The sousaphone is a brass instrument in the same family as the more known tuba. Created around 1893 by J. W. Pepper at the direction of American bandleader John Philip Sousa, it was designed to be easier to play than the concert tuba while standing or marching, as well as to carry the sound of the instrument above the heads of the band. Like the tuba, sound is produced by moving air past the lips, causing them to vibrate or "buzz" into a large cupped mouthpiece. Unlike the tuba, the instrument is bent in a circle to fit around the body of the musician; because of the ease of carrying and the direction of sound, it is employed in marching bands, as well as various other musical genres. Sousaphones were made out of brass but in the mid-20th century started to be made from lighter materials like fiberglass; the first sousaphone was built by James Welsh Pepper in 1893 at the request of John Philip Sousa, dissatisfied with the hélicons in use by the United States Marine Band. Some sources credit C. G. Conn with its construction, because of the first sousaphone he built in 1898.
Sousa wanted a tuba-like instrument that would send sound upward and over the band, much like a concert tuba. The new instrument had an oversized bell pointing straight up, rather than the directional bell of a normal hélicon; the sousaphone was developed as a concert instrument rather than for marching. Sousa wanted the new instrument for the professional band which he started after leaving the Marines, this band marched only once. Sousa used sousaphones built by C. G. Conn. Although less balanced on a player's body than a helicon, because of the large spectacular bell high in the air, the Sousaphone retained the tuba-like sound by widening the bore and throat of the instrument significantly, its upright bell led to the instrument being dubbed a "rain-catcher". Some versions of this design allowed the bell to rotate forward, projecting the sound to the front of the band; this bell configuration is the standard today. The instrument proved practical for marching, by 1908 the United States Marine Band adopted it.
Versions with the characteristic extra 90° bend making a forward-facing bell were developed in the early 1900s. Early sousaphones had 22-inch-diameter bells, with 24-inch bells popular in the 1920s. From the mid-1930s onward, sousaphone bells have been standardized at a diameter of 26 inches; some larger sousaphones were produced in limited quantities. The sousaphone is a valved brass instrument with the same tube length and musical range as other tubas; the sousaphone's shape is such. The valves are situated directly in front of the musician above the waist and all of the weight rests on the left shoulder; the bell is detachable from the instrument body to facilitate transportation and storage. Except for the instrument's general shape and appearance, the sousaphone is technically similar to a tuba. For simplicity and light weight, modern sousaphones always use three non-compensating piston valves in their construction, in direct contrast to their concert counterparts' large variation in number and orientation.
Both the tuba and sousaphone are semi-conical brass instruments. No valved brass instrument can be conical, since the middle section containing the valves must be cylindrical. While the degree of bore conicity does affect the timbre of the instrument, much as in a cornet and trumpet, or a euphonium and a trombone, the bore profile of a sousaphone is similar to that of most tubas. To facilitate making the mouthpiece accessible to players of different height or body shapes, most sousaphones contain a detachable tubing gooseneck which arises from the lead pipe on the upwind side of the valves. One or two slightly-angled bit are inserted into the gooseneck, the mouthpiece is inserted into the terminal bit; this arrangement may be adjusted in height and yaw angle to place the mouthpiece comfortably at the player's lips. Most sousaphones are manufactured from sheet brass yellow or silver, with silver and gold plating options, much like many brass instruments. However, the sousaphone is commonly seen manufactured from fiberglass, due to its lower cost, greater durability, lighter weight.
