Petersburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,420; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines Petersburg with Dinwiddie County for statistical purposes. It is located on the Appomattox River; the city is just 21 miles south of the historic commonwealth capital city of Richmond. The city's unique industrial past and its location as a transportation hub combined to create wealth for Virginia and the Middle Atlantic and Upper South regions of the nation. Early in the colonial era of the 18th century, Petersburg was the final destination on the Upper Appomattox Canal Navigation System because of its location on the Appomattox River with its connection to the James River to the east at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line and the tying in with the James River shipping traffic was a strategic place for transportation and commercial activities, it connected commerce as far inland as Farmville, Virginia at the foothills of the Blue Ridge and the Appalachian Mountains chain, to shipping further east into the Chesapeake Bay and North Atlantic Ocean.
For similar reasons, 17th century era Fort Henry was built at the order of the Virginia House of Burgesses at Petersburg in 1645 to protect the river traffic. As railroads were being constructed and extended in the state in the 1830s and 1840s, Petersburg was developed as a major transfer point for both north-south and east-west competitors; the Petersburg Railroad, authorized in 1830, three years after the first American railway, the B.& O. in Baltimore, by the state legislstures of both Virginia and North Carolina to the south, which opened in 1833. It was another one of the earliest predecessors of the modern-day CSX Transportation system. Several of the earliest predecessors of the area's other major Class 1 railroad, the Norfolk Southern met at Petersburg. Access to railroads stimulated industry in the city, established because of the water power available at the fall line, as the river plunged from the Piedmont level to lower tidewater lands. During the American Civil War, because of this railroad network, Petersburg was key to Union plans to capture the Confederate States national capital established early in the war at Richmond.
Nine months of trench warfare were conducted by Union forces during the 1864–65 Siege of Petersburg. Battlefield sites are located throughout the city and surrounding areas preserved as Petersburg National Battlefield by the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior; the city is significant for its role in African-American history. Petersburg had one of the oldest free black settlements in the state at Pocahontas Island. Two Baptist churches in the city, whose congregations were founded in the late 18th century, are among the oldest black congregations and churches in the United States. In the 20th century and other black churches were leaders in the national Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s-1960s. In the post-bellum period, a black college which developed as the Virginia State University was established nearby in Ettrick in Chesterfield County. Richard Bland College, now a junior college, was established here as a branch of Williamsburg's famed College of William and Mary.
Petersburg remains a transportation hub, with the network of area highways including Interstate Highways 85, 95, U. S. Route highways with 1, 301, 460. Both CSX and Norfolk Southern rail systems maintain transportation centers at Petersburg. Amtrak serves the city with daily Northeast Regional passenger trains to Norfolk and long-distance routes from states to the South. In the early 21st century, Petersburg civic leaders were highlighting the city's historical attractions for heritage tourism, the industrial sites reachable by the transportation infrastructure. Military activity has been expanded by the federal government at nearby Fort Lee, home of the United States Army's Sustainment Center of Excellence, the Army's Logistics Branch, Ordnance and Transportation Corps. Archaeological excavations at Pocahontas Island have found evidence of a prehistoric Native American settlement dated to 6500 BC; this is in the early third of the Archaic Period. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years prior to European exploration and colonization.
When the English arrived in Virginia in 1607, the region was occupied by the Appamatuck, a significant tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy. They were governed by a weroance, King Coquonosum, by his sister, Queen Oppussoquionuske; this Algonquian-speaking people had a town at Rohoic Creek. Present-day Petersburg developed east of here. Petersburg was founded at a strategic point at the fall line of the Appomattox River and settled by English colonists. By 1635 they had patented land along the south bank of the Appomattox River as far west as present-day Sycamore Street, about 1 mile inland. In 1646, the Virginia Colony established Fort Henry a short distance from the Appamatuck town, near the falls, it provided water power for mills and industrialization. Col. Abraham Wood sent several famous expeditions out from here in the following years to explore points to the west, as far as the Appalachian Mountains; some time around 1675, Wood's son-in-law, Peter Jones, who commanded the fort and traded with the Indians, opened a trading post nearby, known as Peter's Point.
