George R. R. Martin
George Raymond Richard Martin known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story writer in the fantasy and science fiction genres and television producer. He is best known for his series of epic fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire, adapted into the HBO series Game of Thrones. In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin "the American Tolkien", in 2011, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. George Raymond Martin was born on September 20, 1948, in Bayonne, New Jersey, the son of longshoreman Raymond Collins Martin and his wife Margaret Brady Martin, he has two younger sisters and Janet. His mother was of half Irish ancestry, he acknowledges French, English and German roots, which were confirmed on the television series Finding Your Roots. However, while he believed he was a quarter Italian because of who he was told was his paternal grandfather, a DNA test on the show confirmed his Irish and other ancestries but excluded any Italian ancestry, showing instead he is a quarter Ashkenazi Jewish.
The family first lived in a house on Broadway. In 1953, they moved to a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks. During Martin's childhood, his world consisted predominantly of "First Street to Fifth Street", between his grade school and his home. Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included, he wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles. Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and Marist High School. While there he became an avid comic book fan, developing a strong interest in the superheroes being published by Marvel Comics, credited Stan Lee for being one of his greatest literary influences. A letter Martin wrote to the editor of Fantastic Four was printed in issue No. 20. Fans who read his letters wrote him letters in turn, through such contacts, Martin joined the fledgling comics fandom of the era, writing fiction for various fanzines. In 1965, Martin won comic fandom's Alley Award for Best fan fiction for his prose superhero story "Powerman vs.
The Blue Barrier". In 1970, Martin earned a B. S. in journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, graduating summa cum laude. S. in Journalism in 1971 from Medill. Eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War, to which he objected, Martin applied for and obtained conscientious objector status. In the mid-1970s, Martin met English professor George Guthridge from Dubuque, Iowa, at a science fiction convention in Milwaukee. Martin persuaded Guthridge not only to give speculative fiction a second look, but to write in the field himself. Guthridge has since been a finalist for the Hugo Award and twice for the Nebula Award for science fiction and fantasy. In 1998, Guthridge and Janet Berliner won the Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in the Novel for their Children of the Dusk. In turn, Guthridge helped Martin in finding a job at Clarke University. Martin "wasn't making enough money to stay alive", from writing and the chess tournaments, says Guthridge. From 1976 to 1978, Martin was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke, he became Writer In Residence at the college from 1978 to 1979.
While he enjoyed teaching, the sudden death of friend and fellow author Tom Reamy in late 1977 made Martin reevaluate his own life, he decided to try to become a full-time writer. He resigned from his job, being tired of the hard winters in Dubuque, he moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1979. Martin began selling science fiction short stories professionally in 1970, at age 21, his first sale was "The Hero", published in its February 1971 issue. His first story to be nominated for the Hugo Award and Nebula Awards was "With Morning Comes Mistfall", published in 1973 in Analog magazine. In 1975 his story "...for a single yesterday" about a post-apocalyptic timetripper was selected for inclusion in Epoch, a science fiction anthology edited by Roger Elwood and Robert Silverberg. His first novel, Dying of the Light, was completed in 1976 right before he moved to Dubuque and published in 1977; that same year the enormous success of Star Wars had a huge impact on the publishing industry and science fiction, he sold the novel for the same amount he would make in three years of teaching.
The short stories he was able to sell in his early 20s gave him some profit, but not enough to pay his bills, which prevented him from becoming the full-time writer he wanted to be. The need for a day job occurred with the American chess craze which followed Bobby Fischer's victory in the 1972 world chess championship. Martin's own chess skills and experience allowed him to be hired as a tournament director
A Dance with Dragons
A Dance with Dragons is the fifth novel, of seven planned, in the epic fantasy series A Song of Ice and Fire by American author George R. R. Martin. In some areas, the paperback edition was published in two parts, titled Dreams and Dust and After the Feast, it was the first novel in the series to be published following the commencement of the HBO series adaptation, Game of Thrones, runs to 1,040 pages with a word count of 415,000. The US hardcover was published on July 12, 2011, a few weeks went to No. 1 on both Publishers Weekly and USA Today bestsellers lists. The novel has been adapted for television as the fifth season of Game of Thrones, although elements of the book have appeared in the series' third and sixth seasons. King Stannis Baratheon and his forces occupy the Wall as Jon Snow, the newly elected 998th Lord Commander of the Night's Watch, sends Samwell Tarly to the Citadel in Oldtown to be trained as a Maester. Sam is accompanied by a brother of the Night's Watch. Janos Slynt refuses to acknowledge Jon's authority, after three public warnings, Jon beheads Slynt for disobedience.