The weight of a sousaphone can be between 50 pounds. Most modern sousaphones are made in the key of BB♭ and like tubas the instrument's part is written in "concert pitch", not transposed by key for a specific instrument. Although sousaphones may have a more restricted range than their concert tuba counterpart they can all play the same music and have parts written in the bass clef and the indicated octave is played Many older sousaphones were pitched in the key of E♭, but current production of sousaphones in that key is limited. Although most major instrument manufacturers have made, many continue to make, sousaphones and King instruments are agreed among players to be the standards against which other sousaphones are judged for tone quality and playability; the most regarded sousaphone built is the 0.734-inch-bore (1
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are used in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, drumlines, drum corps, more, it is one of the central pieces in a drum set, a collection of percussion instruments designed to be played by a seated drummer and used in many genres of music. Snare drums are played with drum sticks, but other beaters such as the brush or the rute can be used to achieve different tones; the snare drum is a versatile and expressive percussion instrument due to its sensitivity and responsiveness. The sensitivity of the snare drum allows it to respond audibly to the softest strokes with a wire brush, its high dynamic range allows the player to produce powerful accents with vigorous strokes and a thundering crack when rimshot strokes are used. The snare drum originates from the tabor, a drum first used to accompany the flute.
The tabor evolved into more modern versions, such as the kit snare, marching snare, tarol snare, piccolo snare. Each type presents a different style of size; the snare drum that one might see in a popular music concert is used in a backbeat style to create rhythm. In marching bands, it can do the same but is used for a front beat. In comparison with the marching snare, the kit snare is smaller in length, while the piccolo is the smallest of the three; the snare drum is recognizable by its loud cracking sound when struck with a drumstick or mallet. The depth of the sound varies from snare to snare because of the different techniques and construction qualities of the drum; some of these qualities are head material and tension and rim and drum shell materials and construction. The snare drum is constructed of two heads—both made of plastic—along with a rattle of metal wires on the bottom head called the snares; the wires can be placed on the top, as in the tarol snare, or both heads as in the case of the Highland snare drum.
The top head is called the batter head because, where the drummer strikes it, while the bottom head is called the snare head because, where the snares are located. The tension of each head is held constant by tension rods. Tension rod adjustment allows the pitch and tonal character of the drum to be customized by the player; the strainer is a lever that engages or disengages contact between the snares and the head, allows snare tension adjustment. If the strainer is disengaged, the sound of the drum resembles a tom because the snares are inactive; the rim is the metal ring around the batter head, which can be used for a variety of things, although it is notably used to sound a piercing rimshot with the drumstick. The drum can be played by striking it with a drum stick or any other form of beater, including brushes and hands, all of which produce a softer-sounding vibration from the snare wires; when using a stick, the drummer may strike the head of the rim, or the shell. When the top head is struck, the bottom head vibrates in tandem, which in turn stimulates the snares and produces a cracking sound.
The snares can be thrown off with a lever on the strainer so that the drum produces a sound reminiscent of a tom-tom. Rimshots are a technique associated with snare drums in which the head and rim are struck with one stick. In contemporary and/or pop and rock music, where the snare drum is used as a part of a drum kit, many of the backbeats and accented notes on the snare drum are played as rimshots, due to the ever-increasing demand for their typical sharp and high-volume sound. A used alternative way to play the snare drum is known as cross stick or side stick; this is done by holding the tip of the drumstick against the drum head and striking the stick's other end against the rim, using the hand to mute the head. This produces a dry high-pitched click, similar to a set of claves, is common in Latin and jazz music. So-called "ghost notes" are light "filler notes" played in between the backbeats in genres such as funk and rhythm and blues; the iconic drum roll is produced by alternately bouncing the sticks on the drum head, striving for a controlled rebound.
A similar effect can be obtained by playing alternating double strokes on the drum, creating a double stroke roll, or fast single strokes, creating a single stroke roll. The snares are a fundamental ingredient in the pressed drum roll, as they help to blend together distinct strokes that are perceived as a single, sustained sound; the snare drum is the first instrument to learn in preparing to play a full drum kit. Rudiments are sets of basic patterns played on a snare drum. Snare drums may be made from various wood, acrylic, or composite, e.g. fiberglass materials. A typical diameter for snare drums is 14 in. Marching snare drums are deeper in size than snare drums used for orchestral or drum kit purposes measuring 12 in deep. Orchestral and drum kit snare drum shells are about 6 in deep. Piccolo snare drums are shallower at about 3 in deep. Soprano and firecracker snare drums have diameters as small as 8 in and are used for higher-pitched special effects. Most wooden snare drum shells are constructed in plies that are heat- and compression-moulded into a cylinder.
