Mount Sneffels is the highest summit of the Sneffels Range in the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,158-foot fourteener is located in the Mount Sneffels Wilderness of Uncompahgre National Forest, 6.7 miles west by south of the City of Ouray in Ouray County, United States. The summit of Mount Sneffels is the highest point in Ouray County. Mount Sneffels is notable for its great vertical relief, as it rises 7,200 feet above the town of Ridgway, Colorado 6 miles to the northeast; the primary route to the summit follows a creek bed up from Yankee Boy Basin. A secondary route follows a ridge line to the summit from the saddle of Blue Lakes Pass. Mount Sneffels was named after the volcano Snæfell, located on the tip of the Snæfellsnes peninsula in Iceland; that mountain and its glacier, Snæfellsjökull, which caps the crater like a convex lens, were featured in the Jules Verne novel A Journey to the Center of the Earth. An area on the western flank of Mount Sneffels gives the appearance of volcanic crater.
Seen from the Dallas Divide on State Highway 62, Mount Sneffels is one of the most photographed mountains in Colorado. Mount Blaine Mount Sneffels – 1906 Sneffels Peak List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Mount Sneffels on 14ers.com
Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve
Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve managed by the National Park Service in south central Alaska; the park and preserve were established in 1980 by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The protected areas are included in an International Biosphere Reserve and are part of the Kluane/Wrangell–St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek UNESCO World Heritage Site; the park and preserve form the largest area managed by the National Park Service with a total of 13,175,799 acres, an expanse that could encapsulate a total of six Yellowstone National Parks. The park includes a large portion of the Saint Elias Mountains, which include most of the highest peaks in the United States and Canada, yet are within 10 miles of tidewater, one of the highest reliefs in the world. Wrangell–St. Elias borders on Canada's Kluane National Park and Reserve to the east and approaches another American national park to the south, Glacier Bay; the chief distinction between park and preserve lands is that sport hunting is prohibited in the park and permitted in the preserve.
In addition, 9,078,675 acres of the park are designated as the largest single wilderness in the United States. Wrangell–St. Elias National Monument was designated on December 1, 1978, by President Jimmy Carter using the Antiquities Act, pending final legislation to resolve the allotment of public lands in Alaska. Establishment as a national park and preserve followed the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980; the park has long cold winters and a short summer season. Plate tectonics are responsible for the uplift of the mountain ranges; the park's extreme high point is Mount Saint Elias at 18,008 feet, the second tallest mountain in both the United States and Canada. The park has been shaped by the competing forces of glaciation. Mount Wrangell is one of several volcanoes in the western Wrangell Mountains. In the St. Elias Range, Mount Churchill has erupted explosively within the past 2,000 years; the park's glacial features include Malaspina Glacier, the largest piedmont glacier in North America, Hubbard Glacier, the longest tidewater glacier in Alaska, Nabesna Glacier, the world's longest valley glacier.
The Bagley Icefield covers much of the park's interior, which includes 60% of the permanently ice-covered terrain in Alaska. At the center of the park, the boomtown of Kennecott exploited one of the world's richest deposits of copper from 1903 to 1938, exposed by and in part incorporated into Kennicott Glacier; the abandoned mine buildings and mills comprise a National Historic Landmark district. Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve includes the entire Wrangell range, the western portion of the Saint Elias Mountains and the eastern portion of the Chugach Mountains. Lesser ranges in the park or preserve include the Nutzotin Mountains, which are an extension of the Alaska Range, the Granite Range and the Robinson Mountains. Broad rivers run in glacial valleys between the ranges, including the Chitina River, Chisana River and the Nabesna River. All but the Chisana and Nabesna are tributaries to the Copper River, which flows along the western margin of the park and which has its headwaters within the park, at the Copper Glacier.