Though intended to solidify Jon's new position as Lord Commander, it only sows more discord with Slynt's faction. Stannis executes Mance for refusing to submit to him. Jon brokers a truce with Tormund Giantsbane, the leader of the surviving wildlings, allowing them through the Wall and into Westeros in exchange for wildling assistance in defending the Wall against the Others; this creates further unrest among the brothers of the Night's Watch, who have considered the wildlings their enemies for centuries. Tycho Nestoris, a representative of the Iron Bank of Braavos, arrives at the Wall seeking Stannis, who has marched south with his army; the Iron Bank now supports Stannis' claim to the Iron Throne since the regent Cersei Lannister has refused to repay the crown's debts. Jon negotiates a loan. After recurring visions, Melisandre warns Jon that he is in danger from enemies within the Watch, that a Northern girl is in trouble. Mance is revealed to be alive thanks to Melisandre's magical trickery, he is sent to Winterfell to rescue the girl, who Jon believes is his half-sister, Arya Stark.
However, the girl in Melisandre's visions, fleeing to the Wall, turns out to be Alys Karstark, daughter of the deceased Lord Rickard Karstark. She reveals Rickard's uncle Arnolf Karstark, Castellan of Karhold, declared for Stannis in the hope that her last surviving brother Harrion Karstark, a hostage of the Lannisters, would be executed. Arnolf intends to force Alys to marry his son Cregan so his branch of the family can take control of Karhold, plans to betray Stannis to the Boltons; when Cregan arrives at the Wall, Jon imprisons him and arranges Alys' marriage to a Wildling leader Sigorn, the Magnar of Thenn to aid the Wildlings' integration into the North. Jon receives a taunting letter from Ramsay Bolton, who claims to have crushed Stannis' army at Winterfell. Ramsay demands that Jon hand over to him Stannis' wife and daughter or be killed, insists that he deliver Theon Greyjoy and Arya, neither of whom Jon has seen in years. Jon instead decides that he will seek out and kill Ramsay himself, asking for volunteers from the Watch to accompany him.
Melisandre's prediction comes true as Jon is betrayed and stabbed by Bowen Marsh and several of his own men. Meanwhile, Bran Stark's search for the "Three-Eyed Crow" beyond the Wall leads him to the last surviving Children of the Forest, the non-human natives of Westeros. In the Children's cave and his companions Meera and Jojen Reed meet the Three-Eyed Crow—the last "greenseer"—an ancient man intertwined with the roots of a weirwood tree. Using greensight, Bran witnesses his father Ned Stark at Winterfell's godswood in the past, communicates with Theon Greyjoy at the same location in the present. Having killed his father Tywin, Tyrion Lannister is smuggled to Pentos by Varys, where he is sheltered by Illyrio Mopatis. Tyrion is sent south with a party to aid Daenerys Targaryen in claiming the Iron Throne. In the intervening years, they have made a contract with the Golden Company, the largest and most skilled mercenary army in the Free Cities. Tyrion advises young Aegon that Daenerys will not respect him unless he has made his conquests first, persuades Aegon to launch an early invasion of the Seven Kingdoms, without the aid of Daenerys and her dragons.
After traveling with Aegon across Essos, Tyrion is kidnapped by Jorah Mormont, who intends to deliver him to Daenerys as a means to regain her favor. Jorah, a female dwarf named Penny are shipwrecked and sold by slavers to a Yunkish merchant. At Meereen, Tyrion escapes in the mass confusion of the plague ravaging the Yunkish army, joins the Second Sons mercenary group, secures their support for Daenerys. In Braavos, Arya is an acolyte of the guild of assassins known as the Faceless Men. Temporarily afflicted with blindness at their hands, she develops her sense of hearing, realizes that she can "see" through cats the same way she could with her pet direwolf, Nymeria. After fending off an attack by the master of the temple with a stick sword, Arya's sight is restored, she is magically given the face of one of the temple petitioners, who come there seeking a quiet death, a
The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter; the first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. The hero Aeneas was known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas's wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and his description as a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous pietas, fashioned the Aeneid into a compelling founding myth or national epic that tied Rome to the legends of Troy, explained the Punic Wars, glorified traditional Roman virtues, legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders and gods of Rome and Troy.