The Bolling fam
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with I-65 in Alabama, it is nominally north–south, but physically northeast–southwest. While most interstates that end in a "5" are cross-country routes, I-85 is a regional route, serving five southeastern states. Major metropolitan areas served by I-85 include the Greater Richmond Region in Virginia, the Research Triangle, Piedmont Triad, Metrolina regions of North Carolina, Upstate South Carolina, the Atlanta metropolitan area in Georgia, the Montgomery metropolitan area in Alabama. I-85 is a route that serves several major locations in the Southeastern United States, stretching from Alabama to Virginia and major metropolitan areas such as Atlanta and Charlotte. I-85 begins as a fork off I-65 in Montgomery. From there, I-85 parallels U. S. Route 80. At Tuskegee, I-85 leaves US 80 and starts to parallel US 29, which the highway parallels for much of its length. I-85 passes near Auburn, Opelika and Lanett before crossing the Chattahoochee River into Georgia.
I-85 will soon be rerouted southward just east of Montgomery, where it will intersect with I-65 just south of downtown Montgomery. Future I-685 will be the new designation for the route of current I-85, which leads directly to I-65 in downtown Montgomery. In Georgia, I-85 bypasses West Point before coming into the LaGrange area. East of LaGrange, I-85 intersects I-185 which connects to Fort Benning. In the Atlanta area, I-85 intersects I-20 and merges with I-75 through the downtown area. North of Atlanta, I-985 provides a link to Gainesville before heading through northeastern Georgia and crossing into South Carolina. Due to a bridge collapse on March 30, 2017, parts of I-85 in Atlanta were closed. I-85 provides the major transportation route for the Upstate of South Carolina, linking together the major centers of Greenville and Spartanburg with regional centers of importance. In Spartanburg, BMW has a major manufacturing plant. In South Carolina, I-85 bypasses Anderson on the way to Greenville.
Beginning at Anderson, I-85 widens from four to six lanes. Near Powdersville, US 29 joins I-85 and they run concurrently until they cross the Saluda River. I-85 bypasses just south of Greenville, but provides two links into the city via spur routes I-185 and I-385. I-85 has direct exits to Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport, which serves the Greenville–Spartanburg metropolitan area. I-85 bypasses the city of Spartanburg to the north, its original route is now signed as Business Loop 85 and was approved by AASHTO on April 22, 1995. Near mile marker 70, I-85 intersects with I-26; the exits are signed as 70B for westbound traffic. North of Spartanburg, I-85 narrows from six lanes back to bypasses Gaffney. Much of the terrain between Spartanburg and the North Carolina border is rural in nature but congested to the state line due to its location near Charlotte. In North Carolina, I-85 enters a rural area near Kings Mountain before entering the Gastonia and Charlotte areas. In Charlotte, I-85 bypasses Charlotte Douglas International Airport and turns northeastward just before reaching uptown Charlotte.
North of Charlotte, the highway passes near Concord, Salisbury and High Point before reaching Greensboro. At Greensboro, I-85 shifts away from downtown I-85 Business Loop. I-85 joins I-40 east of downtown, the two highways are cosigned as they pass through Burlington and Mebane separate near Hillsborough where I-40 turns toward Chapel Hill and Raleigh. After the split with I-40, I-85 continues to Durham, before turning northeastward through Oxford Henderson toward Virginia. Starting from the Virginia border, drivers will pass South Hill and McKenney before heading into a large forest. After the forest, I-85 reaches Petersburg and ends at I-95; the highway is cosigned with US 460 from a few miles west of Petersburg in Dinwiddie County to I-95. I-85 follows the same general path as US 1, as the two cross several times between the North Carolina border and the northern terminus outside Petersburg. In the northern half of I-85, the route parallels an ancient Indian trading path documented since colonial times from Petersburg, Virginia, to the Catawba Indian territory.
