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Tri-Cities, Tennessee-Virginia

The Tri-Cities is the region comprising the cities of Kingsport, Johnson City, Bristol and the surrounding smaller towns and communities in Northeast Tennessee and Southwest Virginia. All three cities are located in Northeast Tennessee, while Bristol has a twin city of the same name in Virginia; the Tri-Cities region was a single Metropolitan Statistical Area. S. Census Bureau's revised definitions of urban areas in the early 2000s, it is now a Combined Statistical Area with two metropolitan components: Johnson City and Kingsport-Bristol -Bristol; as of the 2000 Census, the CSA had a population of 480,091. TennesseeCarter County Greene County Hancock County Hawkins County Johnson County Sullivan County Unicoi County Washington CountyVirginiaCity of Bristol Scott County Washington County Johnson City, Tennessee Kingsport, Tennessee Bristol, Tennessee Bristol, Virginia Bloomingdale, Tennessee Elizabethton, Tennessee Greeneville, Tennessee Baileyton, Tennessee Bulls Gap, Tennessee Damascus, Virginia Clinchport, Virginia Duffield, Virginia Dungannon, Virginia Meadow View, Virginia Mooresburg, Tennessee Nickelsville, Virginia Telford, Tennessee Watauga, Tennessee As of the census of 2000, there were 480,091 people, 199,218 households, 138,548 families residing within the CSA.

The racial makeup of the CSA was 96.22% White, 2.12% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.02% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $30,331, the median income for a family was $37,254. Males had a median income of $29,561 versus $21,014 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $16,923. Interstate Highways I-26 and I-81 intersect in the region, while I-40, I-77, I-75 are nearby. Tri-Cities Regional Airport has non-stop service to Atlanta, Charlotte, Ft. Lauderdale, St. Petersburg/Clearwater. Airlines include Delta Connection, Allegiant Air and American Eagle Airlines. Additionally, TRI manages an aggressive Air Cargo program, administers Foreign Trade Zone 204, supports and promotes U. S. Customs Port 2027, provides trade development assistance; the Region has Norfolk Southern mainline railway access. I-26 I-81 US 11 US 11E US 11E Bus.

US 11W US 19 US 19E US 19W US 23 US 23 Bus. US 58 US 58 Alt. US 58 Bus. US 321 US 321 Truck US 421 US 421 Bus; the region is served by Tri-Cities Regional Airport which has scheduled airline passenger jet service. East Tennessee State University Emmanuel Christian Seminary Emory & Henry College King University Milligan College Northeast State Community College Virginia Intermont College Virginia Highlands Community College Walters State Community CollegeThe Kingsport Higher Education Center is a complex in downtown Kingsport, Tennessee that combines classes from five area colleges and universities, including The University of Tennessee; the All-America City Award is given by the National Civic League annually to ten cities in the United States. In 1999, the Tri-Cities were collectively designated as an All-America City by the National Civic League; the award is the oldest community recognition program in the nation and recognizes communities whose citizens work together to identify and tackle community-wide challenges and achieve uncommon results.

Since the program's inception in 1949, more than 4,000 communities have competed and over 500 have been named All-America Cities. The Greater Tri-Cities of Tennessee and Virginia has three sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Guaranda, Ecuador Teterow, Germany Rybinsk, Russia Doe River Watauga River Watauga Lake OMB Bulletin No. 04-03. Updates to Statistical Areas. December 2003. U. S. Census Bureau, Table 6. Population in Combined Statistical Areas: 1990 and 2000 Tri-Cities TN/VA - The Regional Alliance for Economic Development

The Haitian National Truth and Justice Commission

The Haitian National Truth and Justice Commission began its operations in April 1995 and ended in February 1996. Haiti's once diverse and lively civil society had been tarnished as a result of the ousting of its first democratically elected President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, by its military forces; this deposing of President Aristide is known as a coup d'état, from 1991 to 1994, the country became known for its weak civilian government. The army was determined to return Haiti to the intimidated society existing during the Duvalier dictatorship seven years prior; the Duvalier regime of the late 1960s and the early 1970s is to blame for the coup d'état that occurred resulting in Aristide's removal from power the first time. Duvalier was elected president with the help of the United States and a Haitian populace, enduring a previous coup d'état that occurred in 1950. Once in office, the Haitian President, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, had the Haitian constitution rewritten so that no other President could succeed him, despite his term ending on May 15, 1963.