Steam-bent shells consist of one ply of wood tha
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As on all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet; the word "trombone" derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the cornet, the euphonium, the French horn; the most encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the pedal B♭ tuba; the once common E♭ alto trombone became less used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now enjoying a resurgence due to its lighter sonority, appreciated in many classical and early romantic works.
Trombone music is written in concert pitch in either bass or tenor clef, although exceptions do occur, notably in British brass-band music where the tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument, written in treble clef. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombone player; the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. Rather than being cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a complex series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver and the largest just before the bell flare; the design of these tapers affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument; the detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and related to that of the trumpet. It has the venturi: a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance affecting the tone of the instrument and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section.
The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer slide tubes, the bracing, or "stays". Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with unsoldered stays. The'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves were developed during the Renaissance, these "stocking" were soldered onto the ends of the inner slide tubes. Nowadays, the stockings are incorporated into the manufacturing process of the inner slide tubes and represent a fractional widening of the tube to accommodate the necessary method of alleviating friction; this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently. Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, bell or back bow; the joint connecting the slide and bell sections is furnished with a ferrule to secure the connection of the two parts of the instrument, though older models from the early 20th century and before were equipped with friction joints and no ancillary mechanism to tighten the joint.
The adjustment of intonation is most accomplished with a tuning slide, a short slide between the neckpipe and the bell incorporating the bell bow. However, unlike other instrumentalists, are not subject to the intonation issues resulting from valved or keyed instruments, since they can adjust intonation "on the fly" by subtly altering slide positions when necessary. For example, second position "A" is not in the same place on the slide as second position "E". Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing; this allows the instrument to reach notes that are otherwise not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of unchanging diameter. Tenor trombones have a bore of 0.450 inches to 0.547 inches after the leadpipe and through the slide.
The bore expands through the gooseneck to the bell, between 7 and 8 1⁄2 inches. A number of common variations on trombone construction are noted below. "Trombone" comes from the Italian word tromba plus the suffix -one, meaning "big trumpet". During the Renaissance, the equivalent English term was "sackbut"; the word first appears in court records in 1495 as "shakbusshe" at about the time King Henry VII married a Portuguese princess who brought musicians with her. "Shakbusshe" is similar to "sacabuche", attested in Spain as early as 1478. The French equivalent "saqueboute" appears in 1466; the German "Posaune" long predates the invention of the slide and could refer to a natural trumpet as late as the early fifteenth century. Both towns and courts sponsored bands of shaw
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A bass drum is cylindrical with the drum's diameter much greater than the drum's depth. There is a struck head at both ends of the cylinder; the heads may be made of calf plastic. There is a means of adjusting the tension either by threaded taps or by strings. Bass drums are built in a variety of sizes, but size has little to do with the volume produced by the drum; the size chosen being based on convenience and aesthetics. Bass drums are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished; the type seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum. It is the largest drum of the orchestra; the kick drum. It is struck with a beater attached to a pedal seen on drum kits; the pitched bass drum used in marching bands and drum corps, is tuned to a specific pitch and is played in a set of three to six drums. In many forms of music, the bass drum is used to keep time.
The bass drum makes a low, boom sound. In marches it is used to project tempo. A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bars of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called back beats. In jazz, the bass drum can vary from entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. Bass drums have many synonyms and translations, such as gran cassa, grosse caisse, Grosse Trommel, bombo; the earliest known predecessor to the bass drum was the Turkish davul, a cylindrical drum that featured two thin heads. The heads were stretched over hoops and attached to a narrow shell. To play this instrument, a person would strike the right side of the davul with a large wooden stick, while the left side would be struck with a rod; when struck, the davul produced a sound much deeper than that of the other drums in existence. Because of this unique tone, davuls were used extensively in war and combat, where a deep and percussive sound was needed to ensure that the forces were marching in proper step with one another.
