Prince of Scotland
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are two of the titles of the heir apparent to the throne of the United Kingdom. The current holder of these titles is Prince Charles, who bears the other Scottish titles of Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Baron of Renfrew, is known outside Scotland as the Prince of Wales; the title of Prince of Scotland originated in a time when Scotland was a kingdom separate from England. The title was held by the heir apparent to the Scottish throne, in addition to his being Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Great Steward of Scotland. Before the English and Scottish crowns were united under James VI and I, sources indicate it was intended to be used in much the same way the title Prince of Wales was used to designate the heir-apparent to the English throne, although the Scottish heir-apparent was addressed only as Duke of Rothesay until that time; the title of Prince of Scotland originated from a charter granting the Principality of Scotland to the future James I of Scotland, the heir apparent, granted on December 10, 1404, by Robert III.
During the reign of James III, permanency was enacted to the title. The designation "Principality of Scotland" implied not Scotland as a whole but lands in western Scotland, in areas such as Renfrewshire and Kirkcudbrightshire appropriated as patrimony of the Sovereign's eldest son for his maintenance. In modern times, the Prince remains in these lands; the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000, abolished most remaining feudal duties and privileges attaching to the Principality, leaving the Prince's status as titular. Prior to the 2000 Act the Principality was feued out to tenants and brought in a small income. All title deeds in Ayrshire and Renfrewshire required to be sealed with the Prince's seal. Revenue gained from feudal dealings were counted as income for the Duchy of Cornwall, a more substantial estate held by the monarch's child, heir apparent; the Great Stewardship of Scotland was granted to Walter Fitz Alan by David I, came to the Sovereign through the accession of Robert II, son of Robert I's daughter Marjorie and Walter Stewart, 6th Great Steward of Scotland, on 9 April 1327.
Since that date it has been enjoyed by the Sovereign's eldest son. The titles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland are conjoined in legislation. Since James VI became the King of England and Ireland in 1603, the titles have fallen from habitual use, the holder from on also being Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Wales and Duke of Rothesay, which were preferred, is now referred to, except as the last in the conventional list of the Prince of Wales's titles. Similar to the process of Crown consent, in order for any bill affecting, directly or by implication, the personal property or interests of the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland to be heard in Parliament, Parliament shall not debate any question whether the Bill be passed or approved unless such consent to those provisions has been signified at a meeting of the Parliament. In the Scottish Parliament such consent is signified by a member of the Scottish Government; when the Sovereign had no son, there has been uncertainty as to who should bear and use the titles and enjoy the revenues of the Principality.
Both Mary, Queen of Scots, George II of Great Britain used the titles and styles, but on the accession of George VI there was a difference between the opinion of the Lord Lyon and the advice given by the Scottish Lords of Appeal to the Garter King of Arms. The matter remains unresolved, but is unlikely to be of practical significance for some time
Welshpool is a town and community in Wales in the county of Montgomeryshire, but administered as part of the unitary authority of Powys. The town is situated 4 miles from the Wales -- England low-lying on the River Severn. Welshpool is the fourth largest town in Powys. In English it was known as Pool but its name was changed to Welshpool in 1835 to distinguish it from the English town of Poole, it contains much Georgian architecture and is just north of Powis Castle. St Cynfelin is reputed to be the founder of two churches in the town, St Mary's and St Cynfelin's, during "the age of the saints in Wales" in the 5th and 6th centuries; the parish of Welshpool coincides with the medieval commote of Ystrad Marchell in the cantref of Ystlyg in the Kingdom of Powys. The Long Mountain, which plays as a backdrop to most of Welshpool, once served as the ultimate grounds for defence for fortresses in the times when the town was just a swampy marsh. Welshpool served as the capital of Powys Wenwynwyn or South Powys after its prince was forced to flee the traditional Welsh royal site at Mathrafal in 1212, by the prince of Gwynedd.
