A5 road (Great Britain)
The A5 London Holyhead Trunk Road is a major road in England and Wales. It runs for about 275 miles from London to the Irish Sea at the ferry port of Holyhead which handles more than 2 million passengers each year. In many parts the route follows that of the Roman Iter II route which took the Anglo-Saxon name Watling Street; the section of the A5 between London and Shrewsbury is contiguous with one of the principal Roman roads in Britain: that between Londinium and Deva, which diverges from the present-day A5 corridor at Wroxeter near Shrewsbury. The Act of Union 1800, which unified Great Britain and Ireland, gave rise to a need to improve communication links between London and Dublin. A Parliamentary committee led to an Act of Parliament of 1815 that authorised the purchase of existing turnpike road interests and, where necessary, the construction of new road, to complete the route between the two capitals; this made it the first major civilian state-funded road building project in Britain since Roman times.
Responsibility for establishing the new route was awarded to Thomas Telford. Through England, the road took over existing turnpike roads and following the route of the Anglo-Saxon Wæcelinga Stræt, much of, the Roman road Iter II; however between Weedon and Oakengates, Telford's Holyhead Road eschews the Watling Street corridor, picking up instead the major cities of Coventry and Wolverhampton. From Shrewsbury and through Wales, Telford's work was more extensive. In places he followed existing roads, but he built new links, including the Menai Suspension Bridge to connect the mainland with Anglesey and the Stanley Embankment to Holy Island. Telford's road was complete with the opening of the Menai Suspension Bridge in 1826; the road was designed to allow stagecoaches and the Mail coach to carry post between London and Holyhead, thence by mailboat to Ireland. Therefore, throughout its length the gradient never exceeds 1:17; the route through Wales retains many of the original features of Telford's road and has, since 1995, been recognised as a historic route worthy of preservation.
An 18-month survey by CADW in 1998-2000 revealed that about 40% of the original road and its ancillary features survives under the modern A5, much more than thought. These features include the following: many surviving and distinctive toll houses'depots' along the route, being roadside alcoves to store grit and materials distinctive milestones at each mile - many originals having survived and been restored, others now replaced by replicas distinctive gates in a'sunburst' design, a few of which have survived a weighbridge at Lon Isaf, between Bangor and Bethesda In 1997, a section of bends on Telford's road between Tŷ Nant and Dinmael was by-passed by a modern cutting. However, investigation in 2006 revealed that the rock face in the cutting had become unstable, the A5 was closed from the end of May 2006. Traffic was diverted onto the old A5 route, on a 0.5-mile stretch known as the Glyn Bends, while the rock face was made safe. This involved the removal of 230,000 tonnes of rock and alluvial deposits.
In July 2007, the A5 through the reconstructed cutting was reopened. Starting at Marble Arch in London, the A5 runs northwest on the Edgware Road through Kilburn and Cricklewood; the A5 number disappears at the A41 near Edgware but the original road continues as the A5183 through Elstree, Radlett, St Albans and Dunstable. A few miles north of Dunstable, the A5 regains its identity at the M1 motorway junction 11A, rejoining the old Roman Road and passing through Hockliffe before becoming a dual carriageway as it approaches Milton Keynes. On entering the Milton Keynes urban area, the road becomes a grade-separated dual carriageway and passes through Milton Keynes; this stretch was opened in 1980. From just north of Milton Keynes, the road resumes as a single carriageway that continues through Towcester where it crosses the A43 dual carriageway just north of the town; the road accompanies the M1 motorway through the Watford Gap. It bridges the M45 motorway and continues to Kilsby; as it passes close to Rugby, the road is diverted around the Daventry International Rail Freight Terminal and passes the remains of the Rugby Radio Station.