The military bands of the Ottoman Janissaries in the 18th century were one of the first groups to utilize davuls in their music. Davuls were ideal for use as military instruments because of the unique way in which they could be carried; the Ottoman janissaries, for example, hung their davuls at their breasts with thick straps. This made it easier for the soldiers to carry their instruments from battle to battle; this practice does not seem to be limited to just the Ottoman Empire, however. The davul, was used extensively in non-military music. For example, davuls were a major aspect of Turkish folk dances. In Ottoman society and shawm players would perform together in groups called davul-zurnas, or drum and shawm circles. Long drumsAt its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Caucuses down to northern Africa and parts of the middle east; this long reach meant that many aspects of Ottoman culture, including the davul and other janissary instruments, were introduced to other parts of the world.
In Africa, the indigenous population took the basic idea of the davul – that is, a two-headed cylindrical drum that produces a deep sound when struck – and both increased the size of the drum and changed the material from which it was made, leading to the development of the long drum. The long drum can be made a variety of different ways but is most constructed from a hollowed out tree trunk; this is vastly different from the davul, made from a thick shell. Long drums were 2 meters in length and 50 centimetres in diameter, much larger than the Turkish drums on which they were based; the indigenous population believed that the tree from which the long drum was made had to be in perfect shape. Once an appropriate tree was selected and the basic frame for the long drum was constructed, the Africans took cow hides and soaked them in boiling hot water, in order to stretch them out. Although the long drum was an improvement on the davul, both drums were played in a similar fashion. Two distinct sticks were used on the two distinct sides of the drum itself.
A notable difference between the two is that long drums, unlike davuls, were used for religious purposes. Gong drumsAs the use of the long drum began to spread across Europe, many composers and musicians started looking for deeper tones that could be used in compositions; as a result of this demand, a narrow-shelled, single-headed drum called the gong drum was introduced in Britain during the 19th century. This drum, 70-100 centimetres in diameter and deep-shelled, was similar to the long drum in both size and construction; when struck, the gong drum produced a deep sound with a rich resonance. However, the immense size of the drum, coupled with the fact that there was not a second head to help balance the sound, meant that gong drums tended to produce a sound with a definite pitch; as a result, they fell out of favour with many composers, as it became nearly impossible to incorporate them in an orchestra in any meaningful way. Orchestral bass drums and drum kitsB
The Voodoo Music + Arts Experience referred to as Voodoo or Voodoo Fest, is a multi-day music and arts festival held in City Park in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Voodoo Experience has hosted more than 2000 artists and over one million festival goers during its existence; the festival has been twice nominated for Pollstar's Music Festival of the Year. It is produced by C3 Presents. Don Kelly, Voodoo's former General Counsel and COO, oversees the event; the Voodoo Experience is known for including national artists from all genres such as Stone Temple Pilots, Foo Fighters, Marilyn Manson, Pearl Jam, Rage Against the Machine, Eminem, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Arcade Fire, Tiësto, Nine Inch Nails, KISS, R. E. M. Modest Mouse, Thirty Seconds to Mars, Calvin Harris, The Weeknd, Deadmau5, The Black Keys, Neil Young, Green Day, Snoop Dogg, Duran Duran, Porcupine Tree, The Smashing Pumpkins, My Chemical Romance, 50 Cent, Cowboy Mouth and 311 as well as local Louisiana musicians such as The Original Meters, Trombone Shorty and Orleans Avenue, The Preservation Hall Jazz Band, Rebirth Brass Band, Dr. John.
Since its 1999 Halloween weekend debut, the annual event has become a Halloween tradition to music fans, both locally and others who travel from around the world. Throughout Voodoo’s 20-year run, more than one million festival goers have gathered to see performances from about 2,000 artists; the event has been twice nominated for Pollstar's Music Festival of the Year and in 2005, Voodoo founder Stephen Rehage and his team were presented with a key to the city, following the Voodoo 2005 post-Katrina event. Voodoo’s annual line-up traditionally features top-tier and innovative artists from a variety of musical genres. Highlights from the last 15 years have included performances from Metallica, Rage Against the Machine, Pearl Jam, Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Cure, Nine Inch Nails, Deadmau5, No Doubt, Ozzy Osbourne, The Black Keys, Neil Young, Green Day, KISS, Snoop Dogg, Duran Duran, R. E. M. My Chemical Romance, 50 Cent and 311. Voodoo was first held as a single day event on October 1999 at Tad Gormley Stadium in City Park.
