Pike County, Pennsylvania
Pike County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 57,369, its county seat is Milford. Pike County is included in NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2006, Pike County was the fastest-growing county in the state of Pennsylvania. Pike County was named for General Zebulon Pike, it was organized on March 1814 from part of Wayne County, Pennsylvania. Some English settlement in the area had started during the colonial years; the longtime original inhabitants were the Lenape Native Americans, known by the English colonists as the Delaware Indians because their territory was along the Delaware River, as well as the coastal mid-Atlantic area. In 1694, Governor Benjamin Fletcher of the colony of New York sent Captain Arent Schuyler to investigate claims that the French were recruiting Indian allies for use against the English. In 1696, governor Fletcher authorized purchases of Indian land near the New York border by a number of citizens of Ulster County.
Nicholas Depui was the first to settle in the area, in 1725. Thomas Quick moved to the area that would become Milford in 1733. Andrew Dingman settled on the Delaware River at the future site of Dingmans Ferry in 1735; the early settlers traded with them. As settlement increased and their land practices encroached on Lenape uses, land disputes arose; the colonists' infamous Walking Purchase of 1737 swindled the Lenape out of more than half of present-day Pike County. As the Lenape realized what had happened, violent conflicts arose between the colonists. Early in the nineteenth century, coal was discovered nearby in the area that would become Carbondale; this became significant as the British restricted export of British coal to the United States after the War of 1812, creating a fuel shortage in expanding New York City. To get the coal to New York, developers proposed a gravity railroad from Carbondale to Honesdale, along with a canal from Honesdale to the Hudson River at Kingston; the state of New York approved the canal proposal in 1823.
Work on the 108-mile Delaware and Hudson Canal began in 1825 and was completed in 1828. The canal system, which terminated at the Hudson River near present-day Kingston, proved profitable, but the barges had to cross the Delaware via a rope ferry across a "slackwater dam," which created bottlenecks in the canal traffic and added to the cost of transportation. John Roebling proposed continuing the canal over the river as part of an aqueduct. Built in 1848, his innovative design required only three piers, where five would ordinarily have been required. Three other suspension aqueducts were subsequently built for the canal. Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct is still standing the oldest suspension bridge in America. For fifty-one years, coal flowed to New York City via the canal, but the development of railroads, which were faster and operated when the canals were frozen, brought the end of the canal era. The New York and Erie Railroad supplanted the canal and in 1898 the water route was abandoned. From 1904 to 1926, Grey Towers in the borough of Milford, Pennsylvania was the site of summer field study sessions for the Master's program of the Yale School of Forestry, together with the Forester's Hall, a commercial building, adapted and expanded for this purpose.
In 1926, the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company built a hydroelectric plant on Wallenpaupack creek at the former village of Wilsonville. The town now lies under Lake Wallenpaupack, created by a dam. A crew of 2,700 men worked for two years to complete the dam for the project at a cost of $1,026,000; this required the acquisition of nearly a hundred properties, a number of farms and homes were razed or moved. In addition, 17 miles of roads and telephone lines were relocated, a cemetery was moved to make way for the project; the rural area of the county made it attractive as a country destination. Several camps were developed in the area of Milford, the county seat, it has several hundred late 19th and early 20th-century buildings that contribute to a National Historic District listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Yale ran summer field studies for its Master's program in forestry there from 1904 to 1926. Since the late 20th century, Pike County has been the fastest-growing county in Pennsylvania.
The area has low state and county taxes, affordable housing. Interstate 80 and Interstate 84 provide rapid commutes to New York City's northern suburbs. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 567 square miles, of which 545 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the terrain rises from the river valley in the east to the rolling foothills of the Poconos in the west. The highest point is one of two unnamed hills in Greene Township that top out at 2,110 feet above sea level; the lowest elevation is 340 feet, at the confluence of the Bushkill and the Delaware rivers. Sullivan County, New York Orange County, New York Sussex County, New Jersey Monroe County Wayne County Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Middle Delaware National Scenic River Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Delaware State Forest (p
New York metropolitan area
The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 sq mi. The metropolitan area includes New York City, Long Island, the Mid and Lower Hudson Valley in the state of New York; the New York metropolitan area remains, by a significant margin, the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Combined Statistical Area. It is the tenth largest in the world; the New York metropolitan area continues to be the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The MSA covers 6,720 sq mi, while the CSA area is 13,318 sq mi, encompassing an ethnically and geographically diverse region; the New York metropolitan area's population is larger than that of the state of New York, the metropolitan airspace accommodated over 130 million passengers in 2016. As a center of many industries, including finance, international trade and traditional media, real estate, fashion, tourism, biotechnology and manufacturing, the New York City metropolitan region is one of the most important economic regions in the world.