Further disputes with Gwynedd again brought in the English. Owain, the heir to the former principality, called himself Owen de la Pole, after the town; the town was devastated by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr in 1400 at the start of his rebellion against the English king Henry IV. Today, National Trail, Glyndŵr's Way runs through the town. In 1411 the priest at the church St Mary's was Adam of Usk. St Mary's Church is a Grade I listed building; the original church dated from about 1250, there are remains of this church in the lower courses of the church tower. The nave was rebuilt in the 16th century, the whole building was restored in 1871; the 15th century chancel ceiling may have come from Strata Marcella Abbey, about five miles away, a stone in the churchyard is said to have been part of the abbot's throne. A memorial in the church commemorates Bishop William Morgan, translator of the Bible into Welsh, the vicar from 1575 to 1579; the Mermaid Inn, 28 High Street, was probably an early 16th-century merchant's house, placed on a burgage plot between the High Street and Alfred Jones Court.
The timber-framed building has long wing to the rear. The frontage was remodelled c. 1890, by Frank H. Shayler, architect, of Shrewsbury. Early illustrations of the building show that prior to this it had a thatched roof and that the timbering was not exposed. There is a passage to side with heavy box-framing in square panels, with brick infill exposed in side elevation and in rear wing; the frontage was exposed by Shayler to show decorative timber work on the upper storey. An Inn by the 19th century when it was owned by a family named Sparrow. There is an octagonal brick cockpit in New Street, built in the early 18th century and was in continual use for cockfighting until the practice was outlawed by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1849; as of 2015, it is the home of the town's Women's Institute. Welshpool railway station is served by Transport for Wales; the town is the starting point of the Welshpool and Llanfair Light Railway, a narrow-gauge heritage railway popular with tourists, with its terminus station at Raven Square.
The light railway once ran through the town to the Cambrian Line railway station, but today Raven Square, located on the western edge of the town, is the eastern terminus of the line. A small network of bus services link surrounding towns and villages operated by Tanat Valley Coaches. Notable is service No X75, serving Shrewsbury to the east and Newtown and Llanidloes to the south west service No D71 to Oswestry via Guilsfield and Llanymynech. In addition there is a local town service operated by Owen's Coaches; the semi-disused Montgomery Canal runs through Welshpool. To the south of the town is Welshpool Airport, known as the Mid Wales Airport. Three major trunk roads pass through Welshpool: the A458, A483 and the A490; the local economy is based upon agriculture and local industry. The Smithfield Livestock Market is the largest one-day sheep market in Europe, whilst the town's industrial estates are home to numerous different types of small industry. Due to the town's small size and population the attraction of high street stores is limited, meaning many of the residents are forced to shop in neighbouring towns like Newtown and Shrewsbury.
The town is the home of Ardwyn Nursery and Infants School, Oldford Nursery and Infants School, Gungrog Nursery and Infants School, Maes-y-dre Primary School and Welshpool High School is a secondary school which teaches a range of pupils from ages 11–18 and is set to a high standard of education throughout Key Stage 3 and 4 and A Level studies. Welshpool has a football club and a rugby union club, the former being Welshpool Town F. C. and the latter, Welshpool Rugby Football Club. The town has hockey and cricket clubs; the Montgomeryshire Marauders Rugby League Club are nominally based in Welshpool, as this is where the majority of their home fixtures take place. Photos of Welshpool and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk "Welshpool". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Diana: Last Days of a Princess
Diana: Last Days of a Princess is a television movie broadcast in the United States by TLC on 12 August 2007 and subsequent dates. It has aired on Five, UKTV History and UKTV Drama in Great Britain, RTÉ in Ireland, ProSieben in Germany, TF1 in France, RTP in Portugal, Channel 7 in Australia, Channel One in Russia, Jim in Finland and the History Channel in India; the film purports to be a accurate account of the last two months in the life of Diana, Princess of Wales, leading up to her death on 31 August 1997. It is a mix of scripted scenes, actual news footage, recent interviews with some of the principals present during the period portrayed, including Mohamed Al-Fayed and editors from The Sunday Mirror, giving it a hybrid drama-documentary feel. Much of Jenny Lecoat's teleplay is based on testimony found in the 800-page Paget Report, published in 2006 by the United Kingdom's Metropolitan Police Service following a four-year-long investigation. Richard Dale directed a cast that includes Genevieve O'Reilly as Diana, Patrick Baladi as Dodi Al-Fayed, Shaun Dooley as Al-Fayed family security guard Trevor Rees-Jones, Nadim Sawalha as Mohamed Al-Fayed, Carlo Ferrante as Henri Paul, the driver of the car in which he, Dodi were killed during a high-speed escape from paparazzi through the streets of Paris.