The Aeneid is regarded as Virgil's masterpiece and one of the greatest works of Latin literature. The Aeneid can be divided into two halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1–6 and Books 7–12; these two halves are regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer by treating both the Odyssey's wandering theme and the Iliad's warfare themes. This is, however, a rough correspondence, the limitations of which should be borne in mind. Virgil begins his poem with a statement of his theme and an invocation to the Muse, falling some seven lines after the poem's inception, he explains the reason for the principal conflict in the story: the resentment held by the goddess Juno against the Trojan people. This is consistent with her role throughout the Homeric epics. In the manner of Homer, the story proper begins in medias res, with the Trojan fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, heading in the direction of Italy; the fleet, led by Aeneas, is on a voyage to find a second home. It has been foretold that in Italy he will give rise to a race both noble and courageous, a race which will become known to all nations.
Juno is wrathful, because she had not been chosen in the judgment of Paris, because her favorite city, will be destroyed by Aeneas's descendants. Ganymede, a Trojan prince, was chosen to be the cupbearer to her husband, Jupiter—replacing Juno's daughter, Hebe. Juno proceeds to Aeolus, King of the Winds, asks that he release the winds to stir up a storm in exchange for a bribe. Aeolus agrees to carry out Juno's orders. Neptune takes notice: although he himself is no friend of the Trojans, he is infuriated by Juno's intrusion into his domain, stills the winds and calms the waters, after making sure that the winds would not bother the Trojans again, lest they be punished more harshly than they were this time; the fleet takes shelter on the coast of Africa, where Aeneas rouses the spirits of his men, reassuring them that they have been through worse situations before. There, Aeneas's mother, Venus, in the form of a huntress similar to the goddess Diana, encourages him and recounts to him the history of Carthage.
Aeneas ventures into the city, in the temple of Juno he seeks and gains the favor of Dido, queen of the city. The city has only been founded by refugees from Tyre and will become a great imperial rival and enemy to Rome. Meanwhile, Venus has her own plans, she goes to her son, Aeneas's half-brother Cupid, tells him to imitate Ascanius. Disguised as such, Cupid offers the gifts expected from a guest. With Dido's motherly love revived as she cradles the boy during a banquet given in honour of the Trojans, Cupid secretly weakens her sworn fidelity to the soul of her late husband, murdered by her brother, Pygmalion. In books 2 and 3, Aeneas recounts the events, he begins the tale shortly after the war described in the Iliad. Cunning Ulysses devised a way for Greek warriors to gain entry into the walled city of Troy by hiding in a large wooden horse; the Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving a warrior, Sinon, to mislead the Trojans into believing that the horse was an offering and that if it were taken into the city, the Trojans would be able to conquer Greece.
The Trojan priest Laocoön saw through the Greek plot and urged the horse's destruction, but his protests fell on deaf ears, so he hurled his spear at the horse. In what would be seen by the Trojans as punishment from the gods, two serpents emerged from the sea and devoured Laocoön, along with his two sons; the Trojans took the horse inside the fortified walls, after nightfall the armed Greeks emerged from it, opening the city's gates to allow the returned Greek army to slaughter the Trojans. In a dream, the fallen Trojan prince, advised Aeneas to flee with his family. Aeneas saw with horror what was happening to his beloved city. At first he tried to fight the enemy, but soon he lost his comrades and was left alone to fend off the Greeks, he witnessed the murder of Priam by Achilles' son Pyrrhus. His mother, appeared to him and led him back to his house. Aeneas tells of his escape with his son, his wife Creusa, his father, after the occurrence
John Orley Allen Tate, known professionally as Allen Tate, was an American poet, social commentator, Poet Laureate from 1943 to 1944. Tate was born near Winchester, Kentucky, to John Orley Tate, a businessman, Eleanor Parke Custis Varnell. In 1916 and 1917 Tate studied the violin at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, he began attending Vanderbilt University in 1918. Warren and Tate were invited to join an informal literary group of young Southern poets under the leadership of John Crowe Ransom. Tate contributed to the group's magazine The Fugitive; the aim of the group, according to the critic J. A. Bryant, was "to demonstrate that a group of southerners could produce important work in the medium, devoid of sentimentality and crafted," and they wrote in the formalist tradition that valued the skillful use of meter and rhyme; when Robert Penn Warren left Rhodes College to accept a position at Louisiana State University, he recommended Tate to replace him. Tate accepted the position, spent 1934-36 as lecturer in English at Rhodes.
