Triad (organized crime)

A triad is one of many branches of Chinese transnational organized crime syndicates based in Greater China and in countries with significant overseas Chinese populations, such as the United States and most countries in East and Southeast Asia. The Hong Kong triad is distinct from mainland Chinese criminal organizations. In ancient China, the triad was one of three major secret societies, it established branches in Macau, Hong Kong and Chinese communities overseas. Known as "mainland Chinese criminal organizations", they are of two major types: dark forces and black societies. Two features which distinguish a black society from a dark force are the ability to achieve illegal control over local markets, receiving police protection; the Hong Kong triad refers to traditional criminal organizations operating in Hong Kong, Macau and south-east Asian countries and regions, while organized-crime groups in mainland China are known as "mainland Chinese criminal groups". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "triad" is a translation of the Chinese term San Ho Hui, referring to the union of heaven and humanity.

Another theory posits that the word "triad" was coined by British authorities in colonial Hong Kong as a reference to the triads' use of triangular imagery. It has been speculated that triad organizations took after, or were part of, revolutionary movements such as the White Lotus, the Taiping and Boxer Rebellions and the Heaven and Earth Society; the generic use of the word "triads" for all Chinese criminal organizations is imprecise. "Triads" are traditional organized-crime groups originating from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Criminal organizations operating in, or originating from, mainland China are "mainland Chinese criminal groups" or "black societies". After years of repression, only some elements of triad groups are involved with illegal activities. Triads in Hong Kong are less involved with "traditional" criminal activity and are becoming associated with white-collar crime. Rumors have it that triads have now migrated to the U. S and all groups and factions have now aligned themselves as one large group.

There are no longer any separations including United Bamboo and 14k. Triad, a China-based criminal organization, secret association or club, was a branch of the secret Hung Society; the society was fragmented, one group became a criminal organization. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, secret societies in mainland China were suppressed in campaigns ordered by Mao Zedong. Most Chinese secret societies, including the triads and some of the remaining Ching Gang, relocated to British-controlled Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and overseas countries and competed with the Tong and other Chinese secret societies. Chinese secret societies turned to drugs and extortion for income; the Heaven and Earth Society, a fraternal organization, was founded during the 1760s. As the society's influence spread throughout China, it branched into several smaller groups with different names; these societies adopted the triangle as their emblem accompanied by decorative images of swords or portraits of Guan Yu.

British Hong Kong was intolerant of secret societies, the British considered the triads a criminal threat. Triads were imprisoned under British law. During the 19th century, many such societies were seen as legitimate ways of helping immigrants from China settle into a new country. Secret societies were banned by the British government in Singapore during the 1890s, reduced in number by successive colonial governors and leaders. Facilitating the origins of Singapore gangs, the opium trade and brothels were banned. Immigrants were encouraged to seek help from a local kongsi instead of turning to secret societies, which contributed to the societies' decline. After World War II, the secret societies saw a resurgence as gangsters took advantage of uncertainty and growing anti-British sentiment; some Chinese communities, such as "new villages" in Kuala Lumpur and Bukit Ho Swee in Singapore, became notorious for gang violence. When the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949 in mainland China, law enforcement became stricter and a government crackdown on criminal organizations forced the triads to migrate to British Hong Kong.

An estimated 300,000 triad members lived in Hong Kong during the 1950s. According to the University of Hong Kong, most triad societies were established between 1914 and 1939 and there were once more than 300 in the territory; the number of groups has consolidated to about 50. There were nine main triads operating in Hong Kong, they divided land with each triad in charge of a region. The triads were Wo Hop To, Wo Shing Wo, Tung, Shing, Sun Yee On, 14K and Luen; each had sub-societies and public image. After the 1956 riots, the Hong Kong government introduced stricter law enforcement and the triads became less active. On the 18th of January 2018, Italian police arrested 33 people connected to a Chinese triad operating in Europe as part of its Operation China Truck; the triad were active in Tuscany, Veneto and Milan in Italy, in France and the German city of Neuss. The indictment accuses the Chinese triad of extortion, illegal gambling and drug

Nick Salazar

Nick L. Salazar is a Democratic member of the New Mexico House of Representatives, representing the 40th District from 1974 until 2019, he resides in New Mexico. Salazar is an alumnus of University of Santa Barbara, he served in the United States Air Force. He was a county commissioner from 1964 to 1968. In 2013, Salazar was presented with a lifetime achievement award from Los Alamos National Security for his contributions to the organizations in research. Salazar is one of the longest served state representatives in New Mexico, as well as the longest sitting state legislator. Salazar and his wife have three children. Representative Nick L. Salazar at the NM House website Project Vote Smart - Representative Nick L. Salazar profile

Kingswood, Dublin

Kingswood is a suburb in South Dublin, Ireland. It is close to the county town of Tallaght and Clondalkin The area is bordered by the M50 motorway to the NE, Katherine Tynan Road to the SE, the Belgard Road to the SW and the N7 to the NW. Traditionally considered to be part of the hinterland of Clondalkin Village yet lying inside of the historical Parish of Tallaght, the area is now divided by the Ballymount Road, with two thirds in Tallaght, the remainder, west of the road, in Clondalkin, therefore served by different Garda Stations, it has a population of 2200 Kingswood has a launderette, a betting shop, fast-food outlets, a pub, a pharmacy, a convenience store, a church and two community centres. The old community centre now serves as a centre for hip hop dance and drama classes and a karate dojo. Next to it, there is the newer community centre, it hosts local community group "Kingswood Says No" WeWontPay protests, sport matches and health fitness club. The scout den, which won the Irish Architectural Innovation Award in 1989, is beside the community centre and houses the 158th Castleview Scout Group.

The Roman Catholic parish church is shared with Kilnamanagh. Schools in the area include St Kilian's Junior School, St Kilian's Senior School. Kingswood Community College was opened in September 2016; as well as the full Leaving Certificate programme, the school provides for the new Junior Cycle Framework. Kingswood Castle FC are the local soccer club founded in 2013, play their home matches in Ballymount park in black and white. St Killians GAA Club merged with St. Kevins GAA Club in Kilnamanagh in 1998, as both clubs sought to compete with the larger superclubs that predominate in the Tallaght/Templeogue area. Kingswood is served by Luas Red Line services to Tallaght/Saggart and The Point/Connolly Dublin Bus routes 56a, 76 and 76a serve Kingswood. Link to aerial view of Kingswood Parliamentary debate on St. Killian's junior and senior schools web page on Katherine Tynan's Kingswood home