In computer interface design, a toolbar is a graphical control element on which on-screen buttons, menus, or other input or output elements are placed. Toolbars are seen in many types of software such as office suites, graphics editors and web browsers. Toolbars are distinguished from palettes by their integration into the edges of the screen or larger windows, which results in wasted space if too many underpopulated bars are stacked atop each other or interface inefficiency if overloaded bars are placed on small windows. There several user interface elements derived from toolbars: Address bar, location bar or URL bar is a toolbar that consists of a text box, it accepts uniform resource locators or file system addresses. They are found in web browsers and file managers. Breadcrumb or breadcrumb trail allows users to keep track of their locations within programs or documents, they are toolbars. Ribbon was the original name for the toolbar, but has been re-purposed to refer to a complex user interface which consists of toolbars on tabs.
Taskbar is a toolbar provided by an operating system to launch and manipulate software. A taskbar may hold other sub-toolbars. A search box is not ipso facto a toolbar but may appear on a toolbar, as is the case with the address bar. Toolbars may appear in different software; these browser toolbars have caused controversy as unscrupulous companies use software bundling to force users downloading one program to install a browser toolbar, some of which invade the user's privacy by tracking their web history and search history online. Many antivirus companies refer to these programs as Potentially Unwanted Programs. Media related to Toolbars at Wikimedia Commons
An outliner is a specialized type of text editor used to create and edit outlines, which are text files which have a tree structure, for organization. Textual information is contained in discrete sections called "nodes", which are arranged according to their topic–subtopic relationships, sort of like the members of a family tree; when loaded into an outliner, an outline may be collapsed or expanded to display as few or as many levels as desired. Outliners are used for storing and retrieving textual information, with terms, sentences, or paragraphs attached to a tree. So rather than being arranged by document, information is arranged by content. An outline in an outliner may contain as many topics as desired; this eliminates the need to have separate documents, as outlines include other outlines just by adding to the tree. The main difference between a hand-written outline and a digital one is that the former is limited to a summary or blueprint of a planned document, while the latter may include all of the content of the entire document and many more.
In other words, as a hand-written work an outline is a writing tool, but on a computer, it is a general purpose format supported by a robust development and display medium capable of handling knowledge from its creation to its end use. Outliners may be used in content creation instead of general word processors for capturing, organizing and displaying knowledge or general textual information. Outliners are ideal for managing lists, organizing facts and ideas, for writing computer programs, they are used for goal and task management, for writing books and movie scripts. An alternative to outliners are mind mappers; the principal attribute of outline editors is that they support or enforce the use of a hierarchy of their items. Editing: Sound parent-child relationships are enforced when the user modifies the document structure. For example: Promoting, copying, or deleting a parent has the same effect on the children; every item entry must be within one level of its predecessor, such that each item must be a sibling or child of the preceding item.
Viewing: The tool enables the user to affect the display by level. For example: Applying styles by outline level. Displaying selected levels. Lifting an entire section out to work on it in isolation, ignoring everything else during that editing dropping it back into place. Search/Filter: The tool displays only items that contain the query terms plus their ancestors to give them context. File import and export: Both the content and structure of outlines are conveyed when files are imported or exported. Fields/Columns: Items can have additional fields of information; this data can be shown as fields in the second pane. Some outliners allow the user to create custom fields and/or filter on fields. There are two basic types of outliners: one-pane or intrinsic, two-pane or extrinsic, each with its strengths and weaknesses. A one-pane outliner is known as an intrinsic outliner because the text itself is organized into an outline format—individual sections of text can be collapsed or expanded, while keeping others in view.
Everything is displayed within a single area, hence the term one pane. One of the strengths of one-pane outliners is that, because the text itself is what is structured and because several nodes of text are visible at once, it is easy to edit across sections; the drawback is that, because the structure is not always visible, there is not as strong an overview of the whole or ability to navigate between sections as with a two-pane outliner. Some word processors, such as Microsoft Word, have an Outline Mode to help with structuring documents. A two-pane outliner separates structure from content—the structure is extrinsic to the text. A tree structure with node titles is presented in one pane, the text is shown in another. Since the structure is always shown at all times separately from content, this format allows for a quick overview of the structure, easy navigation; the drawback is that since only one node's worth of text is shown at one time and navigation has the additional step of crossing panes, the structure is more rigid, making editing across nodes more difficult.
