The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
John A. Treutlen
John Adam Treutlen, born Hans Adam Treuettlen, arrived in Colonial America as an indentured servant and rose to become a wealthy merchant and landowner. He was a leader in Georgia during the American Revolution and helped write Georgia's first constitution. In 1777, he was elected Georgia's first governor, he was one of Georgia's few governors to die by violence. Although much of his life has been surrounded by mystery and controversy, more details have emerged in recent years. Hans Adam Treuettlen was born to Hans Michel Treuettlen, a cooper, Magdalena Clara, née Job, in the city of Kürnbach, now in Germany a condominium of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Duchy of Württemberg. Treutlen's home was located in the part of the city, ruled by Württemberg, his parents were married in 1731 after having two illegitimate children. He was the second child born after his parents married, it was Hans Michel's second marriage. Maria Regina died in 1727; the Treutlens were Protestants. In parts of the German-speaking lands, Protestants were persecuted by Catholic authorities, many left for America seeking religious freedom.
Clara, was a Catholic. Thus, the Treutlens were very persecuted by the Protestant establishment for Clara's religion and because the family had two children outside the marriage bond; that situation caused the 56-year-old Hans Michel to take, in late April 1744, his wife and four of their children on the arduous and dangerous voyage to seek a new life in America. The four children who went on this voyage were Friedrich, from Hans Michel's first marriage, Hans Philipp, one of the illegitimate children, John Adam and Jonathan, the two youngest children; the Treutlens traveled first to Gosport on the southern coast of Britain. In November 1745, Clara and three of the children left Gosport for Georgia with a group of Lutheran Salzburgers, expelled from their Catholic-dominated homeland; the mother and children embarked on the ill-fated Judith. Hans Michel and one of the children, Hanß Philipp, remained in Britain. During the voyage across the Atlantic, there was an outbreak of typhus fever on the Judith.
Thirteen individuals died, including the ship's captain. The first mate became ill; the Judith was in danger of not making the trip safely for death and illness left no one skilled at navigating a ship on the high seas. However, Rev. Bartholomäus Zuberbühler, who had no prior experience sailing, used his knowledge of geometry to figure out how to navigate the Judith safely to Georgia. Upon their arrival in Georgia and the three Treutlen children were indentured to Michael Burckhalter of Vernonburg. Pastor Johann Martin Boltzius of the Salzburgers in Ebenezer took notice of the extraordinary talents of John Treutlen and endeavored to remove him to Ebenezer in order to enroll him at the school there. However, Boltzius found it difficult to arrange for permission for Treutlen's attendance at the school because of Clara's history of abandoned husbands, illegitimate children, Catholicism. Treutlen's "wicked and worldly parents" were probably the reason that his true origins have remained hidden for so long.
For 200 years, it was believed that he was born in Austria. According to that story, the Treutlens, on their way to America, were attacked and the father captured and imprisoned by Spanish pirates; the father was supposed to have died in a Spanish prison in 1744. This story avoids many of the facts of Hans Michel's and Clara's lives together that people of the 18th century would find disagreeable; the story thus gained credence and took on a life of its own over the next 200 years. However, marriage and other documents, which were discovered in Europe, have provided a more accurate picture of the Treutlens' European origins and their voyage to America. Overcoming the burden of his parents' past, Treutlen was enrolled in the school at Ebenezer, he did well in his studies at Ebenezer and acquired a broad education in a wide variety of subjects in Latin, French and English. He profited from growing up among the Salzburgers; as an adult, he was described as a man who possessed "an enlightened reason, Adam's natural intelligence and ability to give a name to every animal, knowledge of the laws of the land, some discernment of practical religion."
In 1756, Treutlen married Marguerite Dupuis, an orphan, educated at Ebenezer. He soon began acquiring land and established for himself a large plantation and a successful merchant business. In 1768, he was appointed Justice of the Peace, he served as Commissioner and Surveyor of Roads, several terms in the 1770s as Ebenezer's representative in the Georgia Commons House of Assembly. Treutlen assumed an active role in the religious life at Ebenezer, he was a teacher at the school there. He was a leader of the Rabenhorst faction in the sometimes-violent conflicts between the Ebenezer pastors, the Reverend Christoph Triebner and the Reverend Christian Rabenhorst, his association with Rev. Rabenhorst indicated Treutlen's religious sympathies. Ministers such as Rev. Rabenhorst and Rev. John Joachim Zubly of Savannah, found comfort in the writings of such German theologians as Rev. Johann Joachim Spalding; those ministers accepted the many differences among the people in the colonies as a result of the different countries and cultures of those people.