Duvalier remained Haiti's President until his death on April 21, 1971, ending the reign of the most corrupt President in Haiti's history. Most of Haiti's governments have been corrupt making him the most prestigious in this field so far; the oppression in Haiti resulting from Duvalier's regime was evident. With much aid from the United States throughout this period, Haiti provided him with five palaces, the Tonton Macoute, many sources of income. At the time, Haiti's literacy rate was ten percent, fifty percent infant mortality rate, fifteen percent of budget went in operations, while 85 percent went to the staff and associates of Duvalier. Little of Papa Doc's mandate favored their human rights. With the Tonton Macoute intimidating all threatening oppositions by forcing activists to leave the country or by ascertaining liberties or apportioning assets. Many executions were disguised, as exiles and sources state that as many as 2000 people could be executed in the span of one month during this dictatorship.

Being Haiti's first democratically elected president, coming out of a harsh dictatorship, the Haitian populace welcomed Aristide with open arms. He symbolized change in a time that lacked hope in Haiti. Despite the people voting Aristide into office, he still had much of the Duvalier military to worry about and they had a different opinion of the changes that were occurring in 1990, they became hostile towards the newly elected President and were able to assert their dominance of the island as a result of their military weapons and training. Only a year into Aristide's presidency, he found himself removed from power by an army led by commander-in-chief, Raoul Cédras, who had overseen many accounts of human rights violations without holding any of his section chiefs responsible; the three year coup d'état brought systematic oppression for the citizens of Haiti, maintained through intimidation from a violent military who were said to be responsible for numerous beatings and disappearances which led to the destruction of civil society in the country.

As a result of the worsening conditions in Haiti, the United Nations and the Organization of America States imposed international sanctions against Haiti because of the corrupt powers terrorizing and controlling the island. It was expected that Aristide would return as president of Haiti October 1993, but military deterrence pushed his return to power back as far as July of the next year; the deciding factor allowing Aristide to return to office was the 20,000 United States troops and the United Nations persuading support. The CNVJ was appointed by presidential Decree, six months after Aristide returned to office in Haiti; this Commission was established to seek and identify the instigators and accessories to the many human rights violations and crimes against humanity following the military control of government from September 1991 to October 1994, both inside and outside the country. The Commission was implemented in order to aid the country in reconciliation and to recover the truth about the human rights violations in the given time period.

The hope of the commissioners was to provide a guideline for legal recourse and a way of helping the country move forward. The Commission was required to submit a report that many felt was unfinished to an extent because Aristide was being pressured to hand the presidency over to his elected successor, the mandate expressed that the report had to be handed directly to Aristide. In the end the mandate was intended for everybody to access. Though the report included the testimonies of the public and financial constraints that made it difficult for the report to provide details of what was discovered. A bright spot in the report was that it revealed names of 9,000 victims from the period along with the particular abuse, inflicted upon them; the initiative is credited to the Haitian diaspora as the impetus toward establishing a truth and justice commission came from Haitians abroad. The mandate of the CNVJ was to begin an investigation regarding human rights violations that occurred during the three year coup d'état that begun September 30, 1991 until Aristide's return to power in October 1994. "to globally establish the truth concerning the most serious Human Rights violations perpetrated between September 29, 1991 and October 15, 1994, inside and outside the country and help to the reconciliation of all Haitians without any prejudice against seeking legal action based on these violations."

This is a quote from Jean-Bertrand Aristide upon creating the mandate of the CNVJ. The commission consisted of seven c

Rómulo Macció

Romulo Macció was an Argentine painter associated with the local avant-garde art movement which took shape during the 1960s. Born in Buenos Aires, Macció developed an early interest in drawing, was self-taught and was hired as a graphic designer at the age of fourteen. Soon earning some renown, he mounted his first exhibition in Buenos Aires' Galeria Gatea in 1956. Macció's visually unabashed abstract art brought him to the attention of, among others, architect Clorindo Testa and he joined the Boa Group, one of a number of intellectual circles influencing local cultural life in those days. Awarded the prestigious De Ridder Prize in 1959 and the Torcuato di Tella Institute International Prize in 1962, his fame brought him close to other Argentine avant-garde artists, such as Luis Felipe Noé, he and Noé soon helped pioneer the Nueva Figuración movement that swept Latin American art during the 1960s. A self-declared rebel against aesthetics in art, Macció described much of the genteel portrait and landscape art available at that time as "pink chocolate."

Macció's tortured figures were the dead or dying and were set against backdrops that suggested urban pollution and decay. His work has tended to center around social problems. Macció's work continues to be displayed in European galleries. There have been eight retrospective art books published on his work since 1969. A number of his works are in the permanent collections of the National Museum of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires, the Blanton Museum of Art and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington D. C.. Macció died at the age of 84 on 11 March 2016. Artnet The Legacy Project