Tate joined Ransom to teach at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Some of his notable students there included the poets Randall Jarrell. Lowell's early poetry was influenced by Tate's formalist brand of Modernism. In 1924, Tate moved to New York City where he met poet Hart Crane, with whom he had been exchanging correspondence for some time. Over a four-year period, he worked freelance for The Nation, contributed to the Hound & Horn, Poetry magazine, others. To make ends meet, he worked as a janitor. During a summer visit with the poet Robert Penn Warren in Kentucky, he began a relationship with writer Caroline Gordon; the two lived together in Greenwich Village, but moved to "Robber Rocks", a house in Patterson, New York, with friends Slater Brown and his wife Sue, Hart Crane, Malcolm Cowley. Tate married Gordon in New York in May 1925, their daughter Nancy was born in September. In 1928, along with others New York City friends, he went to Europe. In London, he visited with T. S. Eliot, whose poetry and criticism he admired, he visited Paris.
In 1928, Tate published his first book of poetry, Mr. Pope and Other Poems, which contained his most famous poem, "Ode to the Confederate Dead"; that same year, Tate published a biography Stonewall Jackson: The Good Soldier. Just before leaving for Europe in 1928, Tate described himself to John Gould Fletcher as "an enforced atheist", he told Fletcher, "I am an atheist, but a religious one — which means that there is no organization for my religion." He regarded secular attempts to develop a system of thought for the modern world as misguided. "Only God," he insisted, "can give the affair a genuine purpose." In his essay "The Fallacy of Humanism", he criticized the New Humanists for creating a value system without investing it with any identifiable source of authority. "Religion is the only technique for the validation of values," he wrote. Although he was attracted to Roman Catholicism, he deferred converting. Louis D. Rubin, Jr. observes that Tate may have waited "because he realized that for him at this time it would be only a strategy, an intellectual act".
In 1929, Tate published a second biography Jefferson Davis: Fall. After two years abroad, he returned to the United States, in 1930 was back in Tennessee. Here he took up residence at Riverview, an antebellum mansion with an 85-acre estate attached, bought for him by one of his brothers, "who had made a lot of northern money out of coal." He resumed his senior position with the Fugitives. Along with fellow Fugitives and Ransom, as well as nine other Southern writers, Tate joined the conservative political group known as the Southern Agrarians; the group was made up of 12 members who published essays on their political philosophy in the book I'll Take My Stand published in 1930. Tate contributed "Remarks on the Southern Religion" to I'll Take My Stand; this book was followed in 1938 by Who Owns America?, the Southern Agrarians' response to The New Deal. During this time, Tate became the de facto associate editor of The American Review, published and edited by Seward Collins. Tate believed, he objected to Collins's open support of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, condemned Fascism in an article in The New Republic in 1936.
Much of Tate's major volumes of poetry were published in the 1930s, the scholar David Havird describes this publication history in poetry as follows: By 1937, when he published his first Selected Poems, Tate had written all of the shorter poems upon which his literary reputation came to rest. This collection--which brought together work from two recent volumes, Poems: 1928-1931 and the printed The Mediterranean and Other Poems, as well as the early Mr. Pope--included "Mother and Son," "Last Days of Alice," "The Wolves," "The Mediterranean," "Aeneas at Washington," "Sonnets at Christmas," and the final version of "Ode to the Confederate Dead." In 1938 Tate published his only novel, The Fathers, which drew upon knowledge of his mother's ancestral home and family in Fairfax County, Virginia. Tate and Gordon were divorced in 1945 and remarried in 1946. Though devoted to one another for life, they could not get along and divorced again. Tate was a poet-in-residence at Princeton University until 1942.