The next phase north-west-bound takes it under the M6 passing close to Lutterworth. Along this stretch, the road alternates between being a single and a dual carriageway. After meeting the M69 motorway at a roundabout, with the motorway passing above, the A5 runs through Hinckley. After Hinckley, the road runs through the northern fringes of Nuneaton and Tamworth. At Tamworth, the road follows a more recent dual carriageway bypass, permitting the original alignment to become a local road in the town. From this point the road is a grade separated dual carriageway up until its junction with the A38 and M6 toll. After this junction it passes just to the south of Cannock and enters Telford, where it loses its identity and route-shares with the M54 motorway from junction 5. At junction 7 the motorway ends and the A5 continues to Shrewsbury as dual carriageway, on its new alignment.. Continuing from the end of the M54, the route runs around Shrewsbury as the town's southern bypass, combining for a stretch with the A49.
(The route once ra
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Bethesda is a town and community on the River Ogwen and the A5 road on the edge of Snowdonia, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is the 5th largest Community in Gwynedd. In 1823, the Bethesda Chapel was built and the town subsequently grew around it; the chapel has now been converted into flats and is known as Arafa Don. The town grew around the slate quarrying industries. At its peak, the town exported purple slate all over the world. Penrhyn Quarry suffered a three-year strike led by the North Wales Quarrymen's Union between 1900 and 1903; this led to the creation of the nearby village of Tregarth, built by the quarry owners, which housed the families of those workers who had not struck. The A5 road runs through Bethesda and marked the border between Lord Penrhyn's land, the freehold land. Most of the town is to the east and north east of the road, with housing packed onto the hillside in irregular rows, built on the commons. On the current high street, all the public houses are found on the north side of the road.
The narrow gauge Penrhyn Quarry Railway opened in 1801 to serve Penrhyn Quarry. It connected the quarry with Port Penrhyn on the coast and operated until 1962. In 1884, a branch of the London and North Western Railway's network from Bangor was opened; the line closed to passengers in 1951 and to freight in 1963. The trackbed of the Penrhyn Quarry Railway towards Porth Penrhyn is taken over by the Lôn Las Ogwen cycle path; the peak population of Bethesda was 10,000. Current opportunities for employment in the town are limited: there are a few manufacturing businesses. For employment with higher earning potential, residents tend to commute to towns along the North Wales coast. Bangor is the most popular destination. Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen is a bilingual comprehensive school, with 374 pupils, established in 1951. Zip World Velocity in Penrhyn Quarry is the longest zipline in Europe, at just over 1,600 metres long, brings the town hundreds of visitors; the architecture and layout of the town is utilitarian.
Most of the buildings are constructed of stone with slate roofs. Some are constructed wholly of slate blocks, although such buildings tend to suffer from damp and structural slippage because the flat and smooth surfaces of slate do not bind well to mortar; the town has 40 Grade II listed buildings, including three pubs, in addition to the substantial and imposing Grade I listed Nonconformist Jerusalem ChapelThe upper parts of Carneddi and Tan y Foel owe more to stone quarrying on the nearby hills rather than slate quarrying that supported the lower end of the town. At the eastern limits, the town is bounded by the rising land of the Carneddau mountains which form some of the more remote landscapes of Snowdonia. Much of Bethesda once consisted of discrete villages such as Gerlan, Tregarth and Braichmelyn. Bethesda is noted for both the number of chapels in the town; the town was named after the Bethesda Chapel, converted into residential flats. Llanllechid, on the outskirts of Bethesda, is the home of the Popty Bakery, the origins of which date back to the bakery opened by O. J. Williams in the early 1900s.
The product range focuses on traditional Welsh cakes and Bara Brith and these lines are retailed throughout Wales and parts of England through outlets including Aldi, Asda, Co-Op, Morrisons and Tesco. There are ten pubs not including Tregarth; the Douglas Arms, on the High Street, was named after the family which owned the nearby Penrhyn Quarry. Other pubs include the Bull, The Kings Head, Y Sior, The Victoria Arms, the Llangollen; the village has its own micro brewery known as Cwrw Ogwen. It manufactures one beer named Cwrw Caradog, named after the writer Caradog Prichard; the dominant language of the town is Welsh, can be seen written and heard spoken in most settings. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 77.0% of the residents are Welsh-speaking, higher than the average for both Gwynedd and Wales as a whole. The S4C series Amdani! was based on a fictitious women's rugby team in Bethesda, many of the location shots were filmed in the area. The series was based by Bethan Gwanas, who lived in the town.