This view is similar to many file browsers and email programs. This type of structure is useful as a document management tool where the second pane is a document in place of textual information. A one- and two-pane outliner may be combined as a hybrid; this allows multiple notes' text and graphics to be shown at the same time. The organizational power of outline in hybrid is in the parent outline structure, not in the second pane text, making it a effective structure for topical organization. One additional advantage of hybrid is that single pane can be used as single pane outliner with second pane used for notes or reference tracking. A third approach to intrinsic outlines is the multi-column outliner, it is similar to the one-pane outliner. However, the text sections do not collapse or expand, all sections are visible but held in a separate column; this approach allows content to be visible at the same time. Several file formats support an out
A color picker is a graphical user interface widget found within graphics software or online, used to select colors and sometimes to create color schemes. A color picker is used to adjust color values. In graphic design and image editing, users choose colors via an interface with a visual representation of a color—organized with quasi-perceptually-relevant hue and saturation dimensions – instead of keying in alphanumeric text values; because color appearance depends on comparison of neighboring colors, many interfaces attempt to clarify the relationships between colors. Color tools can vary in their interface; some may use sliders, text boxes for color values, or direct manipulation. A two dimensional square is used to create a range of color values that can be clicked on or selected in some other manner. Drag and drop, color droppers, various other forms of interfaces are used as well. Color values are displayed numerically, so they can be remembered and keyed-in such three values of 0-255 representing red and blue, respectively.
Alexis Spectral Data Color balance Color space RGB color space Feisner, Edith Anderson.
A head-up display or heads-up display known as a HUD, is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down looking at lower instruments. A HUD has the advantage that the pilot's eyes do not need to refocus to view the outside after looking at the optically nearer instruments. Although they were developed for military aviation, HUDs are now used in commercial aircraft and other applications. A typical HUD contains three primary components: a projector unit, a combiner, a video generation computer; the projection unit in a typical HUD is an optical collimator setup: a convex lens or concave mirror with a cathode ray tube, light emitting diode display, or liquid crystal display at its focus. This setup produces an image where the light is collimated, i.e. the focal point is perceived to be at infinity.
The combiner is an angled flat piece of glass located directly in front of the viewer, that redirects the projected image from projector in such a way as to see the field of view and the projected infinity image at the same time. Combiners may have special coatings that reflect the monochromatic light projected onto it from the projector unit while allowing all other wavelengths of light to pass through. In some optical layouts combiners may have a curved surface to refocus the image from the projector; the computer provides the interface between the HUD and the systems/data to be displayed and generates the imagery and symbology to be displayed by the projection unit. Other than fixed mounted HUD, there are head-mounted displays. Including helmet mounted displays, forms of HUD that features a display element that moves with the orientation of the user's head. Many modern fighters use both a HMD concurrently; the F-35 Lightning II was designed without a HUD, relying on the HMD, making it the first modern military fighter not to have a fixed HUD.
HUDs are split into four generations reflecting the technology used to generate the images. First Generation—Use a CRT to generate an image on a phosphor screen, having the disadvantage of the phosphor screen coating degrading over time; the majority of HUDs in operation today are of this type. Second Generation—Use a solid state light source, for example LED, modulated by an LCD screen to display an image; these systems do not require the high voltages of first generation systems. These systems are on commercial aircraft. Third Generation—Use optical waveguides to produce images directly in the combiner rather than use a projection system. Fourth Generation—Use a scanning laser to display images and video imagery on a clear transparent medium. Newer micro-display imaging technologies are being introduced, including liquid crystal display, liquid crystal on silicon, digital micro-mirrors, organic light-emitting diode. HUDs evolved from the reflector sight, a pre-World War II parallax-free optical sight technology for military fighter aircraft.
The gyro gunsight added a reticle that moved based on the speed and turn rate to solve the amount of lead needed to hit a target while maneuvering. During the early 1940s, the Telecommunications Research Establishment, in charge of UK radar development, found that Royal Air Force night fighter pilots were having a hard time reacting to the verbal instruction of the radar operator as they approached their targets, they experimented with the addition of a second radar display for the pilot, but found they had trouble looking up from the lit screen into the dark sky in order to find the target. In October 1942 they had combined the image from the radar tube with a projection from their standard GGS Mk. II gyro gunsight on a flat area of the windscreen, in the gunsight itself. A key upgrade was the move from the original AI Mk. IV radar to the microwave-frequency AI Mk. VIII radar found on the de Havilland Mosquito night fighter; this set produced an artificial horizon. In 1955 the US Navy's Office of Naval Research and Development did some research with a mockup HUD concept unit along with a sidestick controller in an attempt to ease the pilot's burden flying modern jet aircraft and make the instrumentation less complicated during flight.
