Arboriculture is the cultivation and study of individual trees, shrubs and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment; the practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, training, fertilization and pathogen control, pruning and removal. The cultivation of trees and shrubs for ornamental purpose is called as ARBORICULTURE A person who practices or studies arboriculture can be termed an'arborist' or an'arboriculturist'. A'tree surgeon' is more someone, trained in the physical maintenance and manipulation of trees and therefore more a part of the arboriculture process rather than an arborist. Risk management, legal issues, aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture. Businesses need to hire arboriculturists to complete "tree hazard surveys" and manage the trees on-site to fulfill occupational safety and health obligations.
Arboriculture is focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment and benefit of people. Harris, Richard W.. Arboriculture: Care of Trees and Vines in the Landscape. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632: Prentice-Hall, Inc. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-13-043935-5. "arboriculture". Merriam-Webster's Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster. "arboriculture". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. "arboriculture". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Online. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
Social forestry in India
Social forestry means the management and protection of forest and afforestation of barren and deforested lands with the purpose of helping environmental and rural development. The term, social forestry, was first used in 1976 by The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India, it was that India embarked upon the social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off existing forests by planting trees on all unused and fallow land. Social forestry is for the people by the people and of the people approach, it is therefore a democratic approach of forest usage. The Indian government is trying to increase forest areas that are close to human settlement and have been degraded over the years due to human activities needed to be afforested. Trees were to be planted around agricultural fields. Plantation of trees along railway lines and roadsides, river and canal banks were carried out, they were planted in village common land, government wasteland, Panchayat land. Social forestry scheme was initiated in India to increase fuel availability in rural areas and to prevent soil erosion.
This programme was a failure because of the lack of governance. It is important to know that social forestry includes maximum utilization of land for several purposes. Social forestry aims at raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for timber, fuel wood, etc. thereby reducing pressure on traditional forest areas. This concept of village forests to meet the needs of the rural people is not new, it has existed through the centuries all over the country, but it is now being given a new character. With the introduction of this scheme, the government formally recognised the local communities’ rights to forest resources, is now encouraging rural participation in the management of natural resources. Through the social forestry scheme, the government has involved community participation, as part of a drive towards afforestation, rehabilitating the degraded forest and common lands; this need for a social forestry scheme was felt as India has a dominant rural population that still depends on fuel wood and other biomass for their cooking and heating.
This demand for fuel wood will not come down but the area under forest will reduce further due to the growing population and increasing human activities. Yet the government managed the projects for five years gave them over to the village panchayats to manage for themselves and generate products or revenue as they saw fit. Bihar is one of the poorest states of India and the work under MNREGA is not available during the flood times which covers a major portion of the year in many areas of Bihar. Apart from this the physical work, available under MNREGA is strenuous and is not fit for the differently abled and the old; the forest area of Bihar was dismally low at 7 in 2011. All these problems were innovatively taken up by secretary of rural development of Bihar SM Raju who linked social forestry scheme to MNREGA thus paving the way for poverty reduction and reducing climate change, under the new scheme the people taking care of plants were to get the ownership of them after 5 years,it was done to ensure complete care for plants.
The project is a huge success within 3 years the forest area went up to 12.86% and this in addition to providing employment to thousands of handicapped and old people. Social forestry scheme can be categorized into groups, it is a term applied to the process under which farmers grows trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes on their farm lands. At present in all the countries where social forestry programmes have been taken up, both commercial and non-commercial farm forestry is being promoted in one form or the other. Individual farmers are being encouraged to plant trees on their own farmland to meet the domestic needs of the family. In many areas, this tradition of growing trees on the farmland exists. Non-commercial farm forestry is the main thrust of most of the social forestry projects in the country today, it is not always necessary that the farmer grows trees for fuelwood, but often they are interested in growing trees without any economic motive. They may want it to provide shade for the agricultural crops.
