. In January 2000, King became a permanent act at Harrah's, his act has been so well received. In addition to the TV specials and Harrah's performances, King performs at more than 60 private corporate events each year; some of his better-known effects involve goldfish, Fig Newtons, a yellow raincoat he claims is a magic cloak of invisibility. One of King's most memorable moments occurred.

King has said that one of his biggest pet peeves is that some magicians use dull scissors, he makes it a point to keep his scissors razor sharp. While performing the routine, he accidentally severed the tip of his thumb, he tried to stop the bleeding by wrapping his thumb in tape, but the injury was too severe. He asked the audience if there was a nurse present, a nurse stepped forward, she managed to stop the bleeding. King continued with his show and finished his second show that evening before going to the hospital to have his injury treated. On the NBC The World's Greatest Magic specials, King taught the audience a minor effect before and after each commercial in segments referred to as the Mac King School of Magic, he is the only magician to be in all five of the network's specials. An Evening at the Improv Comic Strip Live The World's Greatest Magic The World's Greatest Magic II The World's Greatest Magic III The World's Greatest Magic IV The World's Greatest Magic V Houdini: Unlocking His Secrets The World's Wildest Magic Penn and Teller's Sin City Spectacular Donny and Marie The Other Half Penn & Teller: Fool UsKing's home was featured on HGTV.

King was born December 1959 in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He became interested in magic as a kid. King was a graduate from the J. Graham Brown School in Louisville, Kentucky in 1977. King attended Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota, on a National Merit Scholarship, he graduated with Highest Honors in 1981 with a double major. King performed, over the summers he had off during college, they did every day, at a western-themed park in Cumberland Falls, Kentucky. King married Jennifer Sils in 1985, having met her when she was chosen from the audience by King to help with a trick, they have one child named Eli King, born in Nevada. He is friends with Penn & Teller, who wrote the preface to King's book Tricks With Your Head. King has co-authored 3 books. Tricks With Your Head, a humorously-written series of tricks requiring few, if any props, co-authored with Mark Levy. Campfire Magic subtitled "Over 50 Amazing and Easy-to-Learn Tricks and Mind-Blowing Stunts" co-authored with Bill King. Great Big Ol' Book-o-Magic.

King collaborated with cartoonist Jeff Knurek to create and market the "Magic in a Minute" line of children's promotions, magic tricks, videos and events. King's official Page Las Vegas Online: Review of his show Press Kit and Bio Information