I-85 near Petersburg once formed the southern end of the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike, completed in 1958. The tolls were removed in 1992. Before a 2010 decision to raise the speed limit in the state to 70 miles per hour, Virginia's portion of I-85 was the only Interstate Highway in the state with a posted speed limit greater than 65 miles per hour, it was raised from 65 to 70 mph on July 2006, by the state legislature. In 2004, I-85 was rerouted around Greensboro. I-40 ran with I-85 along the bypass to the southern/western end and I-40 continued on a new freeway alignment at exit 121 until September 2008, when it was rerouted back to its old alignment through the city. Despite its reroute around Greensboro, the overall length for I-85 in North Carolina remains the same as before. An extension of I-85 has been proposed west from Montgomery to interchange with I-20/I-59 just east of the Mississippi–Alabama state line, where it will connect with I-20/I-59 n
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge
The Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge is a vertical-lift bridge that spans the James River between Jordan's Point in Prince George County and Charles City County near Hopewell, Virginia. The bridge carries vehicle traffic of State Route 106 and State Route 156, is owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation, it is named after Benjamin Harrison V, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a Governor of Virginia, who lived nearby at Berkeley Plantation. Completed in 1966, it was rebuilt following a February 24, 1977 collision by a ship. Repairs took 20 months to complete; the cost of repairs and operations for an innovative passenger shuttle service contracted by the state were $9.7 million. The costs were recovered from the insurer for the shipping company following a lawsuit in U. S. District Court. Working in conjunction with the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, the Benjamin Harrison Bridge and its VDOT staff host a successful breeding program for peregrine falcons on its high towers.
The mile-long drawbridge replaced ferry service when it was completed in 1966 by Hardesty & Hanover L. L. P. A New York-based bridge engineering firm, it featured a 360-foot-long vertical lift span to facilitate passage of shipping traffic on this portion of the James River, navigable from Hampton Roads upstream to the Port of Richmond, about 23 miles west of the bridge. On February 24, 1977, the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge was the scene of a spectacular and costly accident. A small, ocean-going, WWII-surplus tanker ship, the 5,700 ton, 523-ft long SS Marine Floridian, was eastbound, heading downriver from Allied Signal Corp. in Hopewell, Virginia. Once underway and only a short distance from the Benjamin Harrison Bridge, the steering gear that powers the ships rudder malfunctioned, caused the ship to lose control and ability to maneuver; the bridge tender had placed the lift span in the "raised" position in anticipation of the ship's passage, motorists were sitting in their vehicles behind the warning gates waiting.
As the large ship veered off course to the north and blew warning blasts on its horn, the occupants of southbound vehicles waiting on the bridge saw the ship coming directly toward them, managed to get out of their cars and run to safety before the ship rammed the bridge. As the ship departed the channel to the north, the crew blew the emergency signal of 6 blasts on the ship's horn, put the engine into reverse and dropped the starboard anchor to attempt to steer the ship back into the main channel, but it was too late to counteract the tons of momentum; the ship missed the opened, portion of the bridge over the main channel, struck part of the fixed span. One section of the concrete bridge deck adjacent the north tower and two unoccupied vehicles tumbled into the river; the vehicles included a Ford conversion van belonging to a person from the Virginia Beach area and a pickup truck belonging to a local plumbing company. The bridge structure of the north tower stopped the ship's forward movement when the lower part struck the deckhouse.
The bridge tender, a state employee, was trapped in the control booth located on the raised lift span near the south end. Despite the considerable damage, there were no serious fatalities. After the collision, a tugboat, the Virginia B. raced downriver from Hopewell to the scene of the accident. A resident of the Jordan Point Yacht Haven launched a 19 foot runabout and with the help of a local rescue squad member began a search of the area for survivors; the US Coast Guard Strike Team 1 deployed Lt. Cmdr Chambers and an enlisted diver to the scene by helicopter; the diver operated off the resident's runabout for 3 days. Representatives of the National Transportation Safety Board, the United States Coast Guard, Virginia Governor Mills E. Godwin Jr.'s Office of Emergency Services responded to the scene. Civil engineering contractors were summoned to assess damages and assist with planning repairs to the bridge. Local land and water transportation contractors were solicited to develop proposals to provide alternate transportation for displaced motorists.
According to official state records, the damage to the bridge entailed the "destruction of two spans north of the lift span, the north tower, the lift span, serious damage to the south tower." And "elimination of both highway and river traffic with immediate serious effect upon highway users and industries relying upon supplies by water" While river traffic was restored in short order, the loss of the bridge as a highway artery caused substantial hardship to commuters and the communities on both sides of the river beginning after the collision. Repairs would take quite some time before the bridge could reopen to highway traffic and would be costly. Prior to completion of the bridge in 1966, an automobile-carrying passenger ferry service had operated at this location, but the docks had rotted and silt had filled in the areas where the large ferryboats, if their service was to be restored, would need to dock. Due to a dredging restriction in place because of Kepone contamination, it was not feasible to restore the automobile-carrying ferry service, although a similar operation was still serving about 35 miles downstream at the Jamestown Ferry.