The park includes dozens of icefields. The Bagley Icefield covers portions of the St. Elias and Chugach ranges, Malaspina Glacier covers most of the southeastern extension of the park, with Hubbard Glacier at the park's extreme eastern boundary, the largest tidewater glacier in North America; the eastern boundary of the park is Alaska's border with Canada, where it is adjoined by Kluane National Park and Reserve. On the southeast the park is bounded by Tongass National Forest and the Gulf of Alaska; the remainder of the southern boundary follows the crest of the Chugach Mountains, adjoining Chugach National Forest. The western boundary is the Copper River, the northern boundary follows the Mentasta Mountains and borders Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. Mount St. Elias is the second highest mountain in the United States. In total nine of the 16 highest peaks on U. S. soil are located in the park, along with North America's largest subpolar icefield, rivers, an active volcano, the historic Kennecott copper mines.
Both the St. Elias and Wrangell ranges have seen volcanic activity; the St. Elias volcanoes are considered extinct, but some of the volcanoes of the Wrangell Range have been active in Holocene time. Ten separate volcanoes have been documented in the western Wrangell Range, of which Mount Blackburn is the highest and Mount Wrangell is the most active. Mount St. Elias is situated on the border of Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Kluane National Park and Reserve. At 18,074 feet,Nearly 66 percent of park and preserve land is designated as wilderness. Wrangell–St. Elias Wilderness is the largest designated wilderness in the United States; the park region is divided between national park lands, which only allow subsistence hunting by local rural residents, preserve lands, which allow sport hunting by the general public. Preserve lands include the Chitina valley north of the river, two parts of the Copper River valley east of the river, most of the Chisana and Nabesna valleys, lands along Yakutat Bay.
The park is accessible by highway from Anchorage. Chartered aircraft fly into the park. Wrangell–St. Elias received 79,450 visitors in 2018; the park area includes a few small settlements. Nabesna and Chisana are in the nort
Crestone Peak is the seventh-highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the U. S. state of Colorado. The prominent 14,300-foot fourteener is the highest summit of the Crestones and the second-highest summit in the Sangre de Cristo Range after Blanca Peak; the summit is located in the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness of Rio Grande National Forest, 5.0 miles east by south of the Town of Crestone in Saguache County, United States. Crestone Peak rises 7,000 feet above the east side of the San Luis Valley, it shares its name with another fourteener of the Crestones. The Crestones are a cluster of high summits in the Sangre de Cristo Range, comprising Crestone Peak, Crestone Needle, Kit Carson Peak, Challenger Point, Humboldt Peak, Columbia Point, they are accessed from common trailheads. Climbs of Crestone Peak or Crestone Needle start from a base camp at South Colony Lakes, east of the peak, accessed from the Wet Mountain Valley on the northeast side of the range; this route involves nearly 6,000 ft of elevation gain, ascends to a large flat area called "The Pool Table" or the "Bears' Playground."
It ascends a long gully on the northwest side of Crestone Peak, which involves some rockfall danger. Crestone Peak is one of the more dangerous fourteener. Alternatively, the Cottonwood Creek route begins in the San Luis Valley and approaches the Crestones from the west; the route follows Cottonwood Creek to Cottonwood Lake. The trail starts out well defined, but after passing a south eastern tributary at 11,1000ft it becomes faint, poorly maintained, hard to follow for much of the upper route prior to rejoining the standard route from South Colony Lakes. From there, the South Face route of Crestone Peak is accessible. From Crestone Peak, it is a mildly technical ridge scramble to the summit of Crestone Needle in the other direction. However, Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle are more climbed separately. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado county high points List of Colorado fourteeners Crestone Peak statistics at 14ers.com
Nevado de Toluca
Nevado de Toluca is a stratovolcano in central Mexico, located about 80 kilometres west of Mexico City near the city of Toluca. It is cited as the fourth highest of Mexico's peaks, after Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, although by some measurements, Sierra Negra is higher; the volcano and the area around it is now a national park. It is called by the Nahuatl name Xinantecatl, translated as The Naked Lord, Señor Desnudo in Spanish, although other etymologies have been suggested such as "Lord of the Corn Stalks", Tzinacantecatl or Zinacantepec. Further evidence regarding the etymologies of this mountain has surfaced after many archeology discoveries in and around the area, it has been concluded that its correct etymology is Chicnauhtecatl meaning "nine lakes" as the top of the cone has various deep lakes. The volcano has a 1.5-kilometre wide summit caldera, open to the east. The highest summit, 4,680-metre Pico del Fraile, is on the southwest side of the crater and the second highest, 4,640-metre Pico del Aguila, is on the northwest.
