The Monarch's Way is a 625-mile long-distance footpath in England that approximates the escape route taken by King Charles II in 1651 after being defeated in the Battle of Worcester. It runs from Worcester via Yeovil to Brighton. All of the footpath is waymarked; the waymark is yellow and shows a picture of the ship Surprise above the Prince of Wales three-point feathered crown, superimposed on a Royal Oak tree in black. This route is shown as a series of green diamonds on the Ordnance Survey 1:25000 maps and of red diamonds on its 1:50000 maps. From its starting point at Worcester the route travels north to Boscobel and south to Stratford upon Avon, it continues south to Stow on the Wold before turning south west towards Bristol via Cirencester. South of Bristol the route is directly south across the Mendip Hills to Wells, continues through Somerset to Yeovil and south west to Charmouth in Dorset. There is a short section along the Dorset coast before turning north again to Yeovil, before turning east and following much of the escarpment of Cranborne Chase, the Hampshire Downs and South Downs to Shoreham-by-Sea where it has a short extension to neighbouring Brighton and Hove, being its historic port and today a main yachting centre in Sussex.
The Monarch's Way is an approximation of the King's route using available public rights of way and visiting places noted in the historic records. Most of the route has been radically changed in the intervening centuries by enclosure, mining and the building of roads and railways. Use of canals and disused railways allows a more pleasant walk than taking to the public highway and provides an insight into industrial history of the Black Country. A memorial near Powick Bridge commemorates the thousands of Scots who perished in the Royalist cause at the Battle of Worcester. Powick Bridge saw both the last engagements of the English Civil War. From here the footpath follows the banks of the River Teme and River Severn across the battlefield to enter the'Faithful City' of Worcester; the King watched the battle unfold from the tower of the cathedral before fleeing with Colonel Charles Giffard of Chillington and others. The Monarch's Way leaves the city past the Commandery, now a museum, on the towpath of the Worcester & Birmingham Canal crossing to the Droitwich Canal, to Droitwich.
Heading north it passes Chaddesley Hagley on its way to Stourbridge. Here it joins the towpath of the Stourbridge Canal negotiating the four locks at Stourton to join the Staffordshire & Worcestershire Canal. Continuing north along the canal to the Bratch Locks at Wombourne to pick up the trackbed of the former Oxford and Wolverhampton Railway now the South Staffordshire Railway Walk to Oaken. Leaving the railway the northerly route continues passing Pendrell Hall and Boscobel to White Ladies Priory; the King was hidden overnight in the house by Richard Pendrell. The next part of the route traces the King's unsuccessful attempt to cross the River Severn to escape into Wales. Leaving White Ladies and the nearby Pendrell home at Hubbal Grange the route turns west via Tong to Evelith Mill and Kemberton. Reaching Madeley it became apparent that the river crossings were well guarded and the King spent a night in the'Royal Barn' before beating a hasty retreat. Retracing the route through Norton and Beckbury to Boscobel House where the King hid in an oak tree to avoid capture.
A descendant of the Royal Oak stands in the grounds of the English Heritage property. An alternative plan was hatched for the King's escape and the path now heads east. Crossing the grounds of Chillington Hall and using sections of the Shropshire Union Canal and Staffordshire & Worcestershire Canal it reaches Moseley Old Hall, now a National Trust property, where the King was hidden in a'Priest hole'. From Moseley Old Hall the King left in the night for Bentley Hall with Colonel Lane; the Monarch's Way passes Northycote Farm and Essington before entering the fringe of the urban West Midlands. The route follows the Wyrley & Essington Canal the'Curly Wyrley' and the ancient forest at Rough Wood to reach Bentley Hall at Bentley, West Midlands; the Monarch's Way picks up the closed Anson Branch Canal. This section of the Monarch's Way follows the canal system through the heart of the Black Country using Walsall Canal, Wednesbury Old Canal, Netherton Tunnel and Dudley Canal to Halesowen. Bromsgrove, Headless Cross, Wootton Wawen, Welcombe Hills Country Park Finally following the canal until it joins the River Avon in the centre of Stratford-upon-Avon.
The Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon is the start of this leg of the Monarch's Way. Following the west bank of the River Avon south and passing Holy Trinity Church, with its connections to William Shakespeare. Crossing both the River Avon the River Stour near to Stratford racecourse; the path follows the route of the Honeybourne Line to Long Marston. Leaving east on the route of the Heart of England Way and passing through Lower Quinton and Upper Quinton to meet with the Centenary Way which it follows east round Meon Hill at the start of the Cotswolds. Leaving the Centenary Way in a south westerly direction it enters Gloucestershire and passes Hidcote Manor Garden, owned by the National Trust, before rejoining the Heart of England Way; the path crosses Campden Tunnel on the Cotswold railway line and enters the market town of Chipping Campden. Moreton-in-Marsh, Stow-on-the-Wold, Cirencester, Chipping Sodbury, Wick; the Monarch's Way enters Somerset, having crossed the River Avon at Keynsham, where it diverts from the route taken by Charles II into Bristol and instead runs alongside the River Chew, where it shares
The Cotswold Way is a 102-mile long-distance footpath, running along the Cotswold Edge escarpment of the Cotswold Hills in England. It was inaugurated as a National Trail on 24 May 2007 and several new rights of way have been created; the Cotswold Way route was first suggested some 50 years ago by Gloucestershire-area Ramblers, of which Tony Drake of Cheltenham area and the late Cyril Trenfield of the South Gloucestershire area were principals. Although recognised as a suitable route for a National Trail in due course, the path was sponsored by Gloucestershire County Council, who had no powers of footpath creation, so used only existing rights of way. An early guide to the Way, in the hand-drawn pictorial style of Alfred Wainwright, was produced by another Cheltenham-area rambler, Mark Richards, in 1973; the foreword from Tony Drake says: "... it is necessary to trace the history of the project to date. Following the passing of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act of 1949, which made provision for the designation and creation of long distance paths, I put forward the idea of a footpath route following the Cotswold escarpment.
This met with great interest but the plans which the Gloucestershire Committee of the Ramblers Association submitted to the National Parks Commission in 1953, though acknowledged and mentioned in the Commission's annual report of that year, was pigeonholed and forgotten until Gloucestershire County Council prepared its recreational plan for the countryside in 1968. The County Council decided to designate a Cotswold Way route itself, using existing public rights of way, the scheme was launched during Footpath Week in May 1970; the Way has had priority in signposting and waymarking programmes but until the Countryside Commission get ministerial approval to create a national route, grants will not be available for maintenance and several desirable rights of way, where none now exist are unlikely to be created." A memorial to Trenfield in the form of a bench is on the Way near Dyrham Park. As it follows the scarp of the Cotswold Edge, the Cotswold Way affords views to the north and west—starting in the south with the Severn Estuary and Severn bridges, the meanders of the River Severn above Sharpness, the Forest of Dean, the Welsh hills of Monmouthshire and the Black Mountains on the Welsh border to the west.
The distinctive shape of May Hill is visible for much of the route, as is the long spine of the Malvern Hills. Gloucester Cathedral can be seen from the path. Further north on the path, above Cheltenham, there are old quarries containing rock features such as the Devil's Chimney at Leckhampton. After Cleeve Hill the escarpment starts to turn to the east, giving views across the Vale of Evesham; the classic Cotswold villages of Stanton and Stanway are visited Broadway village, before the final steep ascent to Broadway Tower and the scenic descent to Chipping Campden. On a clear day, the Clee Hills near Ludlow can be seen, 60 miles to the northwest; the 102-mile trail runs northeast from Bath to Chipping Campden, through or near to the following towns: Old Sodbury, near Chipping Sodbury, Wotton-under-Edge, Stroud, Cranham, Cheltenham, Winchcombe and Broadway. It passes numerous places of interest, including the site of the Battle of Lansdowne, the Somerset Monument, the Tyndale Monument, Sudeley Castle, Cleeve Hill, Hailes Abbey, the Broadway Tower.