In June 2012 Tabernacl Cyf. A non-profit co-operative based in the town, was awarded a grant of around £1 million to renovate Neuadd Ogwen, a performance venue on the High Street, it was due to reopen as a community arts centre in June 2013. In the 1970s and 1980s Bethesda developed a reputation as a hub of musical creativity. Jam sessions and small home studios abounded alongside a burgeoning pub rock scene; as well as the now well-established'Pesda Roc' festival, Bethesda has nurtured the Welsh language bands Maffia Mr Huws and experimentalists Y Jeycsyn Ffeif. In more recent years it continues to spring up bands from the local community such as Radio Rhydd. Bobby Atherton - footballer Ellis William Davies - politician Idris Foster - Jesus Professor of Celtic Studies at the University of Oxford David Ffrangcon-Davies - a Welsh operatic baritone Bethan Gwanas - the author lived and worked in Bethesda. Esyllt Harker - singer and storyteller. Mikael Madeg - Breton language writer, French language assistant at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen 1971–72 Frederick Llewellyn-Jones - politician Leila Megane - singer Gwenlyn Parry - writer William John Parry - first
Sir Ifor Williams, FBA was a Welsh scholar who laid the foundations for the academic study of Old Welsh early Welsh poetry. Ifor Williams was born at Pendinas, Tregarth near Bangor, Wales the son of John Williams, a quarryman, his wife Jane, his maternal grandfather, Hugh Derfel Hughes, was a noted local historian who wrote a well-regarded book on the history of the area. He went to Friars School, Bangor, in 1894 but had only been there for just over a year when he suffered a serious accident; this left him with back injuries. Having recovered, he attended Clynnog School in 1901 and in 1902 won a scholarship to the Bangor University. In 1905 he graduated with honours in Greek in 1906 in Welsh, he spent the 1906–07 academic year at the Department of Welsh working for his M. A. degree and assisting Sir John Morris-Jones, the Professor of Welsh, before being appointed an assistant lecturer. In 1920 a Chair of Welsh Literature was specially created for him, which he held until Sir John Morris-Jones died in 1929, when he became Professor of Welsh Language and Literature.
Ifor Williams had a lifelong interest in Welsh place-names, was one of the first to apply rigorous academic methods to this field. He published Enwau Lleoedd in 1945, still of great value today. Many of his early publications were written in order to provide teaching material and included versions with detailed notes of a number of old Welsh tales, notably the Mabinogi in 1930, he produced books giving the text with notes of the works of a number of mediaeval poets such as Dafydd ap Gwilym and others in 1914 and Iolo Goch in 1925 with colleagues. His main field of study however was the earliest Welsh Poetry, he produced Canu Llywarch Hen in 1935 covering the poetry associated with Llywarch Hen in 1938 his most important work, Canu Aneirin, the text with notes of the Gododdin attributed to the 6th-century poet Aneirin. For the first time the original text was distinguished from additions and made comprehensible with notes, this work has provided the foundation for all subsequent work on this poetry.
