The Tuileries Palace was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871. Built in 1564, it was extended until it closed off the western end of the Louvre courtyard and displayed an immense façade of 266 metres. Since the destruction of the Tuileries, the Louvre courtyard has remained open and the site is now the location of the eastern end of the Tuileries Garden, forming an elevated terrace between the Place du Carrousel and the gardens proper. After the accidental death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow Catherine de' Medici planned a new palace, she sold the medieval Hôtel des Tournelles, where her husband had died, began building the palace of Tuileries in 1564, using architect Philibert de l'Orme. The name derives from the tile kilns or tuileries which had occupied the site; the palace was formed by a range of narrow buildings.
During the reign of Henry IV, the building was enlarged to the south, so it joined the long riverside gallery, the Grande Galerie, which ran all the way to the older Louvre Palace in the east. During the reign of Louis XIV major changes were made to the Tuileries Palace. From 1659 to 1661 it was extended to the north by the addition of the Théâtre des Tuileries. From 1664 to 1666 the architect Louis Le Vau and his assistant François d'Orbay made other significant changes, they transformed Philibert de l'Orme's facades and central pavilion, replacing its grand central staircase with a colonnaded vestibule on the ground floor and the Salle des Cents Suisses on the floor above and adding a rectangular dome. A new grand staircase was installed in the entrance of the north wing of the palace, lavishly decorated royal apartments were constructed in the south wing; the king's rooms were on the ground floor, facing toward the Louvre, the queen's on the floor above, overlooking the garden. At the same time, Louis' gardener, André Le Nôtre, redesigned the Tuileries gardens.
The Court moved into the Tuileries Palace in November 1667, but left in 1672, soon thereafter went to the Palace of Versailles. The Tuileries Palace was abandoned and used only as a theatre, but its gardens became a fashionable resort of Parisians; the boy-king Louis XV was moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace on 1 January 1716, four months after ascending to the throne. He moved back to Versailles on 15 June three months before his coronation. Both moves were made at the behest of the Regent, the duc d'Orléans; the king resided at the Tuileries for short periods during the 1740s. On 6 October 1789, during the French Revolution, Louis XVI and his family were forced to leave Versailles and brought to the Tuileries where they were kept under surveillance. For the next two years the palace remained the official residence of the king. On 9 November 1789, the National Constituent Assembly the Estates-General of 1789, had moved its deliberations from the tennis court at Versailles to the Tuileries, following the removal of the court to Paris.
The Tuileries' covered riding ring, the Salle du Manège, home to the royal equestrian academy, provided the largest indoor space in the city. The royal family tried to escape after dark, on 20 June 1791, but were captured at Varennes and brought back to the Tuileries; the following year, on 10 August 1792, the palace was stormed by an armed mob, which overwhelmed and massacred the Swiss Guard as the royal family fled through the gardens and took refuge with the Legislative Assembly. The Paris National Guard defended the King, but the daughter of King Louis XVI claimed that many of the guard were in favor of the revolution. In November 1792, the Armoire de fer incident took place at the Tuileries palace; this was the discovery of a hiding place at the royal apartments, believed to contain the secret correspondence of Louis XVI with various political figures. The incident created a considerable scandal; the Tuileries accommodated the Constituent Assembly, its successor, the National Convention, and, in 1795, the Council of Five Hundred of the Directoire until the body moved to the Palais-Bourbon in 1798.
In 1799, the Jacobin Club du Manège had its headquarters there. The Committee of Public Safety met in the Pavillon de Flore. A courtier of a era could summon up nightmarish visions of the palace's Salle de Spectacle, or theater, where many Convention sessions were held during the Reign of Terror: At night a single lamp illumined this huge deserted hall, peopled with terrible memories; these I would muse over as I stopped at the spot once occupied by the chair of the president, where Boissy d'Anglas had saluted the bleeding head of Feraud, where Thuriot had listened impassively to the outburst of Robespierre at bay: "President of assassins, once more I ask your ear!" I saw in imagination the "Mountain," the "Plain," the crowded tribunes. When Napoleon Bonaparte came into power in 1799, he made the Tuileries the official residence of the First Consul and the imperial palace. In 1808, Napoleon began constructing the northern gallery which connected to the Louvre, enclosing a vast square; as Napoleon I's chief residence, the Tuiler
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Minister of the Armed Forces (France)
The Ministry of the Armed Forces is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces. The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within regimes; the minister is always attached to a ministry or state secretary bureau, today attached to the Ministry of the Armed Forces. The Secretary of State of War was one of the four specialised secretaries of state established in France in 1589; this State Secretary was responsible for the French Army. In 1791, the Secretary of State of War became Minister of War, with this ministerial function being abolished in 1794 and re-established in 1795. In 1930, the position was referred to as Minister of War and National Defense. In 1947, two years after World War II, the ministry merged with the Ministry of the Navy and the Ministry of Air, while being headed by a Minister of National Defence responsible for the French Armed Forces referred to as Minister of the Armed Forces and since 1947 until 2017, designated as Minister of Defense.