In their practical day-to-day activities of ministering to the diverse population, those ministers found it most effective to employ various strategies in the gracious work of conversion. Treutlen's religious views, formed by his association with Rev. Rabenhorst, undoubte
Georgia State Route 15
State Route 15 is a 346-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north across the entire length of the U. S. state of Georgia, east of its centerline. It connects the Florida state line, south-southeast of Folkston with the North Carolina state line, in Dillard, via Folkston, Sandersville, Athens and Clayton. SR 15 used to travel through Hazlehurst and Dublin, now the path of SR 19, it used to travel from Dublin to Wrightsville, now the path of US 319/SR 31. It used to travel from Athens, through Arcade and Jefferson, to Commerce, now the route of SR 15 Alt. SR 15 enters Georgia just south of Folkston as a four-lane highway, along with US 1, US 23, US 301, SR 4. In Homeland, US 301 branches off to the north while the other four routes plus SR 121, head northwest. After about 10 miles, SR 15 and SR 121 branch off from US 1/US 23/SR 4, as a two-lane highway, crossing US 82/SR 520 in Hoboken; the two state routes continue northwest through Blackshear, where they cross US 84/SR 38. After that, the two state routes continue to stay together, heading north through the community of Bristol.
Soon after, SR 121 branches off to the north while SR 15 heads northwest to rejoin US 1 and SR 4 at Baxley. North of Baxley, the three highways continue, remaining a four-lane highway all the way to the Altamaha River. 10 miles past the river crossing, SR 15 branches off to the northwest again, where SR 29 begins and follows SR 15. At Vidalia, SR 15 and SR 29 turn west and follow US 280/SR 30 for several miles to the community of Higgston; the two highways head north from there through the community of Tarrytown and on to Soperton. SR 29 heads northwest of Soperton while SR 15, along with SR 78, continues north, reaching an interchange with I-16, goes to Adrian; the two state routes continue northwest to Wrightsville. SR 15 continues by itself through the adjacent cities of Sandersville. Through these cites, most of SR 15 has been widened to four lanes, it picks up SR 24. North of Sandersville, SR 15 crosses SR 24/SR 540 and heads north through the community of Warthen and onto Sparta. Through Sparta, SR 15 makes a few turns picking up SR 16 and SR 22.
North of Sparta, it picks up SR 77, continues north through White Plains and Siloam. At Siloam, SR 15 has an interchange with I-20. SR 77 departs to the north while SR 15 continues northwest to Greensboro, passing beneath I-20, but without direct access. In Greensboro, SR 15 makes two more turns following US 278/SR 12 through downtown. SR 15 continues northwest to Watkinsville, after which it joins US 129/US 441, it travels together with US 441 as a four-lane highway throughout the rest of their course in Georgia. The three highways, along with several others, circle around the east side of Athens along the SR 10 Loop and head north through the town of Nicholson and around the east side of Commerce via a bypass; the highways have an interchange with I-85, head between the towns of Baldwin and Cornelia, where they become a limited access freeway for a short time and rejoin US 23. The three highways remain together and head through the cities of Tallulah Falls and Dillard before crossing into North Carolina.
The entire length of SR 15 is included as part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. SR 15 was established at least as early as 1919 on three segments; the southern segment extended from the current southern terminus through Folkston and Alma, ended at Hazlehurst. The central segment extended from SR 27 in Lumber City to SR 19/SR 30 west-southwest of Mount Vernon; the northern segment extended from SR 30 in Mount Vernon to Athens, through Jefferson to its current northern terminus. There was no indication. By the end of September 1921, the portion of SR 15 from west-southwest of Mount Vernon to Wrightsville was shifted westward, to travel north-northwest to Dublin and had a separate segment from SR 26 east-northeast of Dublin to Wrightsville, its former path from Mount Vernon to Adrian was redesignated as part of SR 56. By October 1926, US 1 was designated on SR 15 from the Florida state line to north-northeast of Alma. US 129 was designated on SR 15 from just south of Watkinsville to Jefferson.
Three segments had a "completed hard surface": a portion southwest of Waycross, a portion in the south-southwest part of Athens, the Cornelia–Clarkesville segment. By October 1929, SR 4 was designated on US 1/SR 15 from the Florida state line to north-northeast of Alma; this segment, as well as a portion south of Sandersville, had a completed hard surface. By the middle of 1930, the southern terminus was truncated to the point it left the concurrency with US 1/SR 4 north-northeast of Alma. Four segments had a completed hard surface: a portion in the northwestern part of Athens, from southeast of Jefferson to southwest of Commerce, the Baldwin–Cornelia segment, the Clarkesville–North Carolina segment. Between November 1930 and the beginning of 1932, US 23 was designated on the Baldwin–North Carolina segment. In January 1932, SR 29 was established on SR 15's current path from US 1/SR 4 in South Thompson through Vidalia to SR 56 in Soperton. In March, the Watkinsville–Athens segment was completed.
The next month, SR 24 was extended from Athens on what is now SR 15's. The Tennille–Sandersville segment was completed. Nearly two years SR 121 was established from US 84/SR 50 in Hoboken to SR 38 in Blackshear; that yea
Montgomery County, Georgia
Montgomery County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,123; the county seat is Mount Vernon. Montgomery County is part of GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Montgomery County is named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada, it was created on December 1793 from a southern portion of Washington County, Georgia. Arthur Lott's Plantation was designated the first county seat in 1797. In 1801, Tattnall County, Georgia was formed from the southern part of Montgomery County; the dividing line between Tatnall and Montgomery ran from the mouth of Limestone Creek on the Oconee River, just below modern Mount Vernon, Georgia, to the mouth of Wolf Creek on the Canoochee River below Metter, Georgia. On December 11, 1811, the county lines between Washington County, Montgomery County, Laurens County were adjusted by the Georgia General Assembly; the northern section of Montgomery between the Oconee River and the Ohoopee River was transferred to Laurens.