He wrote an introduction to Canu Taliesin in 1960 on work of the poet Taliesin, with particular emphasis on the dating of the 6th century poems in the Taliesin corpus. The book followed his introduction with a new translation by J. E. Caerwyn Williams. Ifor Williams published works on Welsh poetry, such as the 10th century Armes Prydain. Williams edited the Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies from 1937 to 1948, he was a speaker on the radio, selections of his radio lectures were published in three books. Williams married Myfanwy Jones of Cae-glas, Arfon, in 1913, there were two children, a daughter and a son, he was knighted the same year. In 1949 the University of Wales awarded him the honorary degree of Ll. D.. He lived between 1913–1947 in Menai Bridge and retired to Pontllyfni where he died in 1965, he is buried in the burial ground attached to Pontllyfni. Meic Stephens A companion to the literature of Wales Works by or about Ifor Williams at Internet Archive
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Arriva Buses Wales
Arriva Buses Wales is a bus operator providing services in northern Wales and Chester in northern England. It is a subsidiary of Arriva UK Bus. Crosville Motor Services operated services in Wales and northern England, it became a subsidiary of National Bus Company before its Welsh operations were split into Crosville Cymru in preparation for sale in 1987 through a management buyout. In 1989 Crosville Cymru was sold to National Express. In 1991 it was sold again to British Bus. In August 1996 British Bus was purchased by the Cowie Group, it traded as Arriva Cymru until February 2002, when it merged with Arriva North West to form Arriva North West & Wales. In August 2008 Arriva purchased routes 9 and 9A with seven buses from KMP. In January 2009, Arriva North West & Wales was split, with the Welsh operations being managed by a new management team based at Llandudno Junction depot; however the Crosville Cymru / Crosville Wales Limited name exists today but not with Arriva. It is registered n Wales. Arriva Buses Wales operates services across the north of Wales from Holyhead to Wrexham.
During the summer months open top buses operate services in Rhyl. Arriva Buses Wales operated some Trawscambria services; as from July 2016 several ex GHA Coaches routes have been taken on by Arriva Buses Wales after GHA Coaches went into administration. They are as follows:- 5 Wrexham to Llangollen 82 Chester to Northwich DB1 Chester to Mold DB2 Chester to Saltney DB4 Chester to Deeside X51 Wrexham to Denbigh They ran SP1/2 between Ellesmere Port and Mold but pulled there trips quickly Arriva Buses Wales operates four depots: Bangor - Llandygai Industrial Estate, Llandygai Hawarden - Manor Lane Industrial Estate, Manor Lane Rhyl - Ffynnongroew Road Wrexham - Berse Road, CaegoThere are smaller outstations or sub-depots at other locations, including Llandudno and Amlwch. Caelloi Motors share their depot with Arriva in Pwllheli; the former regional headquarters and depot at Llandudno Junction closed in April 2013. Aberystwyth depot, along with its outstations at New Quay and Lampeter closed on 21 December 2013, along with Dolgellau, latterly an outstation of Wrexham depot.
Councillors and AMs criticised the short notice given by Arriva, leading to fears that communities could be left without bus services. As of February 2016 the fleet consists of 192 vehicles; the majority of the fleet is single deck and is low floor. There is a wide range of different types in the fleet although DAF and VDL chassis are the most common accounting for 41% of all vehicles in the fleet. During March 2010 Arriva Buses Wales announced that the fleet was 100% low floor, although high-floor Van Hool coaches were subsequently brought in to replace Optare Tempos on Aberystwyth-Cardiff duties. Dennis Darts, which made up around half the fleet in 2011, had been reduced to just four vehicles by October 2017, all of the 8.8-metre MPD variety. More recent deliveries have been VDL SB120 and SB200 with Wright Cadet and Pulsar/Pulsar 2 bodywork, as well as Optare Solos of differing lengths. Other types operated include a pair of Optare Versas. M. P. in 2008. The most common double deck type in the fleet is the Alexander Dennis Enviro400 - all 40 of which are operated on Sapphire services based at Wrexham and Rhyl depots respectively.
The majority of these were delivered brand new - however eleven of these were refurbished after being released from Arriva North West. Other double deck types in the fleet are the Wright Gemini 2 bodied VDL DB300 which are operated on Cymru Coastliner services from Rhyl depot and eleven DAF DB250RS. Six of these are East Lancs Myllennium Lowlander bodied whilst the remaining five are former Arriva London Alexander ALX400 bodied examples which have been converted to open top to replace Leyland Olympians to operate the Roller Coaster service between Llandudno and Prestatyn. List of bus operators of the United Kingdom Arriva Buses Wales website