The Halton House in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, UK, served as the backdrop for scenes taking place at the Hôtel Ritz Paris. Other film locations included Hertfordshire and Cannes. Genevieve O'Reilly as Diana, Princess of Wales Patrick Baladi as Dodi Al-Fayed Carlo Ferrante as Henri Paul Shaun Dooley as Trevor Rees-Jones Nadim Sawalha as Mohamed Al-Fayed James Barriscale as Kez Wingfield TLC website entry Diana: Last Days of a Princess on IMDb New York Times review
Wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer
The wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer was worn by the bride at her wedding to Charles, Prince of Wales, on 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral. Diana wore an ivory silk taffeta and antique lace gown, with a 25-foot train and a 153-yard tulle veil, valued at £151,000, it became one of the most famous dresses in the world, was considered one of the most guarded secrets in fashion history. The dress was designed by David and Elizabeth Emanuel, who described it as a dress that "had to be something, going to go down in history, but something that Diana loved", which would be "suitably dramatic in order to make an impression". Diana Spencer selected the designers to make her wedding dress because she was fond of a chiffon blouse they designed for her formal photo session with Lord Snowdon; the woven silk taffeta was made by Stephen Walters of Suffolk. The Emanuels consulted Maureen Baker, who had made the wedding dress of Princess Anne, during their construction of the gown. One observer wrote "the dress was a crinoline, a symbol of sexuality and grandiosity, a meringue embroidered with pearls and sequins, its bodice frilled with lace".
The gown was decorated with hand embroidery, 10,000 pearls, centering on a heart motif. An 18-karat gold horseshoe was stitched into the petticoats as a sign of good fortune; the lace used to trim it was antique hand-made Carrickmacross lace. In contrast, the wedding dress of Catherine Middleton, for her marriage to Prince William, Diana's eldest son, incorporated motifs cut from machine-made lace appliquéd to silk net; the dress featured "lace flounces adorning neckline and sleeves". Fittings of the dress posed difficulties because Diana had developed bulimia and dropped from a size 14 to a size 10 in the months leading up to the wedding; the seamstress was concerned about her weight loss and feared the dress might not fit as it should. The twenty-five-foot train posed problems. According to writer Andrew Morton, in Diana: Her True Story, the gown's designers realized too late that they had forgotten to allow for the train's length in relation to the size of the glass coach Diana and her father rode in to the ceremony.
They found it difficult to fit inside the glass coach, the train was badly crushed despite Diana's efforts. This accounted for the visible wrinkles in the wedding gown. Diana had a spare wedding dress, which would have acted as a stand-in if the dress' design was revealed before her big day; the dress set wedding fashion trends after the wedding. Large puffed sleeves, a full skirt and "soft touch fabrics" became popular requests. Copies by other dressmakers were available "within hours" of the 1981 wedding. Many bridal experts considered the dress a "gold standard" in wedding fashion in the years after the wedding. Continued appreciation for the dress was not universal. One 2004 bridal magazine listed it as "too much dress, too little princess." Elizabeth Emanuel noted in 2011 that she still received requests for replicas of Diana's dress. In his 2003 memoir, A Royal Duty, Paul Burrell wrote that Diana had wanted the dress to be part of the fashion collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum; the dress toured for many years with the exhibition "Diana: A Celebration", though it stayed for only part of the exhibit.
