Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse was the subject of a moral panic that originated in the United States in the 1980s, spreading throughout many parts of the world by the late 1990s. Allegations of SRA involved reports of physical and sexual abuse of people in the context of occult or Satanic rituals. In its most extreme form, allegations involve a conspiracy of a worldwide SRA organisation that includes the wealthy and powerful of the world elite in which children are abducted or bred for sacrifices and prostitution. Nearly every aspect of SRA was controversial, including its definition, the source of the allegations and proof thereof, testimonies of alleged victims, court cases involving the allegations and criminal investigations; the panic affected lawyers', therapists', social workers' handling of allegations of child sexual abuse. Allegations brought together dissimilar groups, including religious fundamentalists, police investigators, child advocates and clients in psychotherapy; the movement secularized, dropping or deprecating the "Satanic" aspects of the allegations in favor of names that were less overtly religious such as "sadistic" or "ritual abuse" and becoming more associated with dissociative identity disorder and anti-government conspiracy theories.
Initial publicity came via Lawrence Pazder's 1980 book Michelle Remembers and was sustained and popularized throughout the decade by the McMartin preschool trial. Testimonials, symptom lists and techniques to investigate or uncover memories of SRA were disseminated through professional and religious conferences, as well as through the attention of talk shows and further spreading the moral panic throughout the United States and beyond. In some cases, allegations resulted in criminal trials with varying results. Scholarly interest in the topic built resulting in the conclusion that the phenomenon was a moral panic, which, as Sarah Hughes observed in 2017, "involved hundreds of accusations that devil-worshipping paedophiles were operating America's white middle-class suburban daycare centers."Official investigations produced no evidence of widespread conspiracies or of the slaughter of thousands. In the latter half of the 1990s, interest in SRA declined and skepticism became the default position, with few researchers giving any credence to the existence of SRA.
The SRA panic repeated many of the features of historical moral panics and conspiracy theories, such as the blood libel against Jews by Apion in the 30s CE, the wild rumors that led to the persecutions of early Christians in the Roman Empire allegations of Jewish rituals involving the killing of Christian babies and desecration of the Eucharist, the witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries. Allegations of horrific acts by outsider groups—including cannibalism, child murder and incestuous orgies—may have served as a form of othering for minority groups, as well scapegoat explanations for complex problems in times of social disruption. Torture and imprisonment were used by authority figures to coerce confessions from alleged Satanists, confessions that were used to justify their execution. Records of these older allegations were linked by contemporary proponents in an effort to demonstrate the contemporary Satanic cults were part of an ancient conspiracy of evil, though there is no evidence for devil-worshipping cults in Europe at any time.
A more immediate precedent to the context of the United States was McCarthyism in the 1950s. The underpinnings for the contemporary moral panic were found in a rise of five factors in the years leading up to the 1980s: the establishment of fundamentalist Christianity and political organization of the Moral Majority. Michelle Remembers, written by Michelle Smith and her husband, the psychiatrist Lawrence Pazder, was published in 1980. Now discredited, the book was written in the form of an autobiography, presenting the first modern claim that child abuse was linked to Satanic rituals. Pazder was responsible for coining the term ritual abuse. Michelle Remembers provided a model for numerous allegations of SRA that ensued in the same decade. On the basis of the book's success, Pazder developed a high media profile, gave lectures and training on SRA to law enforcement, by September 1990 had acted as a consultant on more than 1,000 SRA cases, including the McMartin preschool trial. Prosecutors used Michelle Remembers as a guide.
Michelle Remembers, along with other accounts portrayed as survivor stories, are suspected to have influenced allegations of SRA, the book has been suggested as a causal factor in the epidemic of SRA allegations. The early 1980s, during the implementation of mandatory reporting laws, saw a large increase in child protection investigations in America and other develope
North Texas State Hospital
The North Texas State Hospital is an inpatient mental health facility owned by the State of Texas and under the Texas Department of State Health Services. NTSH has two campuses, in Wichita Vernon; the Wichita Falls campus is a 330-bed facility that exists to treat people with mental illnesses and mental retardation after being screened by a local mental health facility. It is Medicare certified. Although not a maximum security facility, the campus is guarded, buildings are locked with limited access; the facility used to be open until a few years ago before the merge with formally Vernon State Hospital. Wichita Falls State Hospital was the name since 1922 and Vernon was added as an annex in the 1960s. Since the merge and the approx. $100,000 name change the hospital is no longer an open campus. The Vernon campus has 78 adolescent beds, it is a maximum-security facility. The Vernon campus was mandated by the 70th Texas Legislature to provide services to six populations: Persons with felony charges who have been found incompetent to stand trial.