There are two crater lakes on the floor of the basin at about 4,200 m, the larger Lago del Sol and the smaller, but deeper, Lago de la Luna. A road ran into the caldera to the lakes, but is now gated 2 km before the lakes. From the southeast, Nevado de Toluca looks like shoulders without a head. A Nahuatl legend provides a mythical explanation, it is believed that Nevado de Toluca may once have been as tall as Popocatépetl, until an enormous eruption nearly 25,000 years ago blasted the top of the cone off and reduced its height by as much as 900 m. The same eruption generated mudflows, which coated the sides of the mountains. An eruption 500 years deposited layers of pumice on the mountain's east and northeast slopes; the last major eruption of Nevado de Toluca occurred about 10,500 years ago, as the volcano erupted a total estimated volume of 14 km3 for a VEI strength of 6. The eruption emplaced 1.5 m of pebble-sized pumice in the City of Toluca region and ~50 cm of medium to fine sand in the Mexico City region.
Distal lahar deposits derived from the Upper Toluca Pumice event incorporated mammoth bones and other mammals in the basin of Mexico. The volcano became inactive after a volcanic plug formed in the volcano's vent; the plug became known as El Ombligo. Near the summit, Nevado de Toluca has a cold alpine climate with cold temperatures year round. There is little variation in the temperatures and frost and snow can occur in any month; the dry season covers from November to March and precipitation is low, averaging 12.4 millimetres in March, the driest month. Temperatures during this time are cold; the wet season spans from May to October and precipitation is high, averaging 243.5 millimetres in July. The summit is foggy, averaging 110 days with fog, most of it during the rainy season; the wettest record month was July 2008 when 513.5 millimetres of precipitation fell and the wettest recorded day was July 16, 1999 when 90.5 millimetres of precipitation fell. The highest temperature recorded was 23 °C on August 16, 1993 and the lowest temperature recorded was −10 °C on February 2, 2004.
There are 18 registered archeological sites in the park, as this was a ritual center during pre-Hispanic periods. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote about the lakes as a place where the indigenous held ceremonies and sacrifices; the lakes themselves are considered to be two sites, as a large number of offerings copal, were deposited in the lakes. These deposits can be found all over the lakebed as the burning copal was set adrift on the lakes’ waters until it sank. Other objects have been found such as sculpted stones. Divers used to sack many of the pieces found here but now authorities monitor those who dive. Most of the other sites are found on the crater's peaks. One of the sites is called Xicotepec, at the top of a rocky dome known as the Cerro de Ombligo. Principally green obsidian blades and multicolored ceramic has been found here. On the north side of the crater is Pico Sahagun, with ceramic pieces, Picos Heilprin North and South in which various types of objects have been found, El Mirador, thought to be related the marking of the zenith of the sun.
A stele found. The site at the highest altitude is Pico Noreste at 4,130 meters above sea level, it is a small platform with drainage on, found deteriorated ceramic pieces. On the west side is the Cerro Prieto Cave, a rock shelter, more than 60 meters high. Not only does it contain evidence of pre-Hispanic visits but has been a shrine to the Archangel Michael since the colonial period. There have been intermittent archeological excavations here with the most recent occurring in 2010 sponsored by INAH which found artifacts dating from the Epi-Classic and Post-Classic periods and showed that the crater was a meeting place for astronomer priests to predict the growing season. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Mexico List of volcanoes in Mexico List of Ultras of Mexico Nevado de Toluca National Park Arqueologia Mexicana Global Volcanism Program: Nevado de Toluca Arce, J. L..
