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A tri-oval is a shape which derives its name from the two other shapes it most resembles, a triangle and an oval. Rather than meeting at sharp, definable angles as the sides of a triangle do, in a tri-oval these angles are instead rounded into smooth curves. While an oval has four turns, a tri-oval has six. More formally, according to the four-vertex theorem, every smooth simple closed curve has at least four vertices, points where its curvature reaches a local minimum or maximum. In a tri-oval, there are six such points, alternating between three maxima; this term is most used to describe the shape of many automobile racetracks. The use of the tri-oval shape for automobile racing was conceived by Bill France, Sr. during the planning for Daytona. The triangular layout allowed fans in the grandstands an angular perspective of the cars coming towards and moving away from their vantage point. Traditional ovals offered only limited linear views of the course, required fans to look back and forth much like a tennis match.

The tri-oval shape prevents fans from having to "lean" to see oncoming cars, creates more forward sight lines. In other racing vernacular, the term "tri-oval" is used to describe the part of the track which represents the top triangular point of the course, used as the main stretch, the pit straight and the start–finish line, it is recognizable in most tracks by a manicured grass area. The modern tri-ovals were called as cookie cutters because of their identical shape and identical kind of races. Bean curve, a quartic curve n-ellipse, a family of curves that includes some tri-ovals

In Japanese culture, the JK business is the practice of compensated dating with adolescent girls. The abbreviation JK stands for joshi kōsei 女子高生 and means "female high school student". Typical scenario of a JK encounter: a girl gives out leaflets inviting for a "JK walk" or "walking date". Earlier the offered service was known as a "refresh business"; when police began investigations into the practice of "JK". This is when a girl is paid for social activities such as walking and talking, is sometimes referred to as "fortune telling". Another activity is reflexology. Many of the girls work in Akihabara in Tokyo; the U. S. State Department reported in 2017 that the Government of Japan "does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking", "continues to facilitate the prostitution of Japanese children". However, in the 2018 report it upgraded Japan to Tier 1 and highlighted that Japan meets the standards for the elimination of human trafficking. Yumeno Nito, a strong critic of government inaction on the problem, has formed a charity to assist girls in Tokyo.

Cultural anthropologists have described Japan as having a shame culture, creating a barrier for teenage runaways to be reunited with their families, making them vulnerable to recruiting into the underage sex industry. Gyaru Kogal Lolita

Mesocarb is a drug, being developed for Parkinson's disease. The drug was developed in the USSR in the 1970s for a variety of indications including asthenia, apathy and some clinical aspects of depression and schizophrenia. Mesocarb was used for counteracting the sedative effects of benzodiazepine drugs, increasing workload capacity and cardiovascular function, treatment of ADHD and hyperactivity in children, as a nootropic, as a drug to enhance resistance to cold temperatures, it is listed as having antidepressant and anticonvulsant properties. The drug has been found to act as a selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor by blocking the actions of the dopamine transporter, lacks the dopamine release characteristic of stimulants such as dextroamphetamine, it was the most selective DAT inhibitor amongst an array of other DAT inhibitors to which it was compared. Mesocarb was sold in Russia as 5 milligram tablets under the brand name Sydnocarb. Hydroxylated metabolites can be detected in urine for up to 10 days after consumption.

The drug is unknown in the western world and is neither used in medicine or studied scientifically to any great extent outside Russia and other countries in the former Soviet Union. It has however been added to the list of drugs under international control and is a scheduled substance in most countries, despite its multiple therapeutic applications and reported lack of significant abuse potential. Mesocarb had erroneously been referred to as a prodrug of amphetamine but this was based on older literature that relied on gas chromatography as an analytical method. Subsequently, with the advent of mass spectroscopy, it has been shown that presence of amphetamine in prior studies was an artifact of gas chromatography method. More recent studies using mass spectroscopy show that negligible levels of amphetamine are released from mesocarb metabolism. Mesocarb is a mesoionic sydnone imine, it has the amphetamine-backbone present, except that the RN has a complicated imine side-chain present