Farm Forestry is another name for Agroforestry. Due to huge requirement of pulpwood for production virgin cellulosic fibre based paper, the pulp and paper industry has become a major demand driver for certain species of tree such as Eucalyptus, Babul Acacia catechu and was the connected Casuarina equisetifolia; as a rough estimate, the total demand for pulpwood is 10 million ADMT. Indian Paper Manufacturer's Association is an umbrella organisation of Indian Pulp and Paper Industry which coordinates and drives plantation efforts by member organisations in India, it is important to us but on the evil side, it is causing damage to the forest. A full grown up pulp tree gets cut down in 4 mins. Another scheme taken up under the social forestry programme, is the raising of trees on community land and not on private land as in farm forestry. All these programmes aim to provide for the entire community and not for any individual; the government has the responsibility of providing seedlings, fertilizer but the community has to take responsibility of protecting the trees.
Some communities manage the plantations sensibly and in a sustainable manner so that the village continues to benefit. Some others took advantage and sold the timber
Close to nature forestry
Close to nature forestry is a management approach treating forest as an ecological system performing multiple functions. Close to nature silviculture tries to achieve the management objectives with minimum necessary human intervention aimed at accelerating the processes that nature would do by itself more slowly, it works with natural populations of trees, ongoing processes and existing structures using cognitive approach, as in the case of uneven-aged forest. Its theory and practice manages it as such, it aims at overcoming the divorce between ecologist management systems of forest. As an important consequence, it concludes that if properly applied, it would render the segregation of forest lands into "productive" and "reserves" or national parks unnecessary; the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Naturgemässe Waldwirtschaft was established in Germany in 1950. In recent years this association has increased a lot its membership; the main reasons being the increase of ecological consciousness, the growing demand for forest products or services other than wood, the damages suffered by regular forest stands, the forest death fear.
Another term used to describe a close to nature approach to forest management in Britain and Ireland, is Continuous Cover Forestry. Because of a 1948 forest law, Slovenia has many forests managed according to the principles of close to nature forestry. In 1989 ANW promoted a meeting at Robanov Kot in Slovenia, in the Julian Alps, the Pro Silva organization was created, with representatives of 10 countries. At present the organization headquarters are in the French region of Alsace. In the United States, professor Thomas J. McEvoy has published the book Positive Impact Forestry, which recommends forestry practices similar to those of the "close to nature" movement, he thinks that the precursors of this type of forestry are to be found in Europe in Germany, makes mention of Heinrich Cotta, his famous Cotta's Preface, which highlighted the importance that the study and understanding of nature should have for the foresters. As a more immediate precursor he makes reference to ecologist Aldo Leopold.
The Ecoforestry Institute consists on educational, non profit and non governmental organizations operating in US and Canada. They propose a forestry based on ecological principles similar to those of Pro Silva; the close to nature approach intends to bridge the discrepancies, or antagonisms between the silvicultural and ecological visions on the single reality of forest, considering the forest as an ecological system that produces wood. The sought after solution is not to segregate the territory into areas devoted to either forestry or ecology, but to integrate all functions; the management has to obtain healthy and stable forest systems that produce wood with a minimum human intervention. The products to obtain, other than wood, are fauna habitats, recreational and water management; the human action has the object of accelerating natural processes. Pro Silva recommends to use the uneven-aged forest system, in which the ages, sizes, of trees in a forest are different, it has the advantage to offer a stable structure regarding natural disasters and plagues, is adequate for fauna habitat and biodiversity promotion.
It provides a better soil protection. McEvoy considers that in spite of being the most close to nature system, it is difficult to implement, proposes to use the high regular forest model, in which all trees are of the same age/size, but recommends using a regeneration system with a generous cover, to avoid soil erosion, prevent excessive light entrance, which would promote the growth of a potent understorey; the Ecoforestry Institute to Pro Silva, recommends multi-aged and multi-species forests. Proposed thinning frequency is about ten years, intensity low, in order to limit the ingress of excessive light, which could promote too much understory, or the growing of epicormic shoots, it has to be directed to favor the trees. The operations have to be done in a way that will avoid soil compaction or damage to the trees that will remain standing; when foresters plant trees, they may use either native or introduced species. Whenever foresters decide to use a species, not native, they do it because they think that there are silvicultural advantages linked to this choice, be they the wood quality, ease of management, adaptation to the climatic conditions, shorter production delay, etc.