Mount Evans is the highest summit of the Chicago Peaks in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 14,271-foot fourteener is located in the Mount Evans Wilderness, 13.4 miles southwest by south of the City of Idaho Springs in Clear Creek County, United States, on the drainage divide between Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest. The peak is one of the characteristic Front Range peaks, dominating the western skyline of the Great Plains along with Pikes Peak, Longs Peak, nearby Mount Bierstadt. Mount Evans can be seen from over 100 miles away to the east, many miles in other directions. Mount Evans dominates rising over 9,000 feet above the area. Mount Evans can be seen from points south of Castle Rock, up to and as far north as Fort Collins, from areas near Limon. In the early days of Colorado tourism, Mount Evans and Denver were in competition with Pikes Peak and Colorado Springs. Mount Evans is the highest peak in a massif known as the Chicago Peaks; the peak is 35 miles west of Denver, "as the crow flies", 51 miles by road, via Idaho Springs.
The other peaks in the massif are: Mount Spalding, 1.1 mi northwest Gray Wolf Mountain, 2.2 mi north-northwest The Sawtooth, 1.2 mi west Mount Bierstadt, 1.5 mi west-southwest Mount Warren, 1.2 mi north-northeast Rogers Peak, 2.33 mi northeast. At least 7 deep glacial cirques cut into the Chicago Range; the cirques around Mount Evans are the deepest cirques in the Colorado Rockies. The bottoms of many of these contain tarns, the most notable being: Summit Lake at the head of Bear Creek, 0.5 miles north the Chicago Lakes at the head of Chicago Creek, 2 miles north Abyss Lake at the head of Lake Fork, 1 mile west-southwestThe Mount Evans Scenic Byway consists of State Highway 103 from Idaho Springs, Colorado on I-70 about 13 miles to Echo Lake, Colorado 5 from Echo Lake 15 miles, ending at a parking area and turnaround just below the summit. The latter is only open in the summer. Colorado 103 continues east from Echo Lake to Squaw Pass, from which it connects, via Clear Creek County Road 103 and Jefferson County Road 66, to Bergen Park from which Colorado 74 leads to Evergreen Colorado.
The Guanella Pass Scenic Byway passes within 4 miles west of Mount Evans, linking Georgetown and I-70 with Grant and US 285, 22 miles to the south. A marked hiking trail parallels the highway from Echo Lake to the summit, a second marked trail links Guanella Pass to Mount Bierstadt. A difficult side route of the latter climbs to the northeastern peak of The Sawtooth, from which an easy ridge leads to the summit of Mount Evans. Most of the Mount Evans massif is now part of the Mount Evans Wilderness area in Arapaho National Forest and Pike National Forest; the exception is a narrow corridor along the highway from Echo Lake, excluded from the wilderness. Summit Lake Park and Echo Lake Park, are part of the historic Denver Mountain Parks system. Mount Evans was known as Mount Rosa or Mount Rosalie. Albert Bierstadt named it for the wife of Fitz Hugh Ludlow, whom he married; the name is a reference to Monte Rosa, the highest peak in Switzerland. Bierstadt and his guide, William Newton Byers, approached the mountain along Chicago Creek from Idaho Springs in 1863, spent several days painting sketches of the mountain from the Chicago Lakes before climbing to Summit Lake and onward to the summit.
