First Chinese domination of Vietnam
The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, the first three of which are continuous and referred to as Bắc thuộc. In 111 BC, the powerful Chinese Han dynasty conquered the Nam Việt kingdom during its expansion southward and incorporated what is now northern Vietnam, together with much of modern Guangdong and Guangxi, into the expanding Han empire. Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han Chinese army in 43 AD. In 111 BC, the Han dynasty defeated the successors of Zhao Tuo and annexed Nam Việt and the former Âu Lạc into the Han empire. Following annexation, the name of Jiaozhi was established, dividing the former kingdom into nine commanderies with the last three used in modern Vietnamese history books: Nanhai Hepu Cangwu Yulin Zhuya Dan'er, Jiaozhi Jiuzhen Rinan All nine districts were administered from Long Biên, near modern Hanoi.
During the next several hundred years of Chinese colonization and domination, sinification of the newly conquered Nanyue was brought about by a combination of Han imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees and garrisons, scholars, bureaucrats and prisoners of war. At the same time, Chinese officials were interested in exploiting the region's natural resources and trade potential. In addition, Han Chinese officials seized fertile land conquered from Vietnamese nobles for newly settled Han Chinese immigrants. Han rule and government administration brought new influences to the indigenous Vietnamese and the rule of Vietnam as a Chinese province operated as a frontier outpost of the Han Empire; the Han dynasty was desperate to extend their control over the fertile Red River Delta, in part as the geographical terrain served as a convenient supply point and trading post for Han ships engaged in the growing maritime trade with various South and Southeast Asian Kingdoms as well as establishing it as a prominent trading post with Ancient India and the Roman Empire.
During the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently and indirect with no immediate change in indigenous policies. The practice of indigenous Vietnamese was governed at the local level but was ruled out in favor of replacing indigenous Vietnamese local officials with newly settled Han Chinese officials. Han imperial bureaucrats pursued a policy of peaceful relations with the indigenous population, focusing their administrative roles in the prefectural headquarters and garrisons, maintaining secure river routes for trade. By the first century AD, the Han dynasty intensified its efforts to assimilate its new territories by raising taxes and instituting marriage and land inheritance reforms aimed at turning Vietnam into a patriarchal society more amenable to political authority; the Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and imperial taxes to the Han mandarins to maintain the local administration and the military. The Chinese vigorously tried to assimilate the Vietnamese peacefully either through forced sinicization or through brute Chinese political domination.
The Han dynasty sought to assimilate the Vietnamese as the Chinese wanted to maintain a unified cohesive empire through a "civilizing mission" as what the Chinese regarded the Vietnamese as uncultured and backward barbarians and regarded their "Celestial Empire" as the supreme centre of the universe. Under Chinese rule, Han dynasty officials imposed much of Chinese culture, including Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, its imperial examination system, mandarin bureaucracy. However, implementation of a foreign administrative system and sinification was not easy as frequent uprisings and rebellions were indicative of Vietnamese resistance to these changes; some Vietnamese welcomed the chance to assimilate as what they considered Chinese culture, to be a more civilized and superior culture. Though the Vietnamese incorporated advanced and technical elements they thought would be beneficial to themselves, the unwillingness to be dominated by outsiders, the desire to maintain political autonomy and the drive to regain Vietnamese independence signified Vietnamese resistance and hostility to Chinese aggression, political domination and imperialism on Vietnamese society.
Han Chinese bureaucrats sought to impose much of Chinese high culture onto the indigenous Vietnamese including bureaucratic Legalist techniques and Confucian ethics, art and language. The conquered and subjugated Vietnamese had to adopt the Chinese foreign writing system, veneration of the Chinese emperor at the detriment of the loss of their native spoken language, culture and national identity. Professor Liam Kelley wrote on how the 17th century Vietnamese historians li
South Vietnam the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", a constitutional monarchy; this became the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast; the Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president, after having served as premier under Emperor Bao Dai, exiled. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations, it had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto.
South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam, Cochinchina, a subdivision of French Indochina, the southern half of Central Vietnam or Annam, a French protectorate. After the Second World War, the anti-Japanese Viet Minh guerrilla forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September 1945, issuing a Declaration of Independence modeled on the U. S. one from 1776. In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, a series of short-lived military governments followed. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country after a U. S.-encouraged civilian presidential election from 1967 until 1975. The beginnings of the Vietnam War occurred in 1959 with an uprising by the newly organized National Liberation Front for South Vietnam and supported by the northern Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with other assistance rendered by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact communist satellites, along with neighboring People's Republic of China and North Korea.
Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in 1965 with the landing of United States regular forces of Marines, followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding ARVN southern forces. A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore U. S. Navy airplanes and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through 1966 and 1967. Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February 1968, when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. On the war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An larger, armored invasion commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back. Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords, concluded in January 1973, after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued immediately afterwards; the North Vietnamese regular army and Viet Cong launched a major second combined-arms invasion in 1975, termed the Spring Offensive.
Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April 1975. On the day President Duong Van Minh declared RVN cease to exist, five ARVN generals, one Saigon police chief, numbers of ARVN soldiers and officers commit suicide to avoid being humiliated surrender. On July 2, 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the official name of the South Vietnamese state was Việt Nam Cộng hòa and the French name was referred to as République du Viêt Nam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam". Việt Nam was the name adopted by Emperor Gia Long in 1804, it is a name used in ancient times. In 1839, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed the country Đại Nam. In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to "Vietnam"; the name is sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.
Other names of this state were used during its existence such as Free Vietnam and the Government of Viet Nam. Before World War II, the southern third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina, administered as part of French Indochina. A French governor-general in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina while Cochinchina was under a French governor, but the difference from the other parts was that most indigenous intellensia and wealthy were naturalized French The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony of Tonkin was under
Trung sisters' rebellion
The Trung sisters' rebellion was an armed civil uprising in the south of Han China between 40 and 43 AD. In 40 AD, the Vietnamese leader Trưng Trắc and her sister Trưng Nhị rebelled against Chinese authorities in Jiaozhi. In 42 AD, Han China dispatched General Ma Yuan to lead an army to strike down the Yue rebellion of the Trung sisters. In 43 AD, the Han army suppressed the uprising and regained complete control; the Trung sisters were beheaded by the Han forces. In March of 40 AD, the Trung sisters, Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, led the Yue people to rise up in rebellion against the Han, it began at the Red River Delta, but soon spread to other Yue tribes along the coast to the north and south. The uprising gained the support of settlements. Trung Trac was proclaimed as the queen. Though she gained control over the countryside, she was not able to capture the fortified towns; the Han government responded rather to the emerging situation. In May or June of 42 AD, Emperor Guangwu gave the orders to initiate a military campaign.
General Ma Yuan was placed in command of the campaign to suppress the rebellion. He was given the title Fubo Jiangjun. Ma Yuan and his staff began mobilizing a Han army in southern China, it comprised about 10,000 troops. From Guangdong, Ma Yuan dispatched a fleet of supply ships along the coast, he led the Han army through difficult terrain towards the Red River Delta, where they arrived in early 43 AD. The rebellion was stricken down in May; the Trung sisters were decapitated. By the end of 43 AD, the Han army had taken full control over the region by defeating the last pockets of resistance. General Ma Yuan aggressively sinicized the culture and customs of the local people, removing their tribal ways, so they could be more governed by Han China, he melted down the Yue bronze drums, their chieftains' symbol of authority, to cast a statue of a horse, which he presented to Emperor Guangwu when he returned to Luoyang in the autumn of 44 AD. One reason for the defeat is the desertion by rebels because they did not believe they could win under a woman's leadership.
The fact that women were in charge was blamed as a reason for the defeat by historical Vietnamese texts. Vietnamese historians were ridiculing and mocking men for the fact that they did nothing while "mere girls", whom they viewed with revulsion, took up the banner of revolt-the Vietnamese poem which talked about the revolt of the Trung Sisters while the men did nothing was not intended to praise women nor view war as women's work as it has been wrongly interpreted; when the enemy is at the gate, the woman goes out fighting. Has been recited as evidence of women's stature; the quote is "giac den nha, dan ba cung danh" in Vietnamese and the quote means that fighting in war is inappropriate for women and its only when the situation is so desperate that the war has spread to their home women should enter the war. Copper columns of Ma Yuan Bielestein, Hans. "Wang Mang, the restoration of the Han dynasty, Later Han". The Cambridge History of China, Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B. C.–A. D.
220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521243278. Yü, Ying-shih. "Han Foreign Relations". The Cambridge History of China, Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B. C.–A. D. 220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521243278
Annam (French protectorate)
Annam was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam. Before the protectorate's establishment, the name Annam was used in the West to refer to Vietnam as a whole. Vietnamese people were referred to as Annamites; the protectorate of Annam became in 1887 a part of French Indochina. Two other Vietnamese regions, Cochinchina in the South and Tonkin in the North, were units of French Indochina; the region had a dual system of Vietnamese administration. The Nguyễn Dynasty still nominally ruled Annam, with a puppet emperor residing in Huế. In 1948, the protectorate was merged in the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, replaced the next year by the newly established State of Vietnam; the region was divided between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam under the terms of the Geneva Accord of 1954. Annam means "Pacified South" in the toponym being derived from the Chinese An Nan. In the history of Vietnam, the designation is one of several given by the Chinese to the Tonkin, the core territory of modern-day Vietnam surrounding the city of Hanoi, which included land from the Gulf of Tonkin to the mountains which surround the plains of the Red River.