Based on the governments, he or she may be assisted by a state secretary for veterans' affairs. The current Minister of the Armed Forces is Florence Parly. Ministre of Armed Forces: 21 November 1945 - 24 June 1946: Edmond MicheletMinister of National Defence: 24 June 1946 - 16 December 1946: Félix Gouin 16 December 1946 - 22 January 1947: André Le Troquer 22 January 1947 - 4 May 1947: François Billoux 4 May 1947 - 22 October 1947: Yvon Delbos Ministre of the Armed Forces: 24 June 1946 - 16 December 1946: Edmond MicheletMinister of War: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: Paul Coste-FloretMinister of the Navy: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: Louis JacquinotMinister of the Air Force: 22 January 1947 - 22 October 1947: André MaroselliMinister of National Defence: 22 October 1947 - 26 July 1948: Pierre-Henri Teitgen 26 July 1948 - 11 September 1948: René Mayer 11 September 1948 - 28 October 1949: Paul Ramadier 28 October 1949 - 12 July 1950: René Pleven 12 July 1950 - 11 August 1951: Jules Moch 11 August 1951 - 8 March 1952: Georges Bidault 8 March 1952 - 8 January 1953: René PlevenMinister of Natinonal Defence and the Armed Forces: 8 January 1953 - 19 June 1954: René Pleven 19 June 1954 - 14 August 1954: Marie-Pierre Kœnig 14 August 1954 - 20 January 1955 Emmanuel Temple – By interim until 3 September 1954Minister of National Defence: 20 January 1955 - 23 February 1955: Jacques ChevallierMinistre of the Armed Forces: 20 January 1955 - 23 February 1955: Maurice Bourgès-MaunouryMinister of National Defence and the Armed Forces: 23 February 1955 - 6 October 1955: Pierre Kœnig 6 October 1955 - 1 February 1956: Pierre BillotteMinister of National Defence: 1 February 1956 - 13 June 1957: Maurice Bourgès-MaunouryMinister of National Defence and the Armed Forces: 13 June 1957 - 6 November 1957: André Morice 6 November 1957 - 14 May 1958: Jacques Chaban-DelmasMinister of the Armed Forces: 14 May 1958 - 1 June 1958: Pierre de ChevignéMinister of National Defence: 1 June 1958 - 8 January 1959: Charles de GaulleMinister of the Armed Forces: 1 June 1958 - 5 February 1960: Pierre Guillaumat Minister of the Armed Forces: 8 January 1959 – 5 February 1960: Pierre Guillaumat 5 February 1960 – 22 June 1969: Pierre MessmerMinister of National Defence: 22 June 1969 – 4 April 1973: Michel DebréMinister of the Armed Forces: 4 April 1973 – 28 May 1974: Robert GalleyMinister of the Armed Forces: 17 May–19 June 2017: Sylvie Goulard 21 June 2017–present: Florence Parly Secretary of State of the Navy Secretary of State for War Minister of the Navy Chief of the general staff headquarters of the Armies Chief of Staff of the French Army Chief of Staff of the French Air Force Chief of Staff of the French Navy French Special Operations Command Direction générale de la Gendarmerie Nationale Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence "Ministries 1700–1870", Rulers.org
Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet
Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet was a French politician of the Revolutionary period. His brother, Robert Thomas Lindet, became a constitutional bishop and member of the National Convention. Although his role may not have been spectacular, Jean-Baptiste Lindet came to be the embodiment of the growing middle class that came to dominate French politics during the Revolution. Born at Bernay, he worked in the town as a lawyer before the Revolution, he acted as procureur-syndic of the district of Bernay during the session of the National Constituent Assembly. Appointed deputy to the Legislative Assembly and subsequently to the Convention, he became well-known. Close to the Girondists, Lindet was hostile to King Louis XVI, provided a Rapport sur les crimes imputés à Louis Capet – a report of the king's alleged crimes – and voted for the king's execution without appeal, he was instrumental in the establishment of the Revolutionary Tribunal, contributed to the downfall of the Girondists before the start of the.
