Jay Pritzker Pavilion
Jay Pritzker Pavilion, known as Pritzker Pavilion or Pritzker Music Pavilion, is a bandshell in Millennium Park in the Loop community area of Chicago in Cook County, United States. It is located on the side of Randolph Street and east of the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. The pavilion was named after Jay Pritzker, whose family is known for owning Hyatt Hotels and it hosts a wide range of music series and annual performing arts events. Performers ranging from rock bands to classical musicians and opera singers have appeared at the pavilion. All rehearsals at the pavilion are open to the public, trained guides are available for the music festival rehearsals, Millennium Park is part of the larger Grant Park. The pavilion, which has a capacity of 11,000, is Grant Parks small event outdoor performing venue, and complements Petrillo Music Shell. Pritzker Pavilion is built atop the Harris Theater for Music and Dance. Initially the pavilions lawn seats were free for all concerts, the construction of the pavilion created a legal controversy, given that there are historic limitations on the height of buildings in Grant Park.
To avoid these restrictions, the city classifies the bandshell as a work of art rather than a building. With several design and assembly problems, the plans were revised over time, with features eliminated. In the end, the venue was designed with a large fixed seating area, a Great Lawn, a trellis network to support the sound system. It features a system with an acoustic design that replicates an indoor concert hall sound experience. The Jay Pritzker Pavilion is a home for the Grant Park Music Festival, lying between Lake Michigan to the east and the Loop to the west, Grant Park has been Chicagos front yard since the mid-19th century. In 2007, Millennium Park trailed only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction, when the city first determined that a new pavilion should be built, the commission was supposed to go to Skidmore and Merrill. The original pavilion design was more modest than the structure that was eventually built, with a smaller shell structure. However, two led to the cancellation of the original plans.
First, the projects scope changed as a result of funds raised by John H. Bryan. The second factor was the intervention of the Pritzker family as potential donors, unimpressed with the pavilions original design, Cindy Pritzker mandated that Frank Gehry be involved in its re-design
Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. Their garden hybrids have been popular among gardeners, beginning with Clematis × jackmanii and they are mainly of Chinese and Japanese origin. The genus name is from Ancient Greek clématis, over 250 species and cultivars are known, often named for their originators or particular characteristics. The genus is composed of mostly vigorous, climbing vines / lianas, the woody stems are quite fragile until several years old. Leaves are opposite and divided into leaflets and leafstalks that twist, some species are shrubby, while others, like C. recta, are herbaceous perennial plants. The cool temperate species are deciduous, but many of the warmer climate species are evergreen and they grow best in cool, well-drained soil in full sun. Clematis species are found throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Clematis leaves are food for the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, a partial list of species, Clematis addisonii Britt.
– Addisons leather flower Clematis albicoma Wherry – whitehair leather flower Clematis alpina Mill. – alpine clematis Clematis aristata R. Br, Clematis armandii – Armand clematis Clematis baldwinii Torr. & A. Gray – pine hyacinth Clematis bigelovii Torr, – Bigelow clematis Clematis brachiata Thunb. – travellers joy Clematis campaniflora Brot, – Portuguese clematis Clematis catesbyana – satin curls Clematis chinensis Osbeck – wei ling xian in Chinese Clematis chrysocoma Franch. & A. Gray – British Columbia virgins bower Clematis crispa L. – curly virgins bower Clematis cunninghamii Clematis dioica L. – cabellos de angel Clematis drummondii Torr, & A. Gray – Drummond clematis Clematis durandii Clematis fawcettii F. Muell. Clematis flammula L. – fragrant virgins bower Clematis florida Thunb, Clematis hirsutissima Pursh – hairy clematis Clematis integrifolia L. Clematis ispahanica Bioss Clematis × jackmanii T. Moore – Jackmans clematis Clematis koreana Kom. – Korean clematis Clematis lanuginosa Lindl, – Pipestem Clematis Clematis leptophylla H.