The name has been applied to the Annamite Range, a 1,100 km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2,958 metres that divides Vietnam and Laos. The Vietnamese language or its central dialects were called "Annamese", as in the seminal dictionary Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum. An Nam is considered offensively demeaning to Vietnamese people, used in sarcastic manners. Trung Kỳ is used instead in formal contexts. Meanwhile, Annamiticum in the dictionary's name is translated as Việt. Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyễn lords, but one of its members, Gia Long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of present-day Vietnam; this force was procured for him by Pigneau de Béhaine, titular bishop of Adran, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence in Indochina and counterbalancing the English power in India. Before this, in 1787, Gia Long had concluded a treaty with Louis XVI, whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French.
That treaty marks the beginning of French influence in Indochina. After conquering Cochinchina in 1858–1862, the French resumed in 1883 their expansion in Southern Asia; the first protectorate treaty was signed in 1883, although it was replaced the next year by a milder treaty. With the treaty of Tientsin, China recognised the French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin and implicitly abandoned her own claims to suzerainty over Vietnam. Annam and Tonkin became part of French Indochina in 1887. On 9 May 1889, they were split in two Résidences supérieures, each subordinated to the Governor-General of French Indochina; the Nguyễn dynasty still nominally ruled over both protectorates. Tonkin was de facto ruled directly by the French, while the imperial government maintained some degree of authority over Annam. On 27 September 1897, the Vietnamese imperial council in Annam was replaced by a council of ministers, presided de jure by the French representative. Annam comprised a sinuous strip of territory measuring between 750 and 800 miles in length, with an approximate area of 52,000 square miles.
It had a rich, well-watered soil which yields tropical crops, was rich in occurring minerals. The country consisted chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast to a narrow band of plains varying between 12 and 50 miles in breadth; the mountains are cut transversely by short narrow valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in summer and torrential in winter. The Song Ma and the Song Ca in the north, the Song Ba, Don Nai and Se Bang Khan in the south, are the only rivers of any size in the region; the chief harbour is. South of this point, the coast curves is broken by peninsulas and indentations. In Annam, the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeastern monsoon and with a period of typhoons. During the rains the temperature varies from 59 degrees Fahrenheit to 75 °F. June and August are the hottest months, the thermometer reaching 85 °F or 90 °F, though the heat of the day is to some extent compensated by the freshness of the nights.
The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation. During the French period there was little industry; the economy was an agricultural one based on: the cultivation of rice, which grows in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops a year. Fishing, fish salting and the preparation of fish sauceSilk spinning and weaving were carried on in what the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition called "antiquated lines...silkworms reared in a desultory fashion". Other crops were tea, cotton, precious woods and rubber. Coffee, pepper and jute were cultivated to a minor extent; the exports comprised tea, raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and su
Guangxi (. A province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history; the current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan dynasty, but into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory; the abbreviation of the region is "桂", which comes from the name of the city of Guilin, the provincial capital during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The current capital is Nanning. "Guǎng" means "expanse" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. Guangxi and neighboring Guangdong mean "expanse west" and "expanse east". Together and Guangdong are called Loeng gwong. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Xīlù and Guǎngnán Dōnglù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngxī Lù and Guǎngdōng Lù.
Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han Chinese general Zhao Tuo claimed most of southern China for Qin Shi Huang before the emperor's death; the ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Nanyue. Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han dynasty control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty; the name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province of the Eastern Wu, who controlled southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies. Under the Tang dynasty, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Nanzhao in Yunnan, which repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.
After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han in Xingwangfu. Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song dynasty in 971; the name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people, his independent kingdom was short-lived and the tattooed Song general Di Qing returned Guangxi to China. The Yuan dynasty established control over Yunnan during its conquest of the Dali Kingdom in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians established Guangxi as a proper province; the area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming dynasty to employ the different local groups against one another.
At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported. During the Ming and Qing dynasty, parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen clan; the Cen were recognized as tusi or local ruler by the Chinese emperors. The Qing dynasty left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising in January 1851 and the Da Cheng Rebellion in April 1854; the execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Louis Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass on 23 March 1885. Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911.