Bierstadt's sketch, Mountain Lake portrays the view of Mount Spalding over the Chicago Lakes. His painting, A Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mt. Rosalie, is based on other sketches. A second claim to be the first to ascend is attributed to Judge Lunt and a friend in 1872. William Henry Jackson, attached to the Hayden Survey, visited the Chicago Lakes in 1873, where he took numerous photographs; the Hayden survey reported that Mount Rosalie was 14,330 feet above sea level, measured by triangulation. In 1895, 30 years after he was forced to resign as governor because of his part in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre and its subsequent cover-up, Colorado's legislature renamed the peak in honor of John Evans, second governor of the Colorado Territory from 1862 to 1865; the history of the Mount Evans Scenic Byway is part of a larger story of the Denver Mountain Parks system. It began when the City and County of Denver initiated the construction of a series of automobile "scenic loops" to allow Denverites to explore the mountains.
One road circuit, Circle G, was to traverse the ridge to Squaw Pass on to Echo Lake, culminate in a climb up Mt. Evans, loop down to Idaho Springs. In order to achieve this goal, Denver Mountain Parks acquired a series of land parcels, including the acquisition of Bergen Park in 1915; the Bear Creek segment from the Genesee saddle to Bergen Park was finished in 1915, while the Denver Mountain Parks committee worked to make Mt. Evans a National Park, going as far as getting support in Congress for the construction of a "cement road" to the mountain; the first mile was paid for by Denver with the understanding that the State Highway Commission would do the rest. The Denver Mountain Parks committee was not without disagreement and setbacks, however. $30,000
Mount Hunter (Alaska)
Mount Hunter or Begguya is a mountain in Denali National Park in Alaska. It is eight miles south of Denali, the highest peak in North America. "Begguya" means child in the Dena'ina language. Mount Hunter is the third-highest major peak in the Alaska Range. Mount Hunter has a complex structure: it is topped by a large, low-angled glacier plateau, connecting the North Summit and the South Summit. Long, corniced ridges extend in various directions; the native name for the mountain is Begguya, meaning "Denali's Child". Early prospectors referred to the mountain as Mount Roosevelt. In 1903, Robert Dunn, a reporter for the New York Commercial Advertiser, visited the area as part of Frederick Cook's attempt to climb Mount McKinley, he bestowed the name of his aunt Anna Falconnet Hunter, who financed his trip, on a high nearby mountain, prominent from the northwest. This was, in a different peak, now known as Kahiltna Dome; the name Hunter was mistakenly applied to the present-day Mount Hunter by a government surveyor in 1906.
In October 2010, the South Summit was named Mount Stevens, after Ted Stevens, a former senator of Alaska. Despite being much lower in elevation than Denali, Mount Hunter is a more difficult climb, due to its steep faces and corniced ridges. Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm completed the first ascent in 1954, via the long West Ridge. Beginning in 1977, with Michael Kennedy and George Lowe's climb of a route on the northwest face of Mount Hunter, this steep rock and ice face has been the scene of many landmark hard climbs. 1954 West Ridge - first ascent of peak by Fred Beckey, Heinrich Harrer and Henry Meybohm 1977 Lowe-Kennedy, on the north face. 1979 South Spur by John Mallon Waterman 1981 Moonflower Buttress first ascent to last rock band by Mugs Stump and Paul Aubry. 1983 Moonflower Buttress to summit, first complete ascent by Todd Bibler and Doug Klewin. 1985 "Diamond Arete" first ascent by Jack Tackle and Jim Donini 1989 Northwest Face first ascent by Conrad Anker and Seth'S.
T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1994 Deprivation, first ascent by Scott Backes and Mark Francis Twight. 1994 Wall of Shadows, first ascent by Greg Child and Michael Kennedy. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Alaska List of the highest major summits of the United States List of the most prominent summits of the United States ^ This is excluding the North Peak and other sub-summits of Denali
Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla; the volcano is dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Pico de Orizaba overlooks the city of Orizaba, from which it gets its name; the name Citlaltépetl is not used by Nahuatl speakers of the Orizaba area, who instead call it Istaktepetl, or'White Mountain'. Citlaltépetl comes from the Náhuatl citlalli and tepētl and thus means "Star Mountain"; this name is thought to be based on the fact that the snow-covered peak can be seen year round for hundreds of kilometers throughout the region. During the colonial era, the volcano was known as Cerro de San Andrés due to the nearby settlement of San Andrés Chalchicomula at its base.