His proposal for the Tribunal had passed with support from Georges Danton, despite the opposition of Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud. Jean-Baptiste Lindet, being a member of the Commission of Twenty-one, had an instrumental role in the execution of Louis XVI and drew up the accusation in the acte enonciatif, he worked incessantly on the project, became sleep-deprived to the point of exhaustion and was forced to take to his bed. At the time of trial, Lindet was to have Charles Barbaroux read the document, due to his fatigue. Lindet wrote his accusation as a chronological retelling of the treasonous acts of the King, beginning in May 1789 and spanning until 10 August 1792. Beginning with the eve of the calling of the Estates-General, Lindet argued that Louis XVI intended to use the representatives to raise money for the bankrupt crown, send them on their way with few reforms; when this did not prove effective, Louis XVI resorted to the use of military force, which catalyzed the storming of the Bastille, the movement of the King to Paris.
From this point, he focused on the counter-revolutionary actions of the King as showcased by the discovery of the Armoire de fer, proving that the king was duplicitous. By the summer of 1792, Lindet argued that Louis XVI had realized his counter-revolutionary efforts had proved futile, he would have to take military action, he provoked the insurrection of 10 August, with the gathering of troops at the Tuileries, when he saw his imminent defeat the Swiss were left to die for an undeserving king. Lindet would be known to have a strong opinion in this matter because during the Insurrection, he worked to help a Swiss guard escape. In his accusation against the king, Lindet focused on his duplicity and betrayal against the actions of the French Revolution, his acte enonciatif characterized the views of the Montagnards, violated the Criminal Code of 1791. Another inconsistency in the trial of Louis XVI was that the argument presented against him by Lindet disregarded any account of the Revolutionary violence against the King, thus presenting his accusation as a series of inexcusable crimes against the Revolution.
He became a substitute member of the Committee of Public Safety on 6 April 1793, soon replaced the ill Jean Antoine Debry. All members of the Committee of Public Safety belonged to bourgeoisie of the ancien regime, were Montagnards, all had ample experience serving apprenticeships in previous years assemblies or in high offices of state. Lindet was unique in the demographics of the Committee of Public Safety, in that he was forty-six, where the average age of the members was thirty. Concerned by the question of food supplies, he showed his administrative talent in coping with the issue. Lindet was the "examiner" of the National Food Commission; the National Food Commission was in charge of economic measures and more was responsible for the provision of subsistence and transportation. This body consisted of over 500 members at the height of the Reign of Terror, would send these members out for tasks and the gathering of intelligence. For one of these missions, Lindet was sent to the districts of Rhône, Eure and Finistère, for the purpose of suppressing revolts.
He was able to enact a conciliatory policy. The National Food Commission functioned to supervise agricultural and industrial production, was given control of the labor force for war effort, put in charge of controlling trade, most the enforcement of the Law of Maximum. Without being formally opposed to Maximilien Robespierre, he did not support him, he was, with Philippe Rühl, one of the only two members of the Committee who did not sign the order for the execution of Danton and his party; when asked to do so, he had replied to Louis de Saint-Just: "I am here to protect citizens, not to murder patriots". He opposed the Thermidorian Reaction of July 1794, defended Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac, Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, Collot d'Herbois from the accusations made against them on 22 March 1795. Himself denounced on 20 May, Lindet was defended by his brother Thomas, but only escaped condemnation by the vote of amnesty of the 4 Brumaire, year IV; the French Directory offered Lindet the opportunity to become its spy in Basel, but he turned down the mission.