Planned and executed by Stephen Rehage, CEO of Rehage Entertainment, the festival consisted of three stages and a mix of local and national acts including headliners Wyclef Jean and Moby. As the U. S. festival market swelled, Voodoo continued its growth, increasing both the festival site and musically expanding with the addition of stages and performers. During its second year in 2000, Voodoo became to a two-day event and garnered international attention with a headlining performance from Eminem in support of his just-released three times platinum major studio debut The Slim Shady LP. In 2007, Voodoo expanded to a three-day event. Scheduled for Halloween Weekend in New Orleans’ City Park, the Voodoo Music Experience was displaced by the tragedy of Hurricane Katrina. While plans were in full swing to move forward with relocation to Memphis, Voodoo founder Stephen Rehage met with community leaders in New Orleans about the opportunity to move the event back home for one of its two days—as a tribute event for relief workers.
Festival organizers and Memphis representatives alike agreed this was an amazing opportunity to increase the scope of the event. On October 29, 2005, an invitation-only celebration for police, National Guard and countless others who had aided in the recovery efforts of the city was staged at the Riverview "Butterfly" section of Audubon Park in New Orleans, one of the few public spaces in the city not damaged in the recent Federal levee failure disaster. Nine Inch Nails, Queens of the Stone Age, The Secret Machines, the New York Dolls, Kermit Ruffins were among the artists who all came together in celebration of a city they love, it marked the first major multi-musical performance in the two months since Hurricane Katrina’s effects were felt in the city. Voodoo in Memphis included a fundraiser for victims of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in AutoZone Park; the 2006 Voodoo Music Experience saw the debut of three distinct areas on six distinct stages within the festival’s landscape: Le Ritual, Le Flambeau and Le Carnival.
Each of these areas was designed to uniquely showcase different sides of the personality of the festival and its New Orleans home: "Le Flambeau" features music and sounds consistent with the style of The Big Easy. In 2007, Voodoo expanded to three days and broke all previous attendance records with an estimated 100,000+ fans in attendance. In April 2013, the Voodoo Music + Arts Experience announced an initial 15 acts to commemorate the 15th anniversary of Voodoo; the initial 15 acts include Pearl Jam, Nine Inch Nails, Calvin Harris, Paramore, Macklemore & Ryan Lewis, Boys Noize, The Gaslight Anthem, Big Gigantic, How To Destroy Angels, Alkaline Trio and Robert DeLong. The 15th anniversary Voodoo celebration marked the debut of City Park’s Festival Grounds, a new permanent home for Voodoo. Home to Voodoo since its 1999 debut—with the exception of Voodoo 2005, displaced by the city’s hurricane damage—New Orleans’ 1,300 acre City Park is the region’s principal recreation site that attracts over seven million visitors each year.
2018 The 2018 Voodoo Music + Arts Experience was held October 26–28, 2018. The lineup consisted of: Mumford & Sons Travis Scott Arctic Monkeys Odesza Martin Garrix A Perfect Circle Modest Mouse Marilyn Manson The Revivalists 21 Savage Janelle Monáe2017 The 2017 Voo
Tremé is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans, in the U. S. state of Louisiana. "Tremé" is rendered as Treme, the neighborhood is sometimes called by its more formal French names of Faubourg Tremé. Known as "Back of Town", urban planners renamed the neighborhood "Faubourg Tremé" in an effort to revitalize the historic area. A subdistrict of the Mid-City District Area, its boundaries as defined by the City Planning Commission are Esplanade Avenue to the east, North Rampart Street to the south, St. Louis Street to the west and North Broad Street to the north, it is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city, early in the city's history was the main neighborhood of free people of color. A racially mixed neighborhood, it remains an important center of the city's African-American and Créole culture the modern brass band tradition. According to the United States Census Bureau, the district has a total area of 0.69 square miles, all of, land. Seventh Ward French Quarter Iberville Projects Tulane/Gravier Bayou St. John The City Planning Commission defines the boundaries of Tremé as these streets: Esplanade Avenue, North Rampart Street, St. Louis Street, North Broad Street.