He founded the Creative Writi
Ascanius a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus. He is a character in Roman mythology, has a divine lineage, being the son of Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the hero Anchises, a relative of the king Priam, he is an ancestor of Romulus and the Gens Julia. Together with his father, he is a major character in Virgil's Aeneid, he is depicted as one of the founders of the Roman race. In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas and Creusa, daughter of Priam. After the Trojan War, as the city burned, Aeneas escaped to Latium in Italy, taking his father Anchises and his child Ascanius with him, though Creusa died during the escape. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Ascanius' original name was Euryleon and this name was changed to Ascanius after his flight from Troy. According to Virgil, Ascanius was called Iulus or Julus; the Gens Julia, or the Julians, the clan to which Julius Caesar belonged, claimed to have been descended from Ascanius/Iulus, his father Aeneas, the goddess Venus, the mother of Aeneas in myth, his father being the mortal Anchises.
According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Julus was a son of Ascanius who disputed the succession of the kingdom of Alba Longa with Silvius, upon the death of Ascanius. According to another legend mentioned by Livy, Ascanius may have been the son of Aeneas and Lavinia and thus born in Latium, not Troy. Ascanius fought in the Italian Wars along with his father Aeneas. After the death of Aeneas, Ascanius became king of Lavinium and an Etruscan king named Mezentius took advantage of the occasion to besiege the city. Mezentius agree to pay a yearly tribute. Upon his retirement, Ascanius fell upon him and his army unaware and defeated Mezentius and killed his son Lausus. Mezentius was forced to agree to pay a yearly tribute. Subsequent to this thirty years after the founding of Lavinium, Ascanius founded the city of Alba Longa and became its first king, he left Lavinia, in charge of the city of Lavinium. Ascanius was succeeded by Silvius, either the younger brother of Ascanius or his son. Ascanius died in the 28th year of his reign.
However, in the Aeneid, Virgil claims that Mezentius fought in the Italian Wars at the time Aeneas was alive. In the Aeneid, it is Aeneas who kills Lausus after harming Mezentius, who escaped while his son faced the Trojan king; when the news about Lausus' death reaches Mezentius, he comes back to face Aeneas, is killed too. In this account Ascanius does not participate in these deaths. Virgil shows Ascanius' first experience at war. In the Aeneid, Ascanius is a teenager without real war experiences, but while besieged by the Italians, Ascanius launches an arrow against Numanus, the husband of the youngest sister of Turnus. After killing Numanus, Apollo comes and says to Ascanius: Macte nova virtute, puer: sic itur ad astra, dis genite et geniture deos; this phrase can be translated into English as: "Go forth with new value, boy: thus is the path to the stars. Or "Blessings on your fresh courage, scion of gods and ancestor of gods yet to be, so it is man rises to the stars." In this verse, Virgil makes a clear reference to the offspring of Iulus, from whom Augustus Caesar claimed descent.
Therefore, in this verse Virgil refers to the Gens Julia, the family of Augustus and Julius Caesar, deified after his death. The sic itur ad astra become proverbial and several mottos use an ad astra phrase. After this episode, Apollo orders to the Trojans to keep Ascanius away from the war. In this same episode Ascanius, before launching the fatal arrow in Numanus, prays to Jupiter, saying: Jupiter omnipotens, audacibus annue cœptis The translation is: "Omnipotent Jupiter, please favour my audacity" or "All-powerful Jupiter, assent to my bold attempt"; the last part of the hexameter became. The name Iulus was popularised by Virgil in the Aeneid: replacing the Greek name Ascanius with Iulus linked the Julian family of Rome to earlier mythology; the emperor Augustus, who commissioned the work, was a great patron of the arts. As a member of the Julian family, he could claim to have four major Olympian gods in his family tree:, so he encouraged his many poets to emphasize his supposed descent from Aeneas.
Augustan literature Gens Julia Kingdom of Rome The Golden Bough Livy, Ab urbe condita Book 1. Virgil, Book IX; the Aeneid in Latin The Aeneid in English
Troy was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, just south of the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik, it was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον. A new capital called, it flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric and declined in the Byzantine era, but is now a Latin Catholic titular see. In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale; these excavations revealed several cities built in succession.
Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik site, on Calvert's property. Troy VII has been identified with the city called Wilusa by the Hittites and is identified with Homeric Troy. Today, the hill at Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site, it lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye; the map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and trade. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC.
Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII. In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander, where they beached their ships; the city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of Scamander were much closer to the city, discharging into a large bay that formed a natural harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, the results confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region, they compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid; the Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language, spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not clear whether Luwian was the official language or in daily colloquial use.