While their research was never incorporated in any aircraft of that time, the crude HUD mockup they built had all the features of today's modern HUD units. HUD technology was next advanced by the Royal Navy in the Buccaneer, the prototype of which first flew on 30 April 1958; the aircraft was designed to fly at low altitudes at high speeds and drop bombs in engagements lasting seconds. As such, there was no time for the pilot to look up from the instruments to a bombsight; this led to the concept of a "Strike Sight" that would combine altitude and the gun/bombsight into a single gunsight-like display. There was fierce competition between supporters of the new HUD design and supporters of the old electro-mechanical gunsight, with the HUD being described as a radical foolhardy option; the Air Arm branch of the UK Ministry of Defence sponsored the development of a Strike Sight. The Royal Aircraft Establishment designed the equipment and the earliest usage of the term "head-up-display" can be traced to this time.
Production units were built by Cintel, the system was first integrated in 1958. The Cintel HUD business was taken over by Ellio
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important concept in a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, computer science, organizational theory, systems theory, the social sciences. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, either vertically or diagonally; the only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system, hierarchical can incorporate alternative hierarchies. Hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, down again; this is akin to colleagues. Organizational forms exist that are both complementary to hierarchy.
Heterarchy is one such form. Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary; these terms are easiest to understand. In an organizational context, the following terms are used related to hierarchies: Object: one entity System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing Member: an at any in a Terms about Positioning Rank: the relative value, complexity, importance, level etc. of an object Level or Tier: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance Ordering: the arrangement of the Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of members into. Multiple hierarchies are possible per, in which selected levels of the dimension are omitted to flatten the structure Terms about Placement Hierarch, the apex of the hierarchy, consisting of one single orphan in the top level of a dimension; the root of an inverted-tree structure Member, a in any level of a hierarchy in a dimension to which members are attached Orphan, a member in any level of a dimension without a parent member.
The apex of a disconnected branch. Orphans can be grafted back into the hierarchy by creating a relationship with a parent in the superior level Leaf, a member in any level of a dimension without subordinates in the hierarchy Neighbour: a member adjacent to another member in the same. Always a peer. Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level Collection: all of the objects at one level Peer: an object with the same rank Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level one higher or one lower than the other Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e. one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e. the number of subordinates an object has Terms about Nature Attribute: a heritable characteristic of in a level Attribute-value: the specific value of a heritable characteristic In a mathematical context, the general terminology used is different.
Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: branching. In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a line-up, each object has one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more. For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.
Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be furt
The terms Pop-up notification, passive pop-up, desktop notification, notification bubble, or notification all refer to a graphical control element that communicates certain events to the user without forcing them to react to this notification unlike conventional pop-up windows. Desktop notifications disappear automatically after a short amount of time, their content is stored in some widget that allows the users to access past notifications at a more convenient time. In Windows 2000, Microsoft introduced balloon help-like passive pop-up notifications, tied to the notification area of the task bar. Notifications get queued when user is away or screensaver is running, get shown when the user resumes activity, they remain on screen for nine seconds. Microsoft adopted similar notifications for its other software such as Windows Phone using the Microsoft Push Notification Service, Internet Explorer 7 and Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Security Essentials, as well as Windows 8 and Windows 10 using the Windows Notification Service.
Desktop notifications are a proposed standard for freedesktop.org but all the major desktop environments running on the X Window System support this standard, making them available on Linux and other Unix-like systems. Google adopted the concepts of notification drawer and toast popup messages for user notifications as basic components of its Android operating system; as of 10.8 Mountain Lion, OS X provides desktop notifications via Notification Center. Previous versions of OS X have no built-in desktop notification feature. IOS includes Notification Center as of iOS 5. While passive pop-ups do not require any user interaction, some implementations still provide a way for the user to optionally interact with the pop-up; this is called actions. For the Freedesktop specification, this is an optional feature that clients cannot rely on and its use is discouraged by some design guidelines. Android adds the ability to provide actions with Jelly Bean. Ubuntu's NotifyOSD notification implementation
An infobar is a graphical control element used e.g. by the Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and other programs to display non-critical information to a user. It appears as a temporary extension of an existing toolbar, may contain buttons or icons to allow the user to react to the event described in the infobar. An infobar is seen as preferable to dialog boxes because it does not interrupt the user's activities, but rather allows the user to read extra information in their own time