Eichler Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. – western white clematis, hierba de chivo Clematis macropetala Ledeb, – downy clematis Clematis mandshurica Clematis marmoraria Sneddon – New Zealand dwarf clematis Clematis microphylla DC. – small-leaved clematis Clematis montana Buch. -Ham. Ex DC. – anemone clematis Clematis morefieldii Kral – Huntsville vasevine Clematis napaulensis DC, – puawhananga Clematis patens C. Morren & Decne. Clematis pauciflora Nutt. – ropevine clematis Clematis pickeringii A. Gray Clematis pitcheri Torr, & A. Gray – bluebill Clematis recta L. – ground clematis Clematis reticulata Walter – netleaf leather flower Clematis rhodocarpa Rose Clematis smilacifolia Wall. Clematis socialis Kral – Alabama leather flower Clematis stans Siebold & Zucc. – kusabotan Clematis tangutica Korsh, – Italian leather flower, purple clematis Akebia trifoliata Koidz
Land art, earthworks, or Earth art is an art movement in which landscape and the work of art are inextricably linked. It is an art form that is created in nature, using materials such as soil, organic media. Sculptures are not placed in the landscape, the landscape is the means of their creation, often earth moving equipment is involved. The works frequently exist in the open, located away from civilization, left to change. Many of the first works, created in the deserts of Nevada, New Mexico, Utah or Arizona were ephemeral in nature and they pioneered a category of art called site-specific sculpture, designed for a particular outdoor location. Land art is an artistic protest against the perceived artificiality, plastic aesthetics, Land art was inspired by minimal art and conceptual art but by modern movements such as De Stijl, cubism and the work of Constantin Brâncuși and Joseph Beuys. Many of the associated with land art had been involved with minimal art. His influence on contemporary art, landscape architecture and environmental sculpture is evident in many works today.
Alan Sonfist is a pioneer of an approach to working with nature and culture that he began in 1965 by bringing historical nature. His most inspirational work is Time Landscape an indigenous forest he planted in New York City, according to critic Barbara Rose, writing in Artforum in 1969, he had become disillusioned with the commodification and insularity of gallery bound art. In 1967, the art critic Grace Glueck writing in the New York Times declared the first earthwork was done by Douglas Leichter and Richard Saba at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. The movement began in October 1968 with the group exhibition Earth Works at the Dwan Gallery in New York, in February 1969, Willoughby Sharp curated the Earth Art exhibition at the Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art at Cornell University, New York. The artists included were Walter De Maria, Jan Dibbets, Hans Haacke, Michael Heizer, Neil Jenney, Richard Long, David Medalla, Robert Morris, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, the exhibition was directed by Thomas W.
Leavitt. Gordon Matta-Clark, who lived in Ithaca at the time, was invited by Sharp to help the artists in Earth Art with the execution of their works for the exhibition. S. How much of the work, if any, is visible is dependent on the water levels. Since its creation, the work has completely covered, and uncovered again. Smithsons Gravel Mirror with Cracks and Dust is an example of art existing in a gallery space rather than in the natural environment. It consists of a pile of gravel by the side of a partially mirrored gallery wall, in its simplicity of form and concentration on the materials themselves and other pieces of land art have an affinity with minimalism
The flowers are greenish-yellow with five small petals, they are produced in umbels in autumn to early winter and are very rich in nectar. The fruit is a greenish-black, dark purple or yellow berry 5–10 mm diameter with one to five seeds, the seeds are dispersed by birds which eat the berries. The species differ in detail of the shape and size and in the structure of the leaf trichomes, and in the size and, to a lesser extent. The chromosome number differs between species, the basic diploid number is 48, while some are tetraploid with 96, and others hexaploid with 144 and octaploid with 192 chromosomes. Ivies are natives of Eurasia and North Africa but have introduced to North America. They invade disturbed forest areas in North America and in Europe, ivy seeds are spread by birds. Ivies are of ecological importance for their nectar and fruit production. The ivy bee Colletes hederae is completely dependent on ivy flowers, the fruit are eaten by a range of birds, including thrushes and woodpigeons.
Hedera colchica K. Koch – Persian ivy, Hedera cypria McAllister – Cyprus ivy. Cyprus Hedera iberica Ackerfield & J. Wen – Iberian ivy, Hedera maroccana McAllister – Moroccan ivy. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch – Himalayan ivy, Hedera pastuchovii G. Woronow – Pastuchovs ivy. Hedera rhombea Siebold ex Bean – Japanese ivy, trichomes stellate Hedera azorica Carrière – Azores ivy. Hedera hibernica Bean – Atlantic ivy, the species of ivy are largely allopatric and closely related, and many have on occasion been treated as varieties or subspecies of H. helix, the first species described. Several additional species have been described in the parts of the former Soviet Union. The only verified hybrid involving ivies is the intergeneric hybrid × Fatshedera lizei and this hybrid was produced once in a garden in France in 1910 and never successfully repeated, the hybrid being maintained in cultivation by vegetative propagation. Despite the close relationship between Hedera helix and H. hibernica, no hybrids between them have yet been found, hybridisation may however have played a part in the evolution of some species in the genus.