With the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation; the Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas, a ruined town 20 km south of the accepted location. In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the site of Troy, a mound 5 km south of the accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most accepted theory for a century. In 1822, the Scottis
A prophecy is a message, claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god. Such messages involve inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of divine will concerning the prophet's social world and events to come. All known ancient cultures had prophets; the English noun "prophecy", in the sense of "function of a prophet" appeared from about 1225, from Old French profecie, from prophetia, Greek propheteia "gift of interpreting the will of God", from Greek prophetes. The related meaning, "thing spoken or written by a prophet", dates from c. 1300, while the verb "to prophesy" is recorded by 1377. Maimonides suggested that "prophecy is, in truth and reality, an emanation sent forth by Divine Being through the medium of the Active Intellect, in the first instance to man's rational faculty, to his imaginative faculty"; the views of Maimonides relate to the definition by Al-Fârâbî, who developed the theory of prophecy in Islam. Much of the activity of Old Testament prophets involved conditional warnings rather than immutable futures.
A summary of a standard Old Testament prophetic formula might run: Repent of sin X and turn to righteousness, otherwise consequence Y will occur. Saint Paul emphasizes edification and comfort in a definition of prophesying; the Catholic Encyclopedia defines a Christian conception of prophecy as "understood in its strict sense, it means the foreknowledge of future events, though it may sometimes apply to past events of which there is no memory, to present hidden things which cannot be known by the natural light of reason". According to Western esotericist Rosemary Guiley, clairvoyance has been used as an adjunct to "divination and magic". Modern research in prophecy is a pseudoscience. In general, a diviner's foretelling or a prophetic prediction of the future does not adhere to the scientific method, therefore it is no object of science. From a skeptical point of view, a Latin maxim exists: "prophecy written after the fact"; the Jewish Torah deals with the topic of the false prophet. In 1863, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to have been the promised messianic figure of all previous religions, a Manifestation of God, a type of prophet in the Bahá'í writings that serves as intermediary between the divine and humanity and who speaks with the voice of a god.
Bahá'u'lláh claimed that, while being imprisoned in the Siyah-Chal in Iran, he underwent a series of mystical experiences including having a vision of the Maid of Heaven who told him of his divine mission, the promise of divine assistance. The Haedong Kosung-jon records that King Beopheung of Silla had desired to promulgate Buddhism as the state religion. However, officials in his court opposed him. In the fourteenth year of his reign, Beopheung's "Grand Secretary", devised a strategy to overcome court opposition. Ichadon schemed with the king, convincing him to make a proclamation granting Buddhism official state sanction using the royal seal. Ichadon told the king to deny having made such a proclamation when the opposing officials received it and demanded an explanation. Instead, Ichadon would confess and accept the punishment of execution, for what would be seen as a forgery. Ichadon prophesied to the king that at his execution a wonderful miracle would convince the opposing court faction of Buddhism's power.
Ichadon's scheme went as planned, the opposing officials took the bait. When Ichadon was executed on the 15th day of the 9th month in 527, his prophecy was fulfilled; the omen was accepted by the opposing court officials as a manifestation of heaven's approval, Buddhism was made the state religion in 527. In ancient Chinese, prophetic texts are known as Chen; the most famous Chinese prophecy is the Tui bei tu. The New Testament refers to prophecy as one of the spiritual gifts given by the indwelling Holy Spirit. From this, many Christians believe that the gift of prophecy is the supernatural ability to receive and convey a message from their God; the purpose of the message may be to "edify and comfort" the members of the Church. In this context, not all prophecies contain predictions about the future; the Apostle Paul teaches in First Corinthians that prophecy is for the benefit of the whole Church and not just of the individual exercising the gift. According to Walter Brueggemann, the task of prophetic ministry is to nurture and evoke a consciousness and perception alternative to the consciousness and perception of the dominant culture.
A recognized form of Christian prophecy is the "prophetic drama" which Frederick Dillistone describes as a "metaphorical conjunction between present situations and future events". In his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr argued that prophets were no longer among Israel but were in the Church; the Shepherd of Hermas, written around the mid-2nd century, describes the way prophecy was being used within the church of that time. Irenaeus confirms the existence of such spiritual gifts in his Against Heresies. Although some modern commentators claim that Montanus was rejected because he claimed to be a prophet, a careful examination of history shows that the gift of prophecy was still acknowledged during the time of Montanus, that he was controversial because of the manner in which he prophesied and the doctrines h