Althorp House, Northampton was the prime display location for the dress. Diana's dress transferred ownership from her brother to her sons in 2014 because she had requested that her belongings be handed back to them when they both turned 30, her engagement ring was given to Prince William. In 2018, the dress was chosen as one of the "Most Influential British Royal Wedding Dresses of All Time" by Time magazine. Engagement ring of Lady Diana Spencer Travolta dress The Emanuels. A Dress for Diana. ISBN 1-86205-749-4. Diana: The Exhibition page about the wedding
Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer
Charles Edward Maurice Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, styled Viscount Althorp between 1975 and 1992, is a British nobleman, author and broadcaster. He is the younger brother of Diana, Princess of Wales, which makes him the maternal uncle of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Spencer was born in London on 20 May 1964 and named Charles Edward Maurice, with Queen Elizabeth II as his godmother, his parents were called Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, as his paternal grandfather, Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, was still alive at the time of his birth. Spencer had three elder sisters: Sarah and Diana. Diana became the Princess of Wales, his infant elder brother, had died within hours of his birth four years before Spencer was born. He and Diana were close to each other in their childhood. After his parents' divorce when he was four years old, Spencer was educated at Eton and Magdalen College, where he read Modern History. Spencer worked as an on-air correspondent with NBC News from 1986 to 1995 for the network's morning programme, NBC Nightly News.
He wrote and presented the 12-part documentary series, Great Houses of the World for NBC Super Channel. He worked as a reporter for Granada Television from 1991 to 1993. Spencer has written several book reviews for The Guardian and The Independent on Sunday as well as feature stories for The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Telegraph and American publications such as Vanity Fair and Nest. Upon his father's death on 29 March 1992, 27-year-old Spencer succeeded as 9th Earl Spencer, 9th Viscount Althorp, 9th Viscount Spencer of Althorp, 9th Baron Spencer of Althorp, 4th Viscount Althorp, he inherited Althorp, the family's ancestral seat in Northamptonshire. At the height of her emotional difficulties, he had refused to allow his sister Diana to live in a cottage on the Althorp estate - despite her pleas. Since 2009, he has restored Althorp, re-roofing it and restoring its entire exterior for the first time since the 1780s, he has helped establish Althorp Living History, a handmade fine-furniture line reproducing pieces from the collection at Althorp.
The Spencer family's wealth derived from their profitable sheep farming in the Tudor era. On 31 August 1997, his older sister Diana died after a car crash in Paris and Spencer delivered the eulogy at her funeral service held at Westminster Abbey six days later. In his eulogy he rebuked both Britain's royal family and the press for their treatment of his sister. Spencer has ruled out the conspiracy theories regarding his sister's death, called the alleged letter she wrote 10 months before her death in which she discussed her fears of a planned accident "just a bizarre coincidence rather than tied in with reality."He was Member of the House of Lords from 29 March 1992 until the House of Lords Act 1999 excluded most hereditary peers on 11 November 1999. It was reported in 2003 that Spencer had refused to allow his sister Diana to live at Althorp, despite her request, it was reported that Spencer had accused Diana of displaying "deceitful" and "manipulative" behaviour which were characteristics of the mental illness associated with bulimia nervosa which Diana herself had admitted she suffered.
Diana was buried on Spencer's ancestral estate, where he built a garden temple memorial and a museum to her memory, displaying her wedding dress and other personal effects. The museum was opened to the public in 1998 with all profits going to Diana's Memorial Fund set up by Spencer. At this stage, Spencer began writing a series of books dealing with the estate itself and with his family history, beginning with an account of his ancestral home, Althorp: the Story of an English House published in 1998. In 2003, Spencer founded the Althorp Literary Festival. Speakers at the annual event have included the authors Bill Bryson, Helen Fielding, Antonia Fraser, Boris Johnson. In 2004, he presented two documentaries for the History Channel on Blenheim: Battle for Europe. Spencer was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Northamptonshire in November 2005. Spencer is a patron of the Northamptonshire County Cricket Club. On 16 September 1989, Spencer known by the courtesy title of Viscount Althorp, married Victoria Lockwood.
The wedding was held at the Church of St Mary, Great Brington, Darius Guppy was the best man. Two nieces, Emily McCorquodale and The Hon. Eleanor Fellowes, were bridesmaids. Two nephews, Prince Harry and The Hon. Alexander Fellowes, were page boys. Spencer and Lockwood, who had moved to Cape Town, South Africa, were divorced on 3 December 1997. Diana's death occurred; the Earl has four children by Victoria Lockwood, three daughters and one son: Lady Kitty Spencer Lady Eliza Spencer Lady Amelia Spencer Louis Spencer, Viscount Althorp. On 15 December 2001, he married former wife of Matthew Freud, they separated in 2007 and divorced. They have two children: The Hon. Edmund Spencer Lady Lara Spencer On 18 June 2011 at Althorp House, Spencer married Karen Gordon, a Canadian philanthropist, the founder and chief executive of Whole Child International, a charity based in Los Angel
National Health Service
The NHS in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, the affiliated Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War. The founding principles were that services should be comprehensive and free at the point of delivery; each service provides a comprehensive range of health services, free at the point of use for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom, apart from dental treatment and optical care. Dr Somerville Hastings, President of the Socialist Medical Association proposed a resolution at the 1934 Labour Party Conference that the party should be committed to the establishment of a State Health Service. Conservative MP and Health Minister, Henry Willink, first proposed the National Health Service in 1944 with the publication of a White Paper "A National Health Service", distributed in full and short versions as well as in newsreel by Henry Willink himself. Henry Willink's National Health Service received cross party support and became Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, the Northern Ireland Parliament's Public Health Services Act 1947.
NHS Wales was split from NHS in 1969 when control was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales before transferring to the Welsh Executive and Assembly under devolution in 1999. Calls for a "unified medical service" can be dated back to the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909, but it was following the 1942 Beveridge Report's recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease" that cross-party consensus emerged on introducing a National Health Service of some description; when Clement Attlee's Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the official historian of the NHS, Charles Webster, called an "audacious campaign" to take charge of the form the NHS took; the NHS was born out of the ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. Although being accessible regardless of wealth maintained Henry Willink's principle of free healthcare for all, Conservative MPs were in favour of maintaining local administration of the NHS through existing arrangements with local authorities fearing that an NHS which owned hospitals on a national scale would lose the personal relationship between doctor and patient.
Conservative MPs voted in favour of their amendment to Bevan's Bill to maintain local control and ownership of hospitals and against Bevan's plan for national ownership of all hospitals. The Labour government defeated Conservative amendments and went ahead with the NHS as it remains today. Bevan's principle of ownership with no private sector involvement has since been diluted, with Labour governments implementing large scale financing arrangements with private builders in private finance initiatives and joint ventures. At its launch by Bevan on 5 July 1948 it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses; the following year, Winston Churchill's Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history. From its earliest days, the cultural history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons and literature; the NHS had a prominent slot during the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony directed by Danny Boyle, being described as "the institution which more than any other unites our nation". Each of the UK's health service systems operates independently, is politically accountable to the relevant government: the Scottish Government. NHS Wales was part of the same structure as that of England until powers over the NHS in Wales were firstly transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969 and thereafter, in 1999, to the Welsh Assembly as part of Welsh devolution; some functions may be performed by one health service on behalf of another. For example, Northern Ireland has no high-security psychiatric hospitals and depends on hospitals in Great Britain at Carstairs hospital in Scotland for male patients and Rampton Secure Hospital in England for female patients.
Patients in North Wales use specialist facilities in Manchester and Liverpool which are much closer than facilities in Cardiff, more routine services at the Countess of Chester Hospital. There have been issues about cross-border payments. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043; this broke down into 1,789,586 in England, 198,368 in Scotland, 110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. In 2017, there were 691,000 nurses registered in the UK, down 1,783 from the previous year. However, this is the first time nursing numbers have fallen since 2008. Although there has been increasing policy divergence between the four National Health Services in the UK, it can b
Lord of the Isles
The Lord of the Isles is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. Although they were, at times, nominal vassals of the Kings of Norway, Ireland, or Scotland, the island chiefs remained functionally independent for many centuries, their territory included the Hebrides, Knoydart and the Kintyre peninsula. At their height they were the greatest landowners and most powerful lords in Britain after the Kings of England and Scotland; the end of the MacDonald Lords came in 1493 when MacDonald II had his ancestral homeland and titles seized by King James IV of Scotland. Since that time, the MacDonald Clan has contested the right of James IV to the Lordship of the Isles and uprisings and rebellions against the Scottish Monarch were common. More the Lordship of the Isles has been held by the Duke of Rothesay, the eldest son and heir apparent of the King of Scotland, a title which, since the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, is borne by the Prince of Wales.