In January 2018 the NTSH re-opened the Victory Field location to house adolescent with dually-diagnosed substance abuse and mental health problems most of whom are there as a condition of their probation, having had significant involvement with the juvenile justice system. North Texas State Hospital is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Andrea Yates Vernon campus North Texas State Hospital - Texas Department of State Health Services
Psychiatric hospitals known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric hospitals vary in their size and grading; some hospitals may specialize only in short outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment. Patients are admitted on a voluntary basis, but people whom psychiatrists believe may pose a significant danger to themselves or others may be subject to involuntary commitment. Psychiatric hospitals may be referred to as psychiatric wards or units when they are a subunit of a regular hospital. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
With successive waves of reform, the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, most modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment, attempt where possible to help patients control their own lives in the outside world, with the use of a combination of psychiatric drugs and psychotherapy. An exception is in Japan, where many psychiatric hospitals still use physical restraints on patients, tying them to their beds for days or months at a time. A crisis stabilization unit is in effect an emergency department for psychiatry dealing with suicidal, violent, or otherwise critical individuals. Open units are psychiatric units. Another type of psychiatric hospital is medium term. In the United Kingdom, both crisis admissions and medium term care are provided on acute admissions wards. Juvenile or adolescent wards are sections of psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards set aside for children or adolescents with mental illness. Long-term care facilities have the goal of treatment and rehabilitation back into society within a short time-frame.
Another institution for the mentally ill is a community-based halfway house. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the development of the modern psychiatric hospital is the story of the rise of organized, institutional psychiatry. Hospitals known as bimaristans were built in Persia beginning around the early 9th century, with the first in Baghdad under the leadership of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. While not devoted to patients with psychiatric disorders, they contained wards for patients exhibiting mania or other psychological distress; because of cultural taboos against refusing to care for one's family members, mentally ill patients would be surrendered to a bimaristan only if the patient demonstrated violence, incurable chronic illness, or some other debilitating ailment. Psychological wards were enclosed by iron bars owing to the aggression of some of the patients. Western Europe would adopt these views on with the advances of physicians like Philippe Pinel at the Bicêtre Hospital in France and William Tuke at the York Retreat in England.
They advocated the viewing of mental illness as a disorder that required compassionate treatment that would aid in the rehabilitation of the victim. The arrival in the Western world of institutionalisation as a solution to the problem of madness was much an advent of the nineteenth century; the first public mental asylums were established in Britain. Nine counties first applied. In 1828, the newly appointed Commissioners in Lunacy were empowered to license and supervise private asylums; the Lunacy Act 1845 made the construction of asylums in every country compulsory with regular inspections on behalf of the Home Secretary. The Act required asylums to have a resident physician. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there were a few thousand "sick people" housed in a variety of disparate institutions throughout England, but by 1900 that figure had grown to about 100,000; this growth coincided with the growth of alienism known as psychiatry, as a medical specialism. The treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, terms such as "madness," "lunacy" or "insanity"—all of which assumed a unitary psychosis—were split into numerous "mental diseases," of which catatonia and dementia praecox were the most common in psychiatric institutions. In 1961 sociologist Erving Goffman described a theory of the "total institution" and the process by which it takes efforts to maintain predictable and regular behavior on the part of both "guard" and "captor," suggesting that many of the features of such institutions serve the ritual function of ensuring that both classes of people know their function and social role, in other words of "institutionalizing" them. Asylums was a key text in the development of deinstitutionalization. With successive waves of reform and the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment.
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is fifth-largest city in Texas, it is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles into four other counties: Denton, Johnson and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States; the city of Fort Worth was established in 1849 as an army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Fort Worth has been a center of the longhorn cattle trade, it still embraces traditional architecture and design. USS Fort Worth is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city. Fort Worth is home to the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition and several world-class museums designed by internationally known contemporary architects; the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best art collections in Texas, is housed in what is regarded as one of the outstanding architectural achievements of the modern era.
The museum was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, with an addition designed by world-renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano opening November 2013. Of note is the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, designed by Tadao Ando; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, designed by Philip Johnson, houses one of the world's most extensive collections of American art. The Sid Richardson Museum, redesigned by David M. Schwarz, has one of the most focused collections of Western art in the U. S. emphasizing Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. The Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, designed by famed architect Ricardo Legorreta of Mexico, engages the diverse Fort Worth community through creative, vibrant programs and exhibits; the city is stimulated by several university communities: Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, many multinational corporations, including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, BNSF Railway, Pier 1 Imports, XTO Energy and RadioShack.
The Treaty of Bird's Fort between the Republic of Texas and several Native American tribes was signed in 1843 at Bird's Fort in present-day Arlington, Texas. Article XI of the treaty provided that no one may "pass the line of trading houses" without permission of the President of Texas, may not reside or remain in the Indians' territory; these "trading houses" were established at the junction of the Clear Fork and West Fork of the Trinity River in present-day Fort Worth. At this river junction, the U. S. War Department established Fort Worth in 1849 as the northernmost of a system of 10 forts for protecting the American Frontier following the end of the Mexican–American War; the city of Fort Worth continues to be known as "where the West begins." A line of seven army posts were established in 1848–49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of Texas along the western American Frontier and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln, Fort Duncan.
10 forts had been proposed by Major General William Jenkins Worth, who commanded the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849, Worth proposed a line of 10 forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month Worth died from cholera in South Texas. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold to find a new fort site near the West Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, advised by Middleton Tate Johnson, established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849, Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff, which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River; the United States War Department named the post Fort Worth on November 14, 1849. Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, as this was their traditional territory and they resented encroachment by European-American settlers, but people from the United States set up homesteads near the fort.
E. S. Terrell from Tennessee claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth; the fort was moved to the top of the bluff. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853. No trace of it remains; as a stop on the legendary Chisholm Trail, Fort Worth was stimulated by the business of the cattle drives and became a brawling, bustling town. Millions of head of cattle were driven north to market along this trail. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, the ranching industry, it was given the nickname of Cowtown. During the Civil War, Fort Worth suffered from shortages of money and supplies; the population began to recover during Reconstruction. By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, William Henry Davis had opened general stores; the next year, Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884. In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry.
Added to the slowdown due to the railroad's stopping the laying of track 30 miles outside of Fort Worth, Cowart said that Fort Worth was so slow th
Tumwater is a city in Thurston County, United States. It lies near where the Deschutes River enters the southernmost point of Puget Sound; the population was 17,371 at the 2010 census. Thurston County, which includes, among others, the cities of Lacey and Olympia, has a population of 252,264; the site of Tumwater has been home to Lushootseed-speaking peoples known as the Steh-Chass for thousands of years. Tumwater was called "New Market" by American settlers, under the latter name was platted in 1845; the present name is derived from Chinook Jargon and means "waterfall". A post office called Tumwater was established in 1863; the city incorporated in 1875. Tumwater is located at 47°0′28″N 122°54′40″W; the city that borders Tumwater is Olympia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.49 square miles, of which, 14.32 square miles is land and 0.17 square miles is water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with average monthly temperatures between 71.6 °F and 98.1 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Tumwater has a Very warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Based on per capita income, one of the more reliable measures of affluence, Tumwater ranks 89th of 522 areas in the state of Washington to be ranked, it is the highest rank in Thurston County. As of the census of 2010, there were 17,371 people, 7,566 households, 4,460 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,213.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,064 housing units at an average density of 563.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.0% White, 1.7% African American, 1.2% Native American, 4.8% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.2% of the population. There were 7,566 households of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.
31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 35 years. 27% of residents were under the age of 18, 10% from 18 to 24. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. The Washington State Office of Financial Management indicates the 2016 population of the City of Tumwater was 23,040; as of the 2000 census, there were 12,698 people, 5,659 households, 3,253 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,276.1 people per square mile. There were 5,953 housing units at an average density of 598.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.41% White, 1.39% African American, 1.24% Native American, 3.90% Asian, 0.36% Pacific Islander, 1.50% from other races, 3.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.08% of the population. There were 5,659 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.5% were non-families.
33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 23.2% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,329, the median income for a family was $54,156. Males had a median income of $41,778 versus $32,044 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,080. About 4.3% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. The Washington State Department of Corrections has its headquarters in Tumwater; the Tumwater School District is home to Tumwater High School, A.
G. West Black Hills High School, Black Lake Elementary School, East Olympia Elementary School, George Washington Bush Middle School, Littlerock Elementary School, Michael T. Simmons Elementary School, New Market Skills Center, Peter G Schmidt Elementary School, Tumwater Hill Elementary School, Tumwater Middle School. City of Tumwater, Washington Michael T Simmons at Find a Grave George Bush at Find a Grave
Breanna Mackenzie Stewart is an American professional basketball player for the Seattle Storm of the Women's National Basketball Association. Stewart was the first overall pick in the 2016 WNBA Draft. In high school, she was the National Gatorade Player of the Year, the Gatorade Female Athlete of the Year, a McDonald's All-American. Stewart played forward for the University of Connecticut Huskies women's basketball team, she led the Huskies to four national championships, was named the Final Four's most outstanding player a record four times, was a three-time consensus national player of the year. Prior to her first WNBA game, Stewart signed a multi-year endorsement deal with Nike, she was the 2016 WNBA Rookie of the Year, is a two-time All-Star, was named the WNBA MVP in 2018. Stewart was born Breanna Mackenzie Baldwin in Syracuse, New York to a single mother, Heather Baldwin, her biological father was not involved in her life, her mother worked multiple jobs in order to support herself and her daughter.
When Breanna was a toddler, her mother began dating Brian Stewart. She has Connor. Breanna began playing basketball at an early age. Now six feet four inches tall, she had always been tall for her age, which meant coaches wanted her inside as a rebounder. However, her father thought it would help if she had ball handling skills and a perimeter shooting ability. Stewart started a routine of dribbling around her block, she completed enough loops to cover a mile. She continued the routine every day, improving her ball handling to the point she dribbled behind her back or between her legs. After heading off to college, she still did the routine at home. In a 2017 essay in The Players' Tribune, Stewart publicly revealed that she had been a victim of sexual abuse from age 9 to 11, she reported the abuse to her parents, who called police. The perpetrator, married to her mother's sister, confessed to the abuse and served prison time. Stewart attended Cicero-North Syracuse High School in Cicero, New York, where she played for head coach Eric Smith.
She was nicknamed "Bean" by her teammates, "6–10" because of her wingspan. Stewart first played for the high school team while still in eighth grade, she played as a starter in most games, averaged nine points nine rebounds and seven blocks per game. In her freshman year, she doubled her point production, scoring 17 points per game; that year, her team had a 21–3 record, made it to the regional final game. In her sophomore year, she was a starter in every game, upped her scoring average to 22 points per game. In that year, her team's record was 18–4; as a junior, she helped lead her team to the state AA public school title, with a 22–3 record for the year. Stewart averaged 15 rebounds for the season. During her junior year, she announced; the day after the announcement, she dunked the ball in a game against Baldwinsville, her first career dunk. Stewart achieved a milestone on January 31, 2012, when she scored her 2,000th point, as part of a 31–0 run against Auburn. Stewart was selected as a member of the 2012 McDonald's All-American team, which represented the 24 best female high school basketball players.
The selected players were grouped into two squads that competed in the annual McDonald's All-American Game, held that year in Chicago. Stewart was selected to the 2012 Women's Basketball Coaches Association High School Coaches' All-America Team; the top 20 high school players in the country were named as WBCA All-Americans and were eligible to play in the all-star game. She participated in the 2012 WBCA High School All-America Game, scoring 10 points. Stewart was named the 2012 Naismith High School Girls' Player of the Year, the honor awarded by the Atlanta Tipoff Club to the best female high school basketball player in the country. In March 2012, in a surprise presentation by Tamika Catchings, Stewart received the Gatorade National Girls Basketball Player of the Year award. Stewart was one of six finalists for the Gatorade High School Athlete of the Year. In addition to scheduled post-season tournaments, the success of her high school team led to invitations to prominent national tournaments.
In 2010, the C-NS team traveled to New Jersey and Disney World. The Tournament of Champions is an annual event, since 1997, showcasing the best high school girls basketball teams; the 2011 event, held in Phoenix, included 96 of the best basketball programs in the country. The C-NS team was assigned to the Smith Division, where they faced Bolingbrook High School, considered to be the number 1 team by USA Today. Despite being viewed as a 30-point underdog, Stewart helped her team to the first round upset, scoring 15 points in a 43–40 win. In the quarter-final game, Stewart scored 29 points and had 19 rebounds to help the team beat the number 22 ranked team in the country, Dr. Phillips High School from Orlando, Florida. Although double-teamed, she scored ten points in a 12–0 run that gave C-NS a commanding 23-point lead early in the fourth quarter; that win secured a place in the semi-finals of the division. In the semi-final game, C-NS faced. Stewart had 33 points and 16 rebounds, but it was not en
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k