In 2012, the New York metropolitan area was home to seven of the 25 wealthiest counties in the United States by median household income, according to the American Community Survey. According to Forbes, in 2014, the New York City metropolitan area was home to eight of the top ten ZIP codes in the United States by median housing price, with six in Manhattan alone; the New York Metropolitan Area houses five of the top ten richest places in America, according to Bloomberg. These are Scarsdale, NY; the New York metropolitan region's higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Princeton University, Yale University, which are ranked among the top 3 universities in the United States and top 10 in the world. Institutions such as New York University, Rockefeller University, the Cornell Tech campus of Cornell University additionally have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the U. S. Office of Management and Budget utilizes two definitions of the area: the Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Combined Statistical Area.
The MSA definition is titled the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, includes a population of 20.3 million people by 2017 Census estimates 1 in 16 Americans and nearly 7 million more than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States. The MSA is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions; the 26-county MSA includes 12 counties in New York State. The largest urbanized area in the United States is at the heart of the metropolitan area, the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT Urbanized Area; the counties and county groupings constituting the New York metropolitan area are listed below, with 2012 population estimates: New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area New York–Jersey City–White Plains, NY–NJ Metropolitan Division Kings County, NY Queens County, NY New York County, NY Bronx County, NY Richmond County, NY Westchester County, NY Bergen County, NJ Hudson County, NJ Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Ocean County, NJ Passaic County, NJ Rockland County, NY Orange County, NY Nassau County–Suffolk County, NY Metropolitan Division Suffolk County Nassau County Dutchess County-Putnam County, NY Metropolitan Division Putnam County Dutchess County Newark, NJ–PA Metropolitan Division Essex County, NJ Union County, NJ Morris County, NJ Somerset County, NJ Sussex County, NJ Hunterdon County, NJ Pike County, PA Combined statistical areas group together adjacent core-based statistical areas with a high degree of economic interconnection.
The New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 23.7 million as of 2014. About one out of every fifteen Americans resides in this region, which includes ten additional counties in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania; this area, less the Pennsylvania portion, is referred to as the tri-state area and less the tri-state region. The New York City television designated market area includes Pike County, included in the CSA. In addition to the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA metropolitan statistical areas, the following core-based statistical areas are included in the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA: Bridgeport–Stamford–Norw
A tripoint, triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are 176 international tripoints. Nearly half are situated in lakes or seas. On dry land, the exact tripoints are indicated by markers or pillars, by larger monuments; the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China with 16 tripoints and Russia with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of tripoints. Within Europe, landlocked Austria has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Island countries such as Japan have no country tripoints, the same goes for states with only one neighbour state, like Portugal or Denmark; the United States with two neighbour states has no country tripoints. Canada, as well, has five tripoints on land where the boundaries of provinces and territories meet, including one quadripoint where four provinces and territories meet. Border junctions are most threefold.
There are a number of quadripoints, a handful of fivefold points, as well as unique examples of a sixfold and eightfold point. No more than eight borders meet at a single multipoint anywhere on earth, but the territorial claims of six countries converge at the south pole in a point of elevenfold complexity. Well-known international tripoints include: the Treriksröset of Finland and Sweden the Vaalserberg of the Netherlands and Belgium the "Dreiländereck" of Germany and Switzerland the Schengen tripoint of Germany and Luxembourg the Triple Frontier of Argentina and Paraguay the Tres Fronteras of Brazil and Colombia the Mont Dolent of Italy and Switzerland the Trójstyk of Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia Mount Roraima, where Venezuela and Guyana all meet Bratislava is the only capital city in the world, located at a tripoint: Slovakia and Austria; the city's administrative area extends to the tripoint, but the point lies outside of urban Bratislava itself. Some historic tripoints: the historic Three Emperors' Corner of Austria–Hungary, the Russian Empire, German Empire the historic Piz da las Trais Linguas of Austria–Hungary, the Kingdom of Italy, Switzerland the historic Rock of the Three Kingdoms between the former kingdoms of Galicia, León, Portugal.
The Tossal dels Tres Reis, located where the borders of the ancient Kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon meet. For a full list, see list of tripoints. While the exact line of an international border is fixed by a bilateral treaty, the position of the tripoints may need to be settled by a trilateral agreement. For example, China and Mongolia have set the position of the two relevant tripoints by the trilateral agreement signed in Ulaanbaatar on January 27, 1994; the agreement specified that a marker was to be erected at the eastern tripoint, called Tarbagan-Dakh, but no marker will be erected at the western tripoint (which was defined as the peak of the mountain Tavan-Bogdo-Ula. List of tripoints of English counties Tri-state area Quadripoint Maritime boundary Media related to Tripoint at Wikimedia Commons Penedo dos Três Reinos Tripoint border of China and North Korea
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Chattanooga is a city located in Hamilton County, southeastern Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies 118 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, 102 miles east-northeast of Huntsville, 147 miles northeast of Birmingham, Alabama; the city, with a downtown elevation of 680 feet, lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is "Scenic City", reinforced by the city's reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include "River City", "Chatt", "Nooga", "Chattown", "Gig City", referencing Chattanooga's claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.
Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and Chattanooga State Community College; the city has its own typeface, launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period show continuous human occupation through the Archaic, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi, Cherokee periods; the Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauga Creek is the oldest remaining visible art in Chattanooga. The Citico town and mound site was the most significant Mississippian/Muscogee landmark in Chattanooga up to 1915; the first part of the name "Chattanooga" derives from the Muskogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ –'rock'.
The latter may be derived from a regional suffix - dwelling place. The earliest Cherokee occupation of the area dates from 1776, when Dragging Canoe separated himself from the main tribe to establish resistance to European settlement during the Cherokee–American wars. In 1816 John Ross, who became Principal Chief, established Ross's Landing. Located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which extended into Georgia and Alabama. In 1838, the U. S. government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native Americans, to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory, in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way; the U. S. Army used Ross's Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or "emigration depots", where Native Americans were held before the journey on the Trail of Tears. In 1839, the community of Ross's Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga.
The city grew initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town; the city was known as the site "where cotton meets corn," referring to its location along the cultural boundary between the mountain communities of southern Appalachia and the cotton-growing states to the south. During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. During the Chickamauga Campaign, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9, 1863. Following the Battle of Chickamauga, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga. On November 23, 1863, the Battles for Chattanooga began when Union forces led by Major General Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and advanced to Orchard Knob against Confederate troops besieging the city; the next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought. On November 25, Grant's army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridge.
These battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward. After the war ended, the city became industrial and manufacturing center; the largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority system was created in 1933 by Congress. The flood crested at 58 feet and inundated the city. Since the completion of the reservoir system, the highest Chattanooga flood stage has been nearly 37 feet, which occurred in 1973. Without regulation, the flood would have crested at 52.4 feet. Chattanooga was a major priority in the design of the TVA reservoir system and remains a major operating priority in the 21st century. In December 1906, Chattanooga was in the national headlines in United States v. Shipp, as the United States Supreme Court, in the only criminal trial in its history, ruled that Hamilton County Sheriff Joseph H. Shipp had violated Ed Johnson's civil rights when Shipp allowed a mob to enter the Hamilton County jail and lynch Johnson on the Walnut Street Bridge.
Chattanooga grew with the entry of the United States in the First World War in 1917, as the nearest training camp was in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. Effects of the Influenza of 1918 on Chattanooga included having movie theaters and pool halls closed. By the 1930s, Chattanooga was known as the "Dynamo of Dixie", inspiring the 1941 Glenn Miller big-band
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area that includes the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated CSA population of 9.9 million people and an MSA population of 9.5 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees and generating an annual gross regional product of $680 billion in 2017; the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. There are several definitions of the area, including the area defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Chicago–Joliet–Naperville-Aurora, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, the area under the jurisdiction of the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning; the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950. It comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana.
As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, they met Census criteria to be added to the MSA. The Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States; the 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,532,569, a decline from 9,543,893 in the 2014 census estimate. This loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues and other factors; the Chicago MSA is further subdivided by state boundaries into the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL Metropolitan Division, corresponding to the CMAP region. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows: The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area; the Chicago–Naperville, IL–IN–WI Combined Statistical Area combines the metropolitan areas of Chicago, Michigan City, Kankakee. This area represents the extent of the labor market pool for the entire region.
The CSA has a population of 9,928,312. The Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000; the term "urban agglomeration" refers to the population contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area. Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area; the term Chicagoland has no official definition, the region is considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA, as well as portions of the greater CSA. Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune gets credit for placing the term in common use. McCormick's conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states; the first usage was in the Tribune's July 27, 1926 front page headline, "Chicagoland's Shrines: A Tour of Discoveries", for an article by reporter James O'Donnell Bennett. He stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area.
The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, that hinterland was tied to the metropolis by rail lines and commercial links. Today, the Chicago Tribune's usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage and Will counties, treating the city separately; the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, Will counties. In addition, company marketing programs such as Construction Data Company's "Chicago and Vicinity" region and the Chicago Automobile Trade Association's "Chicagoland and Northwest Indiana" advertising campaign are directed at the MSA itself, as well as LaSalle, Winnebago and Ogle counties in Illinois, in addition to Jasper, La Porte counties in Indiana and Kenosha and Walworth counties in Wisconsin, as far northeast as Berrien County, Michigan.
The region is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning is an Illinois state agency responsible for transportation infrastructure, land use, long term economic development planning for the areas under its jurisdiction within Illinois; the planning area has a population of over 8 million, which includes the following locations in Illinois: The city of Chicago lies in the Chicago Plain, a flat and broad area characterized by little topographical relief. The few low hills are sand ridges. North of the Chicago Plain, steep bluffs and ravines run alongside Lake Michigan. Along the southern shore of the Chicago Plain, sand dunes run alongside the lake; the tallest dunes are found in Indiana Dunes National Park. Surrounding the low plain are bands of moraines in the south and west suburbs; these areas are hillier than the Chicago Plain. A continental divide, separating the Mississippi River watershed from that of