It may be that there is information available about the behavior of this species in the habitat, or the forester is ready to make a trial. From the ecological point of view, the introducing species is considered as a threat; the introduced species risks being invasive. Invasives displace local species, resulting in a reduction of biodiversity, a condition to be expected if great extensions are forested using introduced species. McEvoy is clear and strict: introduced species can not be used at all when working in a close to nature forestry system. Pro Silva makes some distinctions, based on conditions. Natural forest systems are to be preserved, but the enrichment with certain introduced species may be positive, depending on circumstances. Pro Silva recommendations The natural vegetation systems for each region are an asset to maintain, constitute an important basis for the silvicultural planning. Introduced species can, depending on circumstances, supplement natural species, add economical revenue.
The forest species that are introduced to a region are termed exotic
A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. Its name comes from the Latin'defensa', referring to land, fenced, destined for pasture. Dehesas may be communal property. Used for grazing, they produce a variety of products, including non-timber forest products such as wild game, honey and firewood, they are used to raise the Spanish fighting bull and the Iberian pig. The main tree component is oaks holm and cork. Other oaks, including melojo and quejigo, may be used to form dehesa, the species depending on geographical location and elevation. Dehesa is an anthropogenic system that provides not only a variety of foods, but wildlife habitat for endangered species such as the Spanish imperial eagle. By extension, the term can be used for this style of rangeland management on estates; the dehesa is derived from the Mediterranean forest ecosystem, consisting of grassland featuring herbaceous species, used for grazing cattle and sheep, tree species belonging to the genus Quercus, such as the holm oak, although other tree species such as beech and pine trees may be present.
Oaks are protected and pruned to produce acorns, which the famous black Iberian pigs feed on in the fall during the montanera. Ham produced from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and air-dried at high elevations is known as Jamón ibérico, sells for premium prices if only acorns have been used for fattening. In a typical dehesa, oaks are managed to persist for about 250 years. If cork oaks are present, the cork is harvested about every 9 to 12 years, depending on the productivity of the site; the understory is cleared every 7 to 10 years to prevent the takeover of the woodland by shrubs of the rock rose family referred to as "jara", or by oak sprouts. Oaks are spaced to maximize overall productivity by balancing light for the grasses in the understory, water use in the soils, acorn production for pigs and game. There is debate about the origins and maintenance of the dehesa, whether or not the oaks can reproduce adequately under the grazing densities now prevailing; the dehesa system has great economic and social importance on the Iberian Peninsula because of both the large amount of land involved and its importance in maintaining rural population levels.
The major source of income for dehesa owners is cork, a sustainable product that supports this ancient production system and old growth oaks. High end black iberian pigs and sale of hunting rights represent significant income sources. Periodic hunts in the dehesa are known as the monteria. Groups attend a hunt at a private estate and wait at hunting spots for game to be driven to them with dogs, they pay well for the privilege, hunting wild boar, red deer and other species. The area of dehesa coincides with areas that could be termed "marginal" because of both their limited agricultural potential and a lack of local industry, which results in isolated agro-industries and low capitalization. Dehesa covers nearly 20,000 square kilometers on the Iberian Peninsula in: PortugalAlentejo The AlgarveSpainCórdoba Extremadura Salamanca Sierra Morena Sierra Norte de Sevilla Sierra de Aracena Cabañeros National Park List of types of formally designated forests Satoyama Silvopasture Wood pasture Fra. Paleo, Urbano..
"The dehesa/montado landscape". Pp. 149–151 in Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes, eds. Bélair, C. Ichikawa, K. Wong, B. Y. L. and Mulongoy, K. J. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Technical Series no. 52. Huntsinger, Lynn. "Oak woodland ranchers in California and Spain: Conservation and diversification". In Advances in Geoecology, ed. S. F. A. Schnabel. Joffre, R. "The dehesa system of southern Spain and Portugal as a natural ecosystem mimic," Journal of Agroforestry 45: 57-79. McGrath, Susan.. "Corkscrewed," Audubon magazine, January–February. Media related to Dehesas at Wikimedia Commons Plataforma integralDehesa - Página web de agentes del sector Proyecto Biodehesa Foro encinal Acción por la dehesa Dehesas ibéricas Observatorio de la dehesa y el montado
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-