Alternative driving routes were unacceptably lengthy. The only fixed crossing downstream was the James River Bridge, which would require an additional 130-mile drive; the nearest highway bridge upstream was located on Interstate 95 at Richmond, necessitating an additional driving distance of over 50 miles. The existing Jamestown Ferry service about 35 miles downstream between Scotland in Surry Co
Dinwiddie County, Virginia
Dinwiddie County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,001, its county seat is Dinwiddie. Dinwiddie County is part of VA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the first inhabitants of the area were Paleo-Indians, prior to 8000 BC. They are believed to have been nomadic hunter-gatherers following animal migrations. Early stone tools have been discovered in various fields within the county. At the time of European contact, Native Americans made their homes in the region. Dinwiddie County was formed May 1752, from Prince George County; the county is named for Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 1751–58. The county raised several militia units. Dinwiddie County was the birthplace of Elizabeth Hobbs Keckly, a free black dressmaker who worked for two presidents' wives: Mrs. Jefferson Davis and Mary Todd Lincoln. Thomas Day was a native. Another native son was Dr. Thomas Stewart America's first free black 18th-century rural physician. During the Civil War the Battle of Lewis's Farm was fought along Quaker Road.
It took place on March 29, 1865. This was the first in several attempts by Union General Ulysses S. Grant to cut Robert E. Lee's final supply line—the Southside Railroad—in the spring of 1865. Here the Union forces led by Brig. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain engaged Confederates under Maj. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson. After sharp fighting, the Union troops entrenched nearby along the Boydton Plank Road, Johnson withdrew to his lines at White Oak Road; the Union army cut the rail line four days after capturing Five Forks on April 1, 1865, at the Battle of Five Forks. Several other engagements were fought in Dinwiddie County, including the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, Battle of Sutherland's Station, Battle of White Oak Road; the Dinwiddie County Historical Society occupies the historic Dinwiddie County Court House. Battle of Peebles' Farm Battle of Lewis's Farm Battle of Dinwiddie Court House Battle of White Oak Road Battle of Five Forks Battle of Sutherland's Station Dinwiddie is located in southern Virginia, southwest of the independent city of Petersburg.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 507 square miles, of which 504 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. It is located between Fort Lee to the east and Fort Pickett to the west. Chesterfield County – north Petersburg City – northeast Prince George County – east Sussex County – southeast Greensville County – south Brunswick County – southwest Nottoway County – west Amelia County – northwest Petersburg National Battlefield I-85 US 1 US 460 US 460 Bus. SR 40 SR 142 SR 226 As of the census of 2000, there were 24,533 people, 9,107 households, 6,720 families residing in the county; the population density was 49 people per square mile. There were 9,707 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.55% White, 33.66% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 9,107 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 13.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 6.70% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,582, the median income for a family was $47,961. Males had a median income of $32,860 versus $24,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,122. About 6.60% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.60% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over.
District 1: Harrison A. Moody District 2: Mark E. Moore District 3: William D. Chavis District 4: Daniel D. Lee District 5: Brenda K. Ebron-Bonner Clerk of the Circuit Court: John Barrett Chappell, Jr. Commissioner of the Revenue: Lori K. Stevens Commonwealth's Attorney: Ann Cabell Baskervill Sheriff: D. T. "Duck" Adams Treasurer: Jennifer Caraway Perkins Dinwiddie is represented by Republican Frank M. Ruff, Jr. and Democrat Henry L. Marsh, III in the Virginia Senate, Democrats Rosalyn R. Dance and Roslyn C. Tyler in the Virginia House of Delegates, Democrat A. Donald McEachin in the U. S. House of Representatives; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the independent cities of Petersburg and Colonial Heights with Dinwiddie County for statistical purposes. McKenney Appomattox Regional Library serves as the public library for the area. Dinwiddie County official website
City Point, Virginia
City Point was a town in Prince George County, Virginia, annexed by the independent city of Hopewell in 1923. It served as headquarters of the Union Army during the Siege of Petersburg during the American Civil War. City Point owed its existence to its site overlooking the Appomattox Rivers. City Point was established in 1613 by Sir Thomas Dale, it was first known as Bermuda Cittie, but soon was renamed "Charles City" and was located in Charles City Shire when it was formed in 1634. Charles City Shire soon became known as Charles City County in 1637. City Point was included in the portion subdivided in 1703 to form Prince George County. In 1619 Samuel Sharpe and Samuel Jordan from City Point were burgesses at the first meeting of the House of Burgesses. During the American Civil War, City Point was the headquarters of General Ulysses S. Grant during the Siege of Petersburg in 1864 and 1865. To serve the Union army, two huge military installations were built—a supply depot and the Depot Field Hospital.