Numerous cultivars with variegated foliage and/or unusual leaf shapes have been selected for horticultural use, much discussion has involved whether or not ivy climbing trees will harm them. In Europe, the harm is generally minor although there can be competition for nutrients and water
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, and the terms are often used interchangeably. An arbour is generally regarded as a bench seat with a roof. A pergola, on the hand, is a much larger and more open structure. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide an area that allows for breeze and light sun. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow, at the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it.
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave, the English term was borrowed from Italian. The clearly artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, a particularly extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or, formerly, of coast redwood, are painted or stained, for a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used. These materials do not require paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them even stronger. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems
French India, formally the Établissements français dans lInde, was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent. The possessions were acquired by the French East India Company beginning in the second half of the 17th century. The French establishments included Pondichéry, Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal. French India included several loges in other towns, but after 1816, the loges had little commercial importance, by 1950, the total area measured 510 km2, of which 293 km2 belonged to the territory of Pondichéry. In 1936, the population of the colony totalled 298,851 inhabitants, France was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India trade. Historians have sought to explain Frances late entrance in the East India trade, in 1604 a company was granted letters patent by King Henry IV, but the project failed. Fresh letters patent were issued in 1615, and two went to India, only one returning.
From 1658, François Bernier, a French physician and traveller, was for years the personal physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. La Compagnie française des Indes orientales was formed under the auspices of Cardinal Richelieu and reconstructed under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, in 1667 the French India Company sent out another expedition, under the command of François Caron, which reached Surat in 1668 and established the first French factory in India. In 1669, Marcara succeeded in establishing another French factory at Masulipatam, in 1672, Saint Thomas was taken but the French were driven out by the Dutch. Chandernagore was established in 1692, with the permission of Nawab Shaista Khan, in 1673, the French acquired the area of Pondicherry from the qiladar of Valikondapuram under the Sultan of Bijapur, and thus the foundation of Pondichéry was laid. By 1720, the French had lost their factories at Surat, on 4 February 1673, Bellanger, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondichéry, thereby commencing the French administration of Pondichéry.
In 1674 François Martin, the first Governor, initiated ambitious projects to transform Pondichéry from a fishing village into a flourishing port-town. The French, found themselves in conflict with the Dutch. In 1693 the Dutch captured Pondichéry and augmented the fortifications, the French regained the town in 1699 through the Treaty of Ryswick, signed on 20 September 1697. From their arrival until 1741, the objectives of the French, during this period, the French East India Company peacefully acquired Yanam in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast in 1725 and Karaikal in 1739. In the early 18th century, the town of Pondichéry was laid out on a grid pattern, able governors like Pierre Christophe Le Noir and Pierre Benoît Dumas expanded the Pondichéry area and made it a large and rich town. Under the command of the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleixs army successfully controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin, but Robert Clive arrived in India in 1744, a British officer who dashed the hopes of Dupleix to create a French empire India
Latticework is an openwork framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal. The design is created by crossing the strips to form a network, latticework can be purely ornamental, or can be used as a truss structure such as a lattice girder bridge. Latticework in stone or wood from the period is called transenna. In India, the house of a rich or noble person may be built with a baramdah or verandah surrounding every level leading to the living area. The upper floors often have balconies overlooking the street that are shielded by jalis carved in stone latticework that keeps the area cool, brise soleil Jali Lattice tower Lattice truss bridge Lattice stool Mashrabiya Mesh Pergola Trellis Truss Wattle
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, species and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies, Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. The leaves are borne alternately on the stem, most roses are deciduous but a few are evergreen or nearly so. The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red.
Beneath the petals are five sepals and these may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes, the aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination, the hips of most species are red, but a few have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 seeds embedded in a matrix of fine. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose and rugosa rose, are rich in vitamin C. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, some birds, particularly finches, eat the seeds. While the sharp objects along a stem are commonly called thorns. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation growing over it.
Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer, a few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points. Hesperrhodos contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America, platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii
Jean-Max Albert is a painter, sculptor and musician. He has published theory, artists books, a collection of poems, plays and he perpetuated a reflexion initiated by Paul Klee and Edgar Varèse on the transposition of musical structures into formal constructions. He created plant architectures which come close to art, environmental sculpture. Jean-Max Albert French, was born in 1942, in Loches and he studied at the Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts dAngers at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts de Paris, with frequent visits to the Louvre, across the river. His student friends introduced him to the works of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Louis Kahn, Albert was a trumpet player, joining Henri Texier’s quintet with Alain Tabarnouval in the beginnings of Free Jazz. The group performed in clubs and concerts, in 1975 he initiated the group show Serres in François Horticultural Greenhouses, Magny-in-Vexin. Sculptor Mark di Suvero invited him to New York City, the first of many visits to United States, in 1981 he met Sara Holt, whose sculpture and photographs were inspired by astronomy.
They collaborated and carried out various public art projects, travels in Europe, North Africa, Middle East. In 1990, he was commissioned by the architects Wylde-Oubrerie as collaborating artist for the realisation of Miller House in Lexington, invited to give lectures and workshops for the University of Architecture of Kentucky and for the Art Center of Design in Pasadena. Edgar Varese, in his comments, often refers to solid geometry and his experience in the musical field enabled Jean-Max Albert to exchange on these subjects with musicians such as, György Ligeti, Steve Lacy, Barney Wilen, François Tusques. He creates monumental trellis-works, Iapetus which refers to the structure of Thelonious Monks ‘’Misterioso’’ », Ligeti, a book and exhibition followed, Thelonious Monk Architecte. A collaboration with pianist and composer François Tusques results in 80 short films, with Jean-Claude Mocik, he is coauthor of the project Midi-Pile started in 1994. Beside sculptures related to music, he conceived a project dedicated to the vegetation itself, the utopian Calmoduline Monument is based on the property of a protein, calmodulin, to bond selectively to calcium.
Exterior physical constraints modify the potential of the cellular membranes of a plant. However, the controls the expression of the calmoduline gene. The plant can thus, when there is a stimulus, modify its « typical » growth pattern and this permanent show, installed in a public place, would suggest a level of fundamental biological activity. This idea that an artwork should be autonomous — epoch and even authors identity, taking second place — has provoked vigorous discussions with artists friends, notably with painter Joan Mitchell. Around 1973, a meeting with the architect Louis Kahn, led him to compare the relationship between paint and canvas with that of vegetation on trellis
Vitis is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere and it is economically important as the source of grapes, both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce wine. The study and cultivation of grapevines is called viticulture, most Vitis varieties are wind-pollinated with hermaphroditic flowers containing both male and female reproductive structures. These flowers are grouped in bunches called inflorescences, in many species, such as Vitis vinifera, each successfully pollinated flower becomes a grape berry with the inflorescence turning into a cluster of grapes. Grapevines usually only produce fruit on shoots that came from buds that were developed during the growing season. In viticulture, this is one of the principles behind pruning the previous years growth that includes shoots that have turned hard and these vines will be pruned either into a cane which will support 8 to 15 buds or to a smaller spur which holds 2 to 3 buds.
Flower buds are formed late in the season and overwinter for blooming in spring of the next year. Vitis is distinguished from other genera of Vitaceae by having petals which remain joined at the tip, the flowers are mostly bisexual, with a hypogynous disk. The calyx is greatly reduced or nonexistent in most species and the petals are joined together at the tip into one unit, the fruit is a berry, ovoid in shape and juicy, with a two-celled ovary each containing two ovules, thus normally producing four seeds per flower. In the wild, all species of Vitis are normally dioecious, most Vitis species have 38 chromosomes, but 40 in Vitis rotundifolia. Most Vitis species are found in the regions of the Northern Hemisphere in North America. The wine grape Vitis vinifera originated in southern Europe and southwestern Asia, the species occur in widely different geographical areas and show a great diversity of form. Their growth makes leaf collection challenging and polymorphic leaves make identification of species difficult, mature grapevines can grow up to 48 cm in diameter at breast height and reach the upper canopy of trees more than 35 m in height.
Many species are closely related to allow easy interbreeding and the resultant interspecific hybrids are invariably fertile. The exact number of species is not certain, with species in Asia in particular being poorly defined, estimates range from 40 to more than 60. Some of the more notable include, Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Vitis labrusca, the Fox grapevine, sometimes used for wine, native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis riparia, the Riverbank Grapevine, sometimes used for winemaking, native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant. It is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m tall, such as lavender, periwinkle, an area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery. When clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage, many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a stool results in long new stems known as canes. Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their structure, shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be deciduous or evergreen