Thus Prince Charles is the current Lord of the Isles. Finlaggan on Islay was the seat of the Lords of the Isles under Clan Donald; the arms adopted by the Lord of the Isles varied over time, but the blazon given and illustrated in the "Armorial of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount" is: Or, an eagle displayed gules beaked and armed sable overall a lymphad sable. The west coast and islands of present-day Scotland were those of a people or peoples of uncertain cultural affiliation until the 5th century, they were invaded by Gaels from Ireland starting in the 4th century or earlier, whose language predominated. In the 8th and 9th centuries this area, like others, suffered raids and invasions by Vikings from Norway, the islands became known to the Gaels as Innse-Gall, the Islands of the Foreigners. Around 875, Norwegian jarls, or princes, came to these islands to avoid losing their independence in the course of King Harald Fairhair's unification of Norway, but Harald pursued them and conquered the Hebrides as well as Man, the Shetland and Orkney Islands.
The following year, the people of the Isles, both Gael and Norse, rebelled. Harald sent his cousin Ketill Flatnose to regain control, Ketil became King of the Isles. Scotland and Norway would continue to dispute overlordship of the area, with the jarls of Orkney at times seeing themselves as independent rulers. In 973, Maccus mac Arailt, King of the Isles, Kenneth III, King of the Scots, Máel Coluim I of Strathclyde formed a defensive alliance, but subsequently the Scandinavians defeated Gilla Adomnáin of the Isles and expelled him to Ireland; the Norse nobleman Godred Crovan became ruler of Man and the Isles, but he was deposed in 1095 by the new King of Norway, Magnus Bareleg. In 1098, Magnus entered into a treaty with King Edgar of Scotland, intended as a demarcation of their respective areas of authority. Magnus was confirmed in control of the Edgar of the mainland. Lavery cites a tale from the Orkneyinga saga, according to which King Malcolm III of Scotland offered Earl Magnus of Orkney all the islands off the west coast navigable with the rudder set.
Magnus allegedly had a skiff hauled across the neck of land at Tarbert, Loch Fyne with himself at the helm, thus including the Kintyre peninsula in the Isles' sphere of influence. Somerled, Gilledomman's grandson, seized the Isles from the King of Man in 1156 and founded a dynasty that in time became the Lords of the Isles, he had Celtic blood on his father's side and Norse on his mother's: his contemporaries knew him as Somerled Macgilbred, Somhairle or in Norse Sumarlidi Höld. He took the title Rí Innse Gall as well as King of Man. After Somerled's death in 1164, three of his sons, his brother-in-law, divided his realm between them: The King of Man: Man, Lewis and Skye The sons of Somerled: Angus: unclear area the remaining northern regions Dougall: Morvern and Mull Ronald: unclear area the southern regionsFor reasons which are now unclear, Ronald's sons seem to have taken over the territory of both him and Angus, splitting it between them: Donald Mor McRanald, who would give his name to the Clan Donald: Islay, Kintyre, Knapdale Rory: Uist, Garmoran and Bute In their maritime domain the Lords of the Isles used galleys for both warfare and transport.
These ships had developed from the Viking longships and knarrs, clinker-built with a square sail and rows of oars. From the 14th century they changed from using a steering oar to a stern rudder; these ships attacked castles or forts built close to the sea. The Lordship specified the feudal dues of its subjects in terms of numbers and sizes of the galleys each area had to provide in service to their Lord. John of Islay I, Lord of the Isles Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles John of Islay II, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles Angus Óg The Lord was advised by a Council. Dean Monro of the Isles, who wrote a description of the Western Isles in 1549, described the membership as consisting of four ranks: Four "great men of the royal blood of Clan Donald lineally descende