During that siege, City Point was one of the busiest ports in the world. On March 27 or 28, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln met at City Point with Generals Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman along with Admiral David Porter aboard the River Queen, as depicted by G. P. A Healy's 1868 painting The Peacemakers; the City Point Railroad, built in 1838 between City Point and Petersburg, became part of the South Side Railroad in 1854, played an important role in the Civil War. It became the oldest portion of the Norfolk and Western Railway, itself now a part of Norfolk Southern. Grant's Headquarters at Appomattox Manor form part of the National Park Service's Petersburg National Battlefield Park; the adjacent City Point Historical District is a registered National Historical Landmark. See main article Hopewell, Virginia for more information. On August 9, 1864, a tremendous explosion shook the city. General Grant reported, "Every part of the yard used as my headquarters is filled with splinters and fragments of shell," and a staff officer wrote, "Such a rain of shot, bullets, pieces of wood, iron bars and bolts and missiles of every kind was never before witnessed."
Examination of the wreckage revealed that a barge loaded with ammunition had exploded, detonating 30,000 artillery shells and 75,000 rounds of small arms ammunition. 43 people were killed and 126 were wounded. The wharf was entirely destroyed and the damage was put at $2 million. After the war it was discovered. Confederate Secret Service agent John Maxwell had smuggled a bomb aboard the ammunition barge. Maxwell used a clockwork mechanism to ignite 12 pounds of gunpowder packed into a box marked "candles." He called it his "horological torpedo." Here is a portion of Maxwell's report, taken from the Official Records. Sir: I have the honor to report that in obedience to your order, with the means and equipment furnished me by you, I left this city on the 26th of July last, for the line of the James River, to operate with the Horological Torpedo against the enemy’s vessels navigating that river. I had with me Mr. R. K. Dillard, well acquainted with the localities, whose service I engaged for the expedition.
On arriving in Isle of Wright County, on the 2nd of August, we learned of immense supplies of stores being landed at City Point, for the purpose, by stratagem, of introducing our machine upon the vessels there discharging stores, started for that point. We reached there before daybreak on the 9th of August last, with a small amount of provisions, having traveled by night and crawled upon our knees to pass the East picket line. Requesting my companion to remain behind about half a mile, I approached cautiously the wharf with my machine and powder covered by a small box. Finding the captain had come ashore from a barge at the wharf, I seized the occasion to hurry forward with my box. Being halted by one of the wharf sentinels, I succeeded in passing him by representing that captain had ordered me to convey the box on board. Hailing a man from the barge, I gave it in his charge, he carried it aboard. The magazine contained about twelve pounds of powder. Rejoining my companion, we retired to a safe distance to witness the effect of our effort.
In about an hour the explosion occurred. Its effect was communicated to another barge beyond the one operated upon and to a large wharf building containing their stores, destroyed; the scene was terrific, the effect deafened my companion to an extent from which he has not recovered. My own person was shocked, but I am thankful to Providence that we have both escaped without lasting injury. We obtained and refer you to the enclosed slips from the enemy’s newspapers, which afford their testimony of the terrible effects of this blow; the enemy estimates the loss of life at 58 killed and 126 wounded, but we have reason to believe it exceeded that. The pecuniary damage we heard estimated at $4,000,000 but, of course, we can give you no account of the extent of it exactly; the explosion didn't much hinder the Union war effort. The City Point supply depot was back in full operation in nine days. Although sabotage was not yet affirmed, the ammunition supply wharf was rebuilt to a much higher degree of security.