The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Old Guangxi clique overran Hunan and Guangdong as well and helped lead the National Protection War against Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1921 Guangdong -- Guangxi War. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years until Li Zongren's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, Bai Chongxi. Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peif
North Vietnam the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, was a country in Southeast Asia from 1954 to 1975. Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared independence from French Indochina on 2 September 1945 and announced the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France reasserted its colonial dominance and a war ensued between France and the Viet Minh, led by President Ho Chi Minh; the Viet Minh was a coalition of nationalist groups led by communists. In February 1951, the communists announced the creation of the Lao Động Party marginalizing non-communists in the Việt Minh. Between 1946 and 1954, the Việt Minh controlled most of the rural areas of Vietnam. In 1954, after the French were defeated, the negotiation of the Geneva Accords ended the war between France and the Việt Minh and granted Vietnam independence; the Geneva Accords divided the country provisionally into northern and southern zones, stipulated general elections in July 1956 to "bring about the unification of Viet-Nam".
The northern zone was called North Vietnam, the southern zone was called South Vietnam. Supervision of the implementation of the Geneva Accords was the responsibility of an international commission consisting of India and Poland; the United States did not sign the Geneva Accords, which stated that the United States "shall continue to seek to achieve unity through free elections supervised by the United Nations to insure that they are conducted fairly". In July 1955, the prime minister of the Republic of Vietnam, Ngô Đình Diệm, announced that South Vietnam would not participate in elections to unify the country, he said that South Vietnam was not bound by it. After the failure to reunify Vietnam by elections, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam attempted to unify the country by force in the Vietnam War. North Vietnam and the Việt Cộng insurgents supported by their communist allies, including the Soviet Union and China, fought against the military of South Vietnam, the United States and other anti-communist military forces, including South Korea, Australia and smaller players.
North Vietnam supported indigenous communist rebels in Cambodia and Laos against their respective U. S.-backed governments. The war ended when North Vietnamese forces and the Việt Cộng defeated South Vietnam and in 1976 united the two parts of the country into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the expanded Democratic Republic retained North Vietnam's political culture under Soviet influence and continued its existing memberships in international organisations such as Comecon. After about 300 years of partition by feudal dynasties, Vietnam was again under one single authority in 1802 when Gia Long founded the Nguyễn dynasty, but the country became a French protectorate after 1883 and under Japanese occupation after 1940 during World War II. Soon after Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945, the Việt Minh in the August Revolution entered Hanoi, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 2 September 1945: a government for the entire country, replacing the Nguyễn dynasty. Hồ Chí Minh became leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
U. S. President Franklin Roosevelt had spoken against French rule in Indochina, the U. S. was supportive of the Viet Minh at this time. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh claimed dominion over all of Vietnam, but during this time South Vietnam was in profound political disorder; the successive collapse of French Japanese power, followed by the dissension among the political factions in Saigon had been accompanied by widespread violence in the countryside. On 16 August 1945, Hồ Chí Minh organized the National Congress in Tân Trào; the Congress adopted 10 major policies of the Việt Minh, passed the General Uprising Order,decided the National Flag, in the middle with 5-pointed gold star, selected the national anthem and selected the National Committee for the Liberation of Vietnam becoming the Provisional Revolutionary Government, led by Hồ Chí Minh. On 12 September 1945, the first British troops arrived in Saigon. On 23 September 28 days after the people of Saigon seized political power, French troops occupied the police stations, the post office, other public buildings.
The salient political fact of life in Northern Vietnam was Chinese Nationalist army of occupation, the Chinese presence had forced Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh to accommodate Chinese-backed Viet Nationalists. In June 1946, Chinese Nationalist troops evacuated Hanoi, on the 15 June, the last detachments embarked at Haiphong. After the departure of the British in 1946, the French controlled a part of Cochinchina, South Central Coast, Central Highlands since the end Southern Resistance War. In January 1946, the Viet Minh held an election to establish a National Assembly. Public enthusiasm for this event suggests that the Viet Minh enjoyed a great deal of popularity at this time, although there were few competitive races and the party makeup of the Assembly was determined in advance of the vote. On 18 and 19 September 1945, the Việt Minh held secret meetings with Việt Quốc. In these two meetings, Nguyễn Hải Thần represented Việt Cách and Nguyễn Tường Tam represent Việt Quốc. Hồ Chí Minh agree to unite the Việt Minh with Việt Quốc.