On December 10, 1812, the county line of Montgomery was adjusted as part of the creation of Emanuel County. Its new boundaries became from the Laurens and Telfair county line on the Oconee River to the north prong of the Little Ocmulgee River down the Little Ocmulgee River as it meanders to its confluence with the Ocmulgee River downstream as it meanders to the Oconee River North 30 degrees to Milligan's Creek in Tatnall County, with it to the Montgomery County line. Pendleton Creek was used as the border between Emanuel; because of these transitions Montgomery regained part of the land it had lost in the creation of Tatnall County in 1801, but lost land along the upper Oconee River to Laurens County. The creation of Emanuel County, put the old county seat within Emanuel's border. On December 12, the Georgia General Assembly appointed the justices of the inferior court of Montgomery county to a commission to designate a new county seat and called for county business to be held until at the home of James Alston.
In 1813, the General Assembly recognized Mount Vernon as the new county seat. The county line between Telfair County and Montgomery was adjusted once again in 1820 by the Georgia Genera Assembly; the new line differed in the upstream portion of the Little Ocmulgee River and better defined the line and gave Montgomery a small border with Pulaski County and Telfair County some land on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River. The line was to go upstream to its fork to Browning's mill, a straight line to the mouth of Joiner's Creek at the second fork of the Little Ocmulgee River, up the second prong to Pulaski County Line; the land gained by Telfair County from Montgomery County on the northeast side of the Little Ocmulgee River was reversed by the Georgia General Assembly on December 18, 1833. At the time of the 1850 United States Census, Montgomery had 613 slaves. By the 1860 census, there were 2,014 whites, 977 slaves, 6 Free people of color; the pine barrens and soil quality outside of the river lands made the area unsuitable for slave-heavy cotton producing plantation culture.
Montgomery's status as a majority white county led the region developing different attitudes about secession from other areas of Georgia. On January 22, 1861, Montgomery County representatives, Thomas M. McRae and Solon Homer Latimer, were among the 89 delegates who voted no to Georgia's immediate secession from the Union at the state secession convention. In addition, McRae and Latimer were among the 6 delegates who voiced their protest by against the Ordinance of Secession in the published document. In the interior of the county around Gum Swamp near the Pulaski County, Telfair County, Montgomery County lines a deserter gang fought against Confederate forces. On August 18, 1905, Montgomery County gained and lost some territory during the creation of Toombs County. On August 14, 1912, the parts of Montgomery County between the Little Ocmulgee River and the Oconee River became Wheeler County. On August 21, 1917, Montgomery lost additional territory during the creation of Treutlen County, Georgia.
More the county was noted for its practice of organizing segregated proms, a practice that had continued since integration of its schools in the 1970s. Following publicity about this practice, Montgomery County students took the initiative to integrate the prom in 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 245 square miles, of which 240 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The southeastern quarter of Montgomery County is located in the Altamaha River sub-basin of the larger river basin by the same name; the western half of the county, from Tarrytown south, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northeastern quarter of Montgomery County, northeast of a line from Tarrytown to Higgston, is located in the Ohoopee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Treutlen County Toombs County Jeff Davis County Wheeler County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,270 people, 2,919 households, 2,063 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13/km². There were 3,492 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 69.72% White, 27.24% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.13% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 3.28% of the population were
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Wheeler County, Georgia
Wheeler County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,421; the county seat is Alamo. The American Community Survey's 2009–2013 average reports that the county's per-capita income of $8,948 makes it the second-poorest county in the United States by this metric. Wheeler County is named after Confederate General Joseph Wheeler; the constitutional amendment to create the county was proposed August 14, 1912, ratified November 5, 1912. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 300 square miles, of which 295 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The eastern portion of Wheeler County, defined by a line running from north of Alamo to the southern border of the county, due south of Mount Vernon, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin; the bulk of the rest of the county is located in the Little Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin, except for a small southern portion of Wheeler County, east of Lumber City, located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the larger Altamaha River basin.
Treutlen County Montgomery County Jeff Davis County Telfair County Dodge County Laurens County As of the census of 2000, there were 6,179 people, 2,011 households, 1,395 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 2,447 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.56% White, 33.18% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 1.25% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 3.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,011 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.40% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 31.60% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 128.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 139.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,053, the median income for a family was $29,696. Males had a median income of $27,203 versus $22,679 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,005. About 21.60% of families and 25.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.20% of those under age 18 and 26.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,421 people, 2,152 households, 1,519 families residing in the county; the population density was 25.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,625 housing units at an average density of 8.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.3% white, 35.2% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 2.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 32.4% were English, 8.1% were American.
Of the 2,152 households, 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families, 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 37.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,422 and the median income for a family was $45,042. Males had a median income of $35,114 versus $25,329 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,043. About 14.3% of families and 24.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 36.4% of those age 65 or over. Alamo Glenwood National Register of Historic Places listings in Wheeler County, Georgia