City Point National Cemetery City Point Open Air Museum City of Hopewell The City Point Explosion The City Point Explosion
Transportation in Richmond, Virginia
Transportation in Richmond and its immediate surroundings include land and air modes. This article includes the independent city and portions of the contiguous counties of Henrico and Chesterfield. While all of Henrico County would be considered part of the Richmond area and eastern portions of Chesterfield adjoin the three smaller independent cities of Petersburg and Colonial Heights, collectively called the Tri-Cities area. A rural section of southwestern Chesterfield may be considered not a portion of either suburban area. Richmond-Petersburg metropolitan area is considered by many criteria to include the Tri-Cities area and many more surrounding counties, incorporated towns, unincorporated communities.. Richmond's transportation history dates to the early 17th century; the Virginia Colony, established at Jamestown in 1607, was dependent upon the waterways as avenues of commerce. Along the river, the James River plantations such as John Rolfe's Varina Farms had their own wharfs on the rivers.
Located east of the Fall Line, they were soon shipping tobacco and other export crops abroad. The two cities which became the modern City of Richmond were first established as ports on the north and south banks of the James River due to their location at the head of navigation on the fall line; the ports at the head of navigation became transfer points, Richmond, on the north bank of the river, its former neighbor Manchester, along the south bank, became points for canals which were built to bypass the falls and rapids and connect with navigable waters upstream. Transfer to and from watercraft was undertaken as land transportation developed in the form of turnpikes and railroads; the first stagecoach lines to Richmond were established during the War of 1812, the first regular steamboat service began on the James River in 1815. Early the 19th century, the Virginia Board of Public Works began funding transportation infrastructure improvements, stimulating such private enterprises as the James River and Kanawha Canal, the Chesterfield Railroad, numerous turnpikes.
By 1855, Richmond had railroads extending in many directions. Long championed in the Virginia General Assembly by Whitmell P. Tunstall, the Richmond and Danville Railroad to the southwest was completed in 1854. Others included the Virginia Central Railroad, to the west, the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad to the south from Manchester; the predecessor to the Richmond and Potomac Railroad was complete north to Potomac Creek, where it connected with steamship service via the Chesapeake Bay to Alexandria and beyond. During the American Civil War, when Richmond served as the capital of the Confederate States of America, Richmond's railroads and connections to the other southern states were crucial to its support. Defenses at Drewry's Bluff blocked the Union Navy from access to Richmond via the river; the rail connections through Petersburg were the key links which Union General Ulysses S. Grant sought to sever during the Siege of Petersburg in 1864–1865; the fall of Petersburg in April 1865 necessitated the evacuation of Richmond by Jefferson Davis and the Confederate cabinet.
The Civil War ended with the surrender during General Robert E. Lee's retreat a week later. After the Civil War, Richmond's transportation infrastructure was rebuilt, improvements and expansion resumed. Virginia State Engineer Claudius Crozet's innovative tunnels under the Blue Ridge Mountains became a key portion of Collis P. Huntington's Chesapeake and Ohio railroad linking eastern Virginia to the Ohio River Valley, completed in 1873. By 1881, Pocahontas coal was riding the rails from the mountains eastbound for export via the C&O through Richmond to coal piers at Newport News on the harbor of Hampton Roads; the James River and Kanawha Canal was conveyed to Major James H. Dooley's Richmond and Allegheny Railroad by a deed dated March 4, 1880. Railroad construction workers promptly started laying tracks on the towpath creating a new water-level rail route, soon purchased by the C&O. Richmond had the first successful electrically powered street railway system in the United States. Designed by electric power pioneer, Frank J. Sprague, the trolley system opened its first line in January 1888.
Richmond's hills, long a transportation obstacle, were considered an ideal proving ground. The new technology soon replaced horsecars; as part of a national trend, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the electrically powered street railway systems accelerated Richmond's expansion. To generate traffic and fuel sales of property, amusement parks were created at the end of the lines at Lakeside Park, Westhampton Park, Forest Hill Park. Rails of interurban streetcar services formed a suburban network from Richmond extending north to Ashland and south to Chester, Colonial Heights and Hopewell. Another interurban route ran east along the Nine Mile Road and terminated at the National Cemetery at Seven Pines at the end of the Nine Mile Road, where many Union Civil War dead were interred; the area's streetcar suburbs included Highland Park, Barton Heights, Ginter Park, Woodland Heights, Highland Springs. In 1945, the network of trams was bought up by Virginia Transit Company to close it down at once, substitute it by a bus system.
A major issue for Manchester and Richmond residents in the 19th and early 20th century were the toll bridges over the James River. In 1910, Manchester agreed to a political consolidation with the much larger independent city of Richmond. Richmond's better-known name was used for both areas as it contained the loca