Thus, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam led by the Việt Minh will receive the financial and political support of the Republic of China. For this proposal, within the Việt Minh there are many different opinions. Võ Nguyên Giáp disagrees with the suggestion that the proposals are not valid and not honest, as if replacing French col
Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam
The fourth Chinese domination was a period of the history of Vietnam, from 1407 to 1427 during which the country was invaded and ruled by the Chinese Ming dynasty. It was the result of the conquest of the region in 1406 to 1407; the previous periods of Chinese rules, collectively known as the Bắc thuộc periods in Vietnam, were longer-lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. The fourth Chinese occupation of Vietnam was ended with the establishment of the Lê dynasty; the former ruling dynasty of Đại Việt, the Trần, had relations with the Yuan and Ming Empire as a tributary. However, in 1400, Hồ Quý Ly massacred the Trần house before usurping the throne. After taking the throne, Hồ renamed the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. In 1402, he abdicated the throne in favor of Hồ Hán Thương. In October 1404, Trần Thiêm Bình arrived at the Ming imperial court in Nanjing, claiming to be a Trần prince, he notified the court of the treacherous events that had taken place and appealed to the court for the restoration of his throne.
The Yongle Emperor of the Ming Empire issued an edict reprimanding the usurper and demanding the restoration of the Tran throne, a pretext to the annexation of Vietnam. As the party crossed the border into Lạng Sơn, Hồ's forces ambushed them and killed the Trần prince that the Ming convoy were escorting back. In the winter of 1406, the Ming armies began their invasion. Zhang Fu and Mu Sheng departed from Guangxi and Yunnan to launch a pincer attack into enemy territory. On 19 November 1406, they captured the two capitals and other important cities in the Red River Delta. Hồ Quý Ly and his son were captured on 16 June 1407, they were caged and brought as prisoners to the Yongle Emperor in Nanjing. There was several revolts among the Vietnamese people against the Ming authorities, only to be crushed by the Ming army. Among the people who led the rebellion were, Trần Ngỗi, a young son of the late Trần emperor Trần Nghệ Tông and Trần Quý Khoáng, a nephew; these revolts were short-lived and poorly planned but they helped lay some of the groundwork for Lê Lợi's war for independence.
Lê Lợi, one of Vietnam's most celebrated heroes, is credited with rescuing the country from Ming domination in 1428. Born of a wealthy landowning family, he served as a senior scholar-official until the advent of the Ming, whom he refused to serve. After a decade of gathering a resistance movement around him, Le Loi and his forces defeated the Ming army in 1428. Rather than putting to death the captured Ming soldiers and administrators, he magnanimously provided ships and supplies to send them back to China. Le Loi ascended the Vietnamese throne, taking the reign name Lê Thái Tổ and establishing the Lê dynasty; when the Ming invaded. Vietnamese records like gazettes and registers were instructed to be burned, saved for one copy; this policy was enforced by Yongle emperor. His command to the army in Vietnam in July 1406 is as follow: 兵入。除釋道經板經文不燬。外一切書板文字以至俚俗童蒙所習。如上大人丘乙已之類。片紙隻字悉皆燬之。其境內中國所立碑刻則存之。但是安南所立者悉壞之。一字不存。 "Once our army enter Annam, except Buddhist and Taoist text; the stelas erected by China should be protected while those erected by Annamese, should be annihilated, do not spare one character."
Yongle's command on 21 May 1407 read: "I have told you all to burnt all Annamese books, including folklore and children books and the local stelas should be destroyed upon sight. I heard our soldiers hesitated and read those books before burning them. Most soldiers do not know how to read, if this policy is adapted it will be a waste of our time. Now you have to obey my previous command, burnt all local books upon sight, without hesitation." For this reason no vernacular chữ nôm texts survive from before the Ming invasion. Various ancient sites such as pagoda Bao Minh were destroyed; the Ming dynasty applied various Sinicization policies to spread more Chinese culture in the occupied nation. The Ming government began a harsh rule of both sinicization. Valuable artifacts such as gems, gold, pieces of art as well as craftsmen were transported to China; the Chinese had encouraged the development and the use of gold and silver mines. But right after the silver and gold were extracted they impounded them and sent a fraction of these minerals to Beijing.
They imposed salt taxes, but a heavier tax against those who produced salt in Annam. Non-Han ethnic minorities fought in the Chinese army against the Ho, it was instructed. To keep the people under control in Vietnam, the Ming government issued, utilized the "So Ho" system, at the lowest village community level. Whenever there was a change in a family, a change in the book was approved. Based on this information, they created a systematic military service enrollment process for all young men deemed fit enough to serve in the future for the Imperial Chinese Army; this process was no different than what other governments did to subjugated areas, this had created a negative feeling against the Chinese government. In addition, many talented Vietnamese individuals with varying trades and backgrounds who could make significant contributions were allowed to become government officials in China where they served in the Chinese imperial government; the Ming's ethnic Vietnamese collaborators included Mac Thuy whose grandfather was Mạc Đĩnh Chi who