A third name, which means "the one that colors or illuminates", has been recorded. This name was given by the Tlaxcaltecs in memory of their lost country; the peak of Citlaltépetl rises to an elevation of 5,636 m above sea level. Regionally dominant, Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak in Mexico and the highest volcano in North America. Orizaba is ranked 7th in the world in topographic prominence, it is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano is ranked 16th in the world for topographic isolation. About 110 km to the west of the port of Veracruz, its peak is visible to ships approaching the port in the Gulf of Mexico, at dawn rays of sunlight strike the Pico while Veracruz still lies in shadow; the topography of Pico de Orizaba is asymmetrical from the center of the crater. The gradual slopes of the northwestern face of the volcano allows for the presence of large glaciers and is the most traveled route to take for hikers traveling to the summit.
Pico de Orizaba is one of only three volcanoes in México that continue to support glaciers and is home to the largest glacier in Mexico, Gran Glaciar Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers: Gran Glaciar Norte, Lengua del Chichimeco, Toro, Glaciar de la Barba, Occidental and Oriental; the equilibrium line altitude is not known for Orizaba. Snow on the south and southeast sides of the volcano melts because of solar radiation, but lower temperatures on the northwest and north sides allow for glaciers; the insolation angle and wind redeposition on the northwest and north sides allow for constant accumulation of snow providing a source for the outlet glaciers. On the north side of Orizaba, the Gran Glaciar Norte fills the elongated highland basin and is the source for seven outlet glaciers; the main glacier extends 3.5 km north of the crater rim, has a surface area of about 9.08 km2 descending from 5,650 m to about 5,000 m. It has a irregular and stepped profile, caused in part by the configuration of the bedrock.
Most crevasses show an ice thickness of 50 m. Below the 5,000 m in elevation on the north side of the volcano, the outlet glaciers Lengua del Chichimeco and Jamapa extend north and northwest another 1.5 km and 2 km, respectively. The terminal lobe of Lengua del Chichimeco at 4,740 m, having a gradient of only 140 m/km, is a low, broad ice fan that has a convex-upward profile, a front typical of all Mexican glaciers; the most distinct glacier is Glaciar de Jamapa, which leaves Gran Glaciar Norte at about 4,975 m and, after 2 km with a gradient of 145 m/km, divides into two small tongues that end at 4,650 m and 4,640 m. Both tongues terminate in broad convex-upward ice fans thinning along their edges; the retreat of these tongues prior to 1994 produced much erosion downstream and buried their edges by ablation rock debris. The west side of Gran Glaciar Norte generates five outlet glaciers. From north to south, the first two, Glaciar del Toro and Glaciar de la Barba, are hanging cliff or icefall glaciers, reaching the tops of giant lava steps at 4,930 m and 5,090 m, respectively.
They descend 200 to 300 m farther down into the heads of stream valleys as huge ice blocks but are not regenerated there. About 1 km, Glaciar Noroccidental, a small outlet glacier 300 m long, drains away from the side of Gran Glaciar Norte at about 5,100 m and draws down the ice surface a few tens of meters over a distance of 500 m, descending to 4,920 m with a gradient of 255 m/km. Another 1 km still farther south, Glaciar Occidental breaks away from Gran Glaciar Norte west of the summit crater at about 5,175 m as a steep, 1 km long glacier having a gradient of 270 m/km that ends at 4,930 m. From the southwest corner of the mountain, another outlet glacier, Glaciar Suroccidental, 1.6 km long, flows from Gran Glaciar Norte at 5,250 m with a gradient of 200 m/km, which en