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,853 people, 3,429 households, 2,064 families residing in the neighborhood. The population density was 12,830 /mi2; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,155 people, 1,913 households, 827 families residing in the neighborhood. The modern Tremé neighborhood began as the Morand Plantation and two forts—St. Ferdinand and St. John. Near the end of the 18th century, Claude Tremé purchased the land from the original plantation owner. By 1794 the Carondelet Canal was built from the French Quarter to Bayou St. John, splitting the land. Developers began building subdivisions throughout the area to house a diverse population that included Caucasians, Haitian Creoles, free persons of color. Tremé abuts the north, or lake, side of the French Quarter, away from the Mississippi River—"back of town" as earlier generations of New Orleanians used to say, its traditional borders were Rampart Street on the south, Canal Street on the west, Esplanade Avenue on the east, Broad Street on the north.
Claiborne Avenue is a primary thoroughfare through the neighborhood. At the end of the 19th century, the Storyville red-light district was carved out of the upper part of Tremé; this area is no longer considered part of the neighborhood. The "town square" of Tremé was Congo Square—originally known as "Place des Nègres"—where slaves gathered on Sundays to dance; this tradition flourished until the United States took control, officials grew more anxious about unsupervised gatherings of slaves in the years before the Civil War. The square was an important place of business for slaves, enabling some to purchase their freedom from sales of crafts and goods there. For much of the rest of the 19th century, the square was an open-air market. "Creoles of Color" brass and symphonic bands gave concerts, providing the foundation for a more improvisational style that would come to be known as "Jazz". At the end of the 19th century, the city renamed the square "Beauregard Square" after Confederate General P.
G. T. Beauregard, but the neighborhood people used that name. Late in the 20th century, the city restored the traditional name of "Congo Square". In the early 1960s, in an urban renewal project considered a mistake by most analysts, a large portion of central Tremé was torn down; the land stood vacant for some time in the 1970s the city created Louis Armstrong Park in the area and named Congo Square within Armstrong Park. In 1994, the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park was established here. Musicians from Tremé include Alphonse Picou, Kermit Ruffins, Troy "Trombone Shorty" Andrews, Lucien Barbarin, "The King of Treme" Shannon Powell. While predominantly African-American, the population has been mixed from the 19th century through to the 21st. Jazz musicians of European ancestry such as Henry Ragas and Louis Prima lived in Tremé. Joe's Cozy Corner in Tremé is considered the birthplace of Rebirth Brass Band, one of the most notable current New Orleans bands. Alex Chilton, who led the rock groups Big Star and The Box Tops, lived in Tremé from the early 1990s until his death in 2010.
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the Tremé neighborhood received minor to moderate flooding. In the portion of the neighborhood in from I-10, the water was not high enough to damage many of the old raised homes. Located in Tremé, the New Orleans African American Museum is dedicated to protecting and promoting through education the history and communities of African Americans in New Orleans and the African diaspora, it is listed on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail, as is the community's St. Augustine Church — the oldest African-American Catholic parish in the U. S. Shake the Devil Off, a documentary co-written by Swiss-based director Peter Entell with Lydia Breen, that explores the post-Katrina lives of parishioners at St. Augustine Church in the Tremé. Father Jerome LeDoux was a central character in the film. In 2006, he was recognized by the City of New Orleans for his work fostering greater appreciation of the Tremé's black history and culture. Faubourg Treme: The Untold Story of Black New Orleans, a documentary film by Dawn Logsdon and Lolis Eric Elie, former Times Picayune c