With the exception of a small stretch around Broadway, the entire walk is within Gloucestershire and Somerset. Besides being popular with walkers, the Cotswold Way is run annually as a 10-stage relay from north to south in late June or early July; the winning team takes an aggregate time of about 12 hours. It is organised by City of Bath Athletic Club, it is traditional for the first leg to start from Chipping Campden promptly at 7 am. The lead runners finish the final leg outside the doors of Bath Abbey at about 6pm. In September, the Cotswold Way is run as a single stage race from north to South, leaving Chipping Campden at noon on a Saturday and finishing in Bath from 6am until 6pm the following day in front of Bath Abbey; the race is organised by Cotswold Running. The official record for running the Costwold Way is held by Nathan Montegue of Swindon Harriers, who on 24 September 2014 ran from Chipping Campden to Bath in 19 hours and 31 minutes. Long-distance footpaths in the United Kingdom
Matthew Hale (jurist)
Sir Matthew Hale was an influential English barrister and lawyer most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, or The History of the Pleas of the Crown. Born to a barrister and his wife, who had both died by the time he was 5, Hale was raised by his father's relative, a strict Puritan, inherited his faith. In 1626 he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, intending to become a priest, but after a series of distractions was persuaded to become a barrister like his father thanks to an encounter with a Serjeant-at-Law in a dispute over his estate. On 8 November 1628 he joined Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the Bar on 17 May 1636; as a barrister, Hale represented a variety of Royalist figures during the prelude and duration of the English Civil War, including Thomas Wentworth and William Laud. Despite the Royalist loss, Hale's reputation for integrity and his political neutrality saved him from any repercussions, under the Commonwealth of England he was made Chairman of the Hale Commission, which investigated law reform.
Following the Commission's dissolution, Oliver Cromwell made him a Justice of the Common Pleas. As a judge, Hale was noted for his resistance to bribery and his willingness to make politically unpopular decisions which upheld the law, he sat in Parliament, either in the Commons or the Upper House, in every Parliament from the First Protectorate Parliament to the Convention Parliament, following the Declaration of Breda was the Member of Parliament who moved to consider Charles II's reinstatement as monarch, sparking the English Restoration. Under Charles, Hale was made first Chief Baron of the Exchequer and Chief Justice of the King's Bench. In both positions, he was again noted for his integrity, although not as a innovative judge. Following a bout of illness he retired on 20 February 1676, dying ten months on 25 December 1676. Hale is universally appreciated as an excellent judge and jurist, with his central legacy coming through his written work, published after his death, his Historia Placitorum Coronæ, dealing with capital offences against the Crown, is considered "of the highest authority", while his Analysis of the Common Law is noted as the first published history of English law and a strong influence on William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England.
Hale's jurisprudence struck a middle-ground between Edward Coke's "appeal to reason" and John Selden's "appeal to contract", while refuting elements of Thomas Hobbes's theory of natural law. His thoughts on marital rape, expressed in the Historia, continued in English law until 1991, he was cited in court as as 2009. Hale was born on 1 November 1609 in West End House in Alderley, Gloucestershire to Robert Hale, a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, Joanna Poyntz, his father gave up his practice as a barrister several years before Hale's birth "because he could not understand the reason of giving colour in pleadings". This refers to a process through which the defendant would refer a case over the validity of his title to land to a judge instead of a jury, through claiming a allegation about this right; such an allegation would be a question of law rather than a question of fact, as such decided by the judge with no reference to the jurors. Although in common use, Robert Hale saw this as deceptive and "contrary to the exactness of truth and justice which became a Christian.
John Hostettler, in his biography of Matthew Hale, points out that his father's concerns about giving colour in pleadings could not have been strong "since he not only retired to his estate at Alderley where he managed to live on his wife's inherited income, but directed in his will that Matthew should make a career in the law". Both of Hale's parents died, it was revealed that Robert had been so generous in giving money to the poor that at his death his estate provided only £100 of income a year, of which £20 was to be paid to the local poor. Hale thus passed into the care of one of his father's relatives. A strong Puritan, Kingscot had Hale taught by a Mr. Stanton, the vicar of Wotton known as the "scandalous vicar" due to his extremist puritan views. On 20 October 1626, at the age of 16, Hale matriculated at the University of Oxford as a member of Magdalen Hall, with the goal of becoming a priest. Both Kingscot and Stanton had intended this to be his career, his education had been conducted with that in mind.
He was taught by Obadiah Sedgwick, another Puritan, excelled in both his studies and fencing. Hale regularly attended church, private prayer-meetings, was described as "simple in his attire, rather aesthetic". After a company of actors came to Oxford, Hale attended so many plays and other social activities that his studies began to suffer, he began to turn away from Puritanism. In light of this, he abandoned his desire to become a priest and instead decided to become a soldier, his relatives were unable to persuade him to become a priest, or a lawyer, with Hale describing lawyers as "a barbarous set of people unfit for anything but their own trade". His plans to become a soldier died after a legal battle concerning his estate, in which he consulted John Glanville. Glanville persuaded Hale to become a lawyer, after leaving Oxford at the age of 20 before obtaining a degree, he joined Lincoln's Inn on 8 November 1628. Fearing that the theatre might dissuade him from his legal studies as it had a
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio