The Canadian Press
The Canadian Press is a national news agency headquartered in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. For most of its history, The Canadian Press has been a private, not-for-profit cooperative and operated by its member newspapers. In mid-2010, however, it announced plans to become a for-profit business owned by three media companies once certain conditions are met. Over the years, The Canadian Press and its affiliates have adapted to reflect changes in the media industry, technological change and the growing appetite for rapid news updates, it offers a wide variety of text, photographic and graphic content to websites, radio and commercial clients in addition to newspapers and its long-standing ally, The Associated Press, a global news service based in the United States. Created by an act of Parliament and by means of an annual financial grant from the government from 1917 to 1924, the news co-operative was formed to help newspapers cover and distribute news across the vast country.
Canada had regional news associations but no national wire service. Operating as a distribution network, its first editorial staff came on board during World War I to report on the efforts of Canadian soldiers overseas. With the arrival of television and radio, The Canadian Press created a subsidiary, Broadcast News, to deliver text written for broadcasters, as well as the production of newscasts and audio clips; the Canadian Press operates in Canada's official languages. The Canadian Press has a staff of more than 180 journalists in its bureaus across Canada, as well as a correspondent in Washington, DC; the news agency operated a bureau in London, until 2004, has had reporters covering the Canadian mission in Afghanistan since 2002. Canadian Press Enterprises Inc. is the entity which "will take over the operations of the Canadian Press" according to a November 26, 2010 article in the Toronto Star. The new board met for the first time on November 29, 2010, to review the operations of the Canadian Press.
In addition to providing news to newspapers, TV and radio, The Canadian Press provides online news and photos. It introduced this online breaking news service in 1996 and now its multimedia content is published by most major Canadian news websites; the Canadian Press launched breaking news video in 2007, with clips produced for websites and wireless services. On June 30, 2007, CanWest left The Canadian Press cooperative. In September 2007, the Canadian Press launched a rebranding campaign in an effort to stay competitive, notably in the wake of the pullout by the CanWest Global's newspaper and online news outlets. All of its services, including radio networks Broadcast News and Nouvelles télé-radio, were rolled into a single brand: The Canadian Press; the change marked the end of the familiar service logo. The Canadian Press operates the largest online editorial archive of news pictures shot by photojournalists, it was the first in Canada to develop this online archive in 1996 and now it is home to over two million digital images with hundreds of images added each day.
These photos appear in newspapers and magazines, online. Through a longstanding partnership, The Canadian Press is the exclusive distributor of The Associated Press and Associated Press Television News material in Canada; the AP is the exclusive distributor of The Canadian Press in the United States and worldwide. In addition to news and information, The Canadian Press publishes the Stylebook and Caps and Spelling book, which are considered the chief style guides for Canadian journalists, public relations professionals and writers of all disciplines. Through an alliance with The Canadian Press since 2004, Marketwire is the only news release distributor with exclusive access to send press releases and PR photos on behalf of clients over the same Canadian Press Wire Network used to deliver Canadian Press news copy directly into the editorial systems of more than 600 newspapers, radio and TV stations and websites across Canada. On March 11, 2009, Sun Media announced that it would be pulling out of the cooperative.
In July 2010, a tentative deal was struck between The Canadian Press's three largest stakeholders, CTVglobemedia and Gesca, to transform the newswire from a co-operative into a for-profit entity. On November 26, 2010, The Globe and Mail and Square Victoria Communications Group announced they have invested in a new for-profit entity, Canadian Press Enterprises Inc. to take over the operations of the Canadian Press. The change in the ownership structure from a non-profit co-operative to a for-private business will allow the company to cover its pension needs and take advantage of future business opportunities, Phillip Crawley, publisher of The Globe and Mail, said in an interview, November 26, 2010. Canadian Press had a serious pension shortfall. Canadian Newsmaker of the Year Canadian Press Cable Service CNW Group Quoi de Neuf Official website
Montgomery is the capital city of the U. S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County. Named for Richard Montgomery, it stands beside the Alabama River, on the coastal Plain of the Gulf of Mexico. In the 2010 Census, Montgomery's population was 205,764, it is the second most populous city in Alabama, after Birmingham, is the 118th most populous in the United States. The Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area's population in 2010 was estimated at 374,536; the city was incorporated in 1819 as a merger of two towns situated along the Alabama River. It became the state capital in 1846, representing the shift of power to the south-central area of Alabama with the growth of cotton as a commodity crop of the Black Belt and the rise of Mobile as a mercantile port on the Gulf Coast. In February 1861, Montgomery was chosen the first capital of the Confederate States of America, which it remained until the Confederate seat of government moved to Richmond, Virginia, in May of that year. In the middle of the 20th century, Montgomery was a major center of events and protests in the Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Selma to Montgomery marches.
In addition to housing many Alabama government agencies, Montgomery has a large military presence, due to Maxwell Air Force Base. Two ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city, including USS Montgomery. Montgomery has been recognized nationally for its downtown revitalization and new urbanism projects, it was one of the first cities in the nation to implement Smart Code Zoning. Prior to European colonization, the east bank of the Alabama River was inhabited by the Alibamu tribe of Native Americans; the Alibamu and the Coushatta, who lived on the west side of the river, were descended from the Mississippian culture. This civilization had numerous chiefdoms throughout the Midwest and South along the Mississippi and its tributaries, had built massive earthwork mounds as part of their society about 950–1250 AD, its largest location was in present-day Illinois east of St. Louis; the historic tribes spoke mutually intelligible Muskogean languages, which were related. Present-day Montgomery is built on the site of two Alibamu towns: Ikanatchati, meaning "red earth.
The first Europeans to travel through central Alabama were Hernando de Soto and his expedition, who in 1540 recorded going through Ikanatchati and camping for one week in Towassa. The next recorded European encounter occurred more than a century when an English expedition from Carolina went down the Alabama River in 1697; the first permanent European settler in the Montgomery area was James McQueen, a Scots trader who settled there in 1716. He married a high-status woman in the Alabama tribe, their mixed-race children were considered Muskogean, as both tribes had a matrilineal system of property and descent. The children were always considered born into their mother's clan, gained their status from her people. In 1785, Abraham Mordecai, a war veteran from a Sephardic Jewish family of Philadelphia, established a trading post; the Coushatta and Alabama had moved south and west in the tidal plain. After the French were defeated by the British in 1763 in the Seven Years' War and ceded control of their lands, these Native American peoples moved to parts of present-day Mississippi and Texas areas of Spanish rule, which they thought more favorable than British-held areas.
By the time Mordecai arrived, Creek had migrated into and settled in the area, as they were moving away from Cherokee and Iroquois warfare to the north. Mordecai married a Creek woman; when her people had to cede most of their lands after the 1813-14 Creek War, she joined them in removal to Indian Territory. Mordecai brought the first cotton gin to Alabama; the Upper Creek were able to discourage most European-American immigration until after the conclusion of the Creek War. Following their defeat by General Andrew Jackson in August 1814, the Creek tribes were forced to cede 23 million acres to the United States, including remaining land in today's Georgia and most of today's central and southern Alabama. In 1816, the Mississippi Territory organized Montgomery County, its former Creek lands were sold off the next year at the federal land office in Milledgeville, Georgia. The first group of European-American settlers to come to the Montgomery area was headed by General John Scott; this group founded Alabama Town about 2 miles downstream on the Alabama River from present-day downtown Montgomery.
In June 1818, county courts were moved from Fort Jackson to Alabama Town. Alabama was admitted to the Union in December 1819. Soon after, Andrew Dexter Jr. founded the present-day eastern part of downtown. He envisioned a prominent future for his town. New Philadelphia soon prospered, Scott and his associates built a new town adjacent, calling it East Alabama Town. Rivals, the towns merged on December 3, 1819, were incorporated as the town of Montgomery; the name Montgomery came from a Revolutionary War general. Slave traders used the Alabama River t
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards long and 65 yards wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area. In Canada, the term "football" may refer to Canadian football and American football collectively, or to either sport depending on context; the two sports have shared origins and are related but have some key differences. Rugby football in Canada originated in the early 1860s, over time, the game known as Canadian football developed. Both the Canadian Football League, the sport's top professional league, Football Canada, the governing body for amateur play, trace their roots to 1880 and the founding of the Canadian Rugby Football Union; the CFL is the most only major professional Canadian football league. Its championship game, the Grey Cup, is one of Canada's largest sporting events, attracting a broad television audience. In 2009, about 40% of Canada's population watched part of the game.
Canadian football is played at the bantam, high school, junior and semi-professional levels: the Canadian Junior Football League, formed May 8, 1974, Quebec Junior Football League are leagues for players aged 18–22, many post-secondary institutions compete in U Sports football for the Vanier Cup, senior leagues such as the Alberta Football League have grown in popularity in recent years. Great achievements in Canadian football are enshrined in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame located in Hamilton, Ontario. Other organizations across Canada perform senior league Canadian football during the summer; the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear; the first written account of a game played was on October 1862, on the Montreal Cricket Grounds.
It was between the First Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Second Battalion Scots Fusilier Guards resulting in a win by the Grenadier Guards 3 goals, 2 rouges to nothing. In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, devised rules based on rugby football; the game gained a following, with the Hamilton Football Club formed on November 3, 1869, Montreal formed a team April 8, 1872, Toronto was formed on October 4, 1873, the Ottawa FBC on September 20, 1876. This rugby-football soon became popular at Montreal's McGill University. McGill challenged Harvard University to a game, in 1874 using a hybrid game of English rugby devised by the University of McGill; the first attempt to establish a proper governing body and adopted the current set of Rugby rules was the Foot Ball Association of Canada, organized on March 24, 1873 followed by the Canadian Rugby Football Union founded June 12, 1880, which included teams from Ontario and Quebec.
Both the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Union were formed, the Interprovincial and Western Interprovincial Football Union. The CRFU reorganized into an umbrella organization forming the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891; the original forerunners to the current Canadian Football League, was established in 1956 when the IRFU and WIFU formed an umbrella organization, The Canadian Football Council. In 1958 the CFC left the CRFU to become the CFL; the Burnside rules resembling American football that were incorporated in 1903 by the ORFU, was an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. The Burnside Rules had teams reduced to 12 men per side, introduced the Snap-Back system, required the offensive team to gain 10 yards on three downs, eliminated the Throw-In from the sidelines, allowed only six men on the line, stated that all goals by kicking were to be worth two points and the opposition was to line up 10 yards from the defenders on all kicks; the rules were an attempt to standardize the rules throughout the country.
The CIRFU, QRFU and CRU refused to adopt the new rules at first. Forward passes were not allowed in the Canadian game until 1929, touchdowns, five points, were increased to six points in 1956, in both cases several decades after the Americans had adopted the same changes; the primary differences between the Canadian and American games stem from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side did not. The Canadian field width was one rule, not based on American rules, as the Canadian game was played in wider fields and stadiums that were not as narrow as the American stadiums; the Grey Cup was established in 1909 after being donated by Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey, The Governor General of Canada as the championship of teams under the CRU for the Rugby Football Championship of Canada. An amateur competition, it became dominated by professional teams in the 1940s and early 1950s; the Ontario Rugby Football Union, the last amateur organization to compete for the trophy
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national law. Definitions of deportation apply to nationals and foreigners. Nonetheless, in the common usage the expulsion of foreign nationals is called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called extradition, exile, or penal transportation. For example, in the United States: "Strictly speaking, transportation and deportation, although each has the effect of removing a person from the country, are different things, have different purposes. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. Deportation is the removal of an alien out of the country because his presence is deemed inconsistent with the public welfare and without any punishment being imposed or contemplated either under the laws of the country out of which he is sent or of those of the country to which he is taken."
Expulsion is an act by a public authority to remove a person or persons against his or her will from the territory of that state. A successful expulsion of a person by a country is called a deportation. According to the European Court of Human Rights, collective expulsion is any measure compelling non-nationals, as a group, to leave a country, except where such a measure is taken on the basis of a reasonable and objective examination of the particular case of each individual non-national of the group. Mass expulsion may occur when members of an ethnic group are sent out of a state regardless of nationality. Collective expulsion, or expulsion en masse, is prohibited by several instruments of international law. Deportations occurred in ancient history, is well-recorded in ancient Mesopotamia. Deportation was practiced as a policy toward rebellious people in Achaemenid Empire; the precise legal status of the deportees is unclear. Instances include: Unlike in the Achaemenid and Sassanian periods, records of deportation are rare during the Arsacid Parthian period.
One notable example was the deportation of the Mards in Charax, near Rhages by Phraates I. The 10,000 Roman prisoners of war after the Battle of Carrhae appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana near the eastern border in 53 BC, who are said to married to local people, it is hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Li-Jien after becoming soldiers for the Hsiung-nu, but this is doubted. Hyrcanus II, the Jewish king of Judea, was settled among the Jews of Babylon in Parthia after being taken as captive by the Parthian-Jewish forces in 40 BC. Roman POWs in the Antony's Parthian War may have suffered deportation. Deportation was used by the Sasanians during the wars with the Romans. During Shapur I's reign, the Romans who were defeated at the Battle of Edessa were deported to Persis. Other destinations were Parthia and Asorestan. There were cities which were founded and were populated by Romans prisoners of war, including Shadh-Shapur in Meshan, Bishapur in Persis, Wuzurg-Shapur, Gundeshapur.
Agricultural land were given to the deportees. These deportations initiated the spread Christianity in the Sassanian empire. In Rēw-Ardashīr, there was a church for the Romans and another one for Carmanians. In the mid-3rd century, Greek-speaking deportees from north-western Syria were settled in Kashkar, Mesopotamia. After the Arab incursion into Persia during Shapur II's reign, he scattered the defeated Arab tribes by deporting them to other regions; some where deported to Bahrain and Kirman to both populate these unattractive regions and bringing the tribes under control. In 395 AD, 18,000 Roman populations of Sophene, Mesopotamia and Cappadocia were captured and deported by the "Huns"; the prisoners were freed by the Persians as they reached Persia, were settled in Slōk and Kōkbā. The author of the text Liber Calipharum has praised the king Yazdegerd I for his treatment of the deportees, who allowed some to return. Major deportations occurred during the Anastasian War, including Kavad I's deportation of the populations of Theodosiopolis and Amida to Arrajan.
Major deportations occurred during the campaigns of Khosrau I from the Roman cities of Sura, Antioch, Apamea and Batnai in Osrhoene, to Wēh-Antiyōk-Khosrow. The city was founded near Ctesiphon for them, Khosrow "did everything in his power to make the residents want to stay"; the number of the deportees is recorded to be 292,000 in another source. Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits the deportation of people into or out of occupied territory under belligerent military occupation: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. All countries reserve the right to deport persons without right of abode those who are longtime residents or possess permanent residency. In general, foreigners who have committed serious crimes, entered the country
Surrey, British Columbia
Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, located south of the Fraser River and north of the Canada–United States border. It is a member municipality of metropolitan area. A suburban city, Surrey is the province's second-largest by population after Vancouver and the third largest by area after Abbotsford and Prince George; the seven neighbourhoods or "town centres" the City of Surrey comprises are: Fleetwood, City Centre, Newton and South Surrey. Surrey was incorporated in 1879, encompasses land occupied by a number of Halqemeylem-speaking aboriginal groups; when Englishman H. J. Brewer looked across the Fraser River from New Westminster and saw a land reminiscent of his native County of Surrey in England, the settlement of Surrey was placed on the map; the area comprised forests of douglas-fir, red cedar, blackberry bushes, cranberry bogs. A portion of present-day Whalley was used as a burial ground by the Kwantlen Nation. Settlers arrived first in Cloverdale and parts of South Surrey to farm, harvest oysters, or set up small stores.
Once the Pattullo Bridge was erected in 1937, the way was open for Surrey to expand. In the post-war 1950s, North Surrey's neighbourhoods filled with single family homes and Surrey became a bedroom community, absorbing commuters who worked in Burnaby or Vancouver. In the 1980s and 1990s, Surrey witnessed unprecedented growth, as people from different parts of Canada and the world Asia, began to make the municipality their home. Surrey is projected to surpass the city of Vancouver as the most populous city in BC by 2020 - 2030. Surrey is governed by an eight-member city council; the current mayor of Surrey is Doug McCallum, who took office on November 5, 2018. The last elections were held in October 2018. In the 2017 provincial election, the BC NDP doubled their held three elected MLAs to six, while the number of MLAs for the BC Liberals dropped from five to three. In 1997, Gurmant Grewal became the first visible minority elected in Surrey. In 2004, when his wife, Nina was elected to parliament, they became the first married couple to serve Canadian parliament concurrently.
Following the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party of Canada holds three of Surrey's four seats in the House of Commons of Canada. Conservative MP Dianne Watts resigned in 2017 to compete to be the leader for the BC Liberal Party. In 2016 the population was recorded at 517,887, an increase of 10.6% from 2011. This made it the 12th largest city in Canada, while being the fifth largest city in Western Canada. In recent years, a expanding urban core in Downtown Surrey, located in Whalley has transformed the area into the secondary downtown core in Metro Vancouver. Surrey forms an integral part of Metro Vancouver as it is the second largest city in the region, albeit while serving as the secondary economic core of the metropolitan area; when combined with the City of Vancouver, both cities account for nearly 50% of the region's population. Within the City of Surrey itself feature many neighborhoods including Whalley, Guildford, Fleetwood and South Surrey. Immigration to Surrey has drastically increased since the 1990s.
52% do not speak English as their first language, while over 30% of the city's inhabitants are of South Asian heritage. In the early 2000s, an influx of South Asians began moving to the city from neighbouring Vancouver due to rising housing costs and increasing rent costs for businesses; the outflow of these residents and increased immigration from the Indian Subcontinent therefore established in Surrey one of the largest concentrations of ethnic South Asian residents in North America. Other significant Asian groups which reside in the city include Chinese and Southeast Asian; the city houses large Aboriginal and African populations, when compared with the rest of cities in the region. The 2016 census found; the next most common language was Punjabi, spoken by 20.48% of the population, followed by Mandarin at 4.42%. The 2011 National Household Survey states, "71.4% of the population in Surrey reported a religious affiliation, while 28.6% said they had no religious affiliation. For British Columbia as a whole, 55.9% of the population reported a religious affiliation, while 44.1% had no religion.
The most reported religious affiliation in Surrey was Sikh, reported by 104,720 of the population. Other reported religions included: Roman Catholic and Christian, n.i.e.. In comparison, the top three most reported religions in British Columbia were: Roman Catholic, Christian, n.i.e. and the United Church." As of 2010, Surrey had the highest median family income of CDN$78,283, while BC provincial median was $71,660, national's median was $74,540. The average family income was $85,765. South Surrey area had the highest average household income of all six town centres in Surrey, with an average of $86,824 as of 2010. Median household income was high at $62,960. South Surrey's neighbourhood of Rosemary Heights is the richest in Surrey and throughout the Metro Vancouver area, with a median income more than twice the regional average; as of 2010, the median household income of Surrey was $67,702 (versus the national medi
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province, after Saskatoon, a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan, it is governed by Regina City Council. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159. Regina was the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta formed part, of the District of Assiniboia; the site was called Wascana, but was renamed to Regina in 1882 in honour of Queen Victoria. This decision was made by Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Louise, the wife of the Governor General of Canada, the Marquess of Lorne. Unlike other planned cities in the Canadian West, on its treeless flat plain Regina has few topographical features other than the small spring run-off, Wascana Creek. Early planners took advantage of such opportunity by damming the creek to create a decorative lake to the south of the central business district with a dam a block and a half west of the elaborate 260-metre long Albert Street Bridge across the new lake.
Regina's importance was further secured when the new province of Saskatchewan designated the city its capital in 1906. Wascana Centre, created around the focal point of Wascana Lake, remains one of Regina's attractions and contains the Provincial Legislative Building, both campuses of the University of Regina, First Nations University of Canada, the provincial museum of natural history, the Regina Conservatory, the Saskatchewan Science Centre, the MacKenzie Art Gallery and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts. Residential neighbourhoods include precincts beyond the historic city centre are or noteworthy neighbourhoods – namely Lakeview and The Crescents, both of which lie directly south of downtown. To the north of the central business district is the old warehouse district the focus of shopping and residential development. In 1912, the Regina Cyclone destroyed much of the town; the CCF, formulated its foundation Regina Manifesto of 1933 in Regina. In recent years, Saskatchewan's agricultural and mineral resources have come into new demand, it has entered a new period of strong economic growth.
The population of the Regina CMA as of 2016, was 236,481, growing 12% since 2011 according to Statistics Canada. Regina was established as the territorial seat of government in 1882 when Edgar Dewdney, the lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, insisted on the site over the better developed Battleford and Fort Qu'Appelle; these communities were considered better locations for what was anticipated would be a metropole for the Canadian plains. These locations resided on treed rolling parklands. "Pile-of-Bones," as the site for Regina was called, was by contrast located in arid and featureless grassland. Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney had acquired land adjacent to the route of the future CPR line at Pile-of-Bones, distinguished only by collections of bison bones near a small spring run-off creek, some few kilometres downstream from its origin in the midst of what are now wheat fields. There was an "obvious conflict of interest" in Dewdney's choosing the site of Pile-of-Bones as the territorial seat of government and it was a national scandal at the time.
But until 1897, when responsible government was accomplished in the Territories, the lieutenant-governor and council governed by fiat and there was little legitimate means of challenging such decisions outside the federal capital of Ottawa. There, the Territories were remote and of little concern. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, wife of the Governor General of Canada, named the new community Regina, in honour of her mother, Queen Victoria. Commercial considerations prevailed and the town's authentic development soon began as a collection of wooden shanties and tent shacks clustered around the site designated by the CPR for its future station, some two miles to the east of where Dewdney had reserved substantial landholdings for himself and where he sited the Territorial Government House. Regina attained national prominence in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion when troops were able to be transported by train on the CPR from eastern Canada as far as Qu'Appelle Station, before marching to the battlefield in the further Northwest – Qu'Appelle having been the major debarkation and distribution centre until 1890 when the completion of the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake, Saskatchewan Railway linked Regina with Saskatoon and Prince Albert.
Subsequently, the rebellion's leader, Louis Riel, was tried and hanged in Regina – giving the infant community increased and, at the time, not unwelcome national attention in connection with a figure, at the time considered an unalloyed villain in anglophone Canada. The episode, including Riel's imprisonment and execution, brought the new Regina Leader the "Leader-Post," to national prominence. Regina was incorporated as a city on 19 June 1903, with the MLA who introduced the charter bill, James Hawkes, declaring, "Regina has the brightest future before it of any place in the
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site