After taking part in the conspiracy of Gracchus Babeuf, he faced trial and was acquitted, was elected to the Council of Five Hundred, but was not allowed to occupy his seat. However, he served as Minister of Finance from 18 Ju
National Legislative Assembly (France)
The Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention; the National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on 28 September 1791. Upon Maximilien Robespierre's motion, it had decreed that none of its members would be eligible to the next legislature, its successor body, the Legislative Assembly, operating over the liberal French Constitution of 1791, lasted until 20 September 1792 when the National Convention was established after the insurrection of 10 August just the month before. The Legislative Assembly entrenched the perceived left–right political spectrum, still used today. There were 745 members; the elections of 1791, held by census suffrage, brought in a legislature that desired to carry the Revolution further. Prominent in the legislature were its affiliated societies throughout France.
The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October 1791. It consisted of 745 members from the middle class; the members were young and since none had sat in the previous Assembly, they lacked national political experience. They tended to be people who had made their name through successful political careers in local politics; the rightists within the assembly consisted of about 260 Feuillants, whose chief leaders, Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette and Antoine Barnave, remained outside the House because of their ineligibility for re-election. They were staunch constitutional monarchists, firm in their defence of the king against the popular agitation; the leftists were of 136 Cordeliers. Its most famous leaders were Jacques Pierre Brissot, the philosopher Condorcet and Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud; the Left drew its inspiration from the more radical tendency of the Enlightenment, regarded the émigré nobles as traitors and espoused anticlericalism. They were suspicious of Louis XVI, some of them favoring a general European war, both to spread the new ideals of liberty and equality and to put the king's loyalty to the test.
The remainder of the House, 345 deputies belonged to no definite party. They were called The Plain, they were committed to the ideals of the Revolution, hence inclined to side with the Left, but would occasionally back proposals from the Right. The king's ministers, named by him and excluded from the Assembly, are described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as "mostly persons of little mark"; the 27 August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz threatened France with attack by its neighbors. King Louis XVI favored war hoping to exploit a military defeat to restore his absolute power—the Assembly was leaning toward war and to spread the ideals of the Revolution; this led in April 1792 to the first of the French Revolutionary Wars. The king vetoed many of the Assembly's bills throughout its existence such as these: Legislation declaring the émigrés guilty of conspiracy and prosecuted as such was passed on 8 November 1791, but vetoed by Louis. Enforcement of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy: on 29 November 1791, the Assembly decreed that every non-juring clergyman who did not take the civic oath within eight days would lose his pension and—if any troubles broke out—he would be deported.
Louis vetoed the decree as a matter of conscience. Louis XVI formed a series of cabinets. However, by the summer of 1792, amid war and insurrection, it had become clear that the monarchy and the now-dominant Jacobins could not reach any accommodation. On 11 July 1792, the Assembly formally declared the nation in danger because of the dire military situation. On 9 August 1792, a new revolutionary Commune took possession of Hôtel de Ville and early on the morning of 10 August the insurgents assailed the Tuileries, where the royal family resided. Louis and his family sought asylum with the Legislative Assembly; the Assembly stripped Louis, suspected of intelligence with the enemy, of all his royal functions and prerogatives. The king and his family were subsequently imprisoned in the Temple. On 10 August 1792, a resolution is adopted to summon a new National Convention, to be elected by universal suffrage. Many who had sat in the National Constituent Assembly and many more who had sat in the Legislative Assembly were re-elected.
The Convention became the new government of France. There were numerous reforms passed by the Legislative Assembly that addressed various topics including divorce, émigrés and the clergy; the Legislative Assembly implemented new reforms to help create a society of independent individuals with equal rights. These reforms included new legislation about divorce, government control over registration and inheritance rights for children; the registration of births and deaths became a function under the government instead of the Catholic Church. The new laws introduced adoption and gave illegitimate children inheritance rights equal to those of legitimate children. Before 1791, divorces could only be granted for adultery and other violations of the marriage contract, but under the new reform a couple could get divorced if they met one or more of the following: If there was mutual consent of both spouses If there was a unilateral incompatibility of character If the couple had been formally separated before and needed a legalized divorce If there was dissolution of marriage due to "insanity, condemnation to an infamous punishment, violence or ill-treatment, notoriously dissolute morals, desertion for at least two years, abs
Charles X of France
Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Charles became the leader of the ultra-royalists, a radical monarchist faction within the French court that affirmed rule by divine right and opposed the concessions towards liberals and guarantees of civil liberties granted by the Charter of 1814. Charles gained influence within the French court after the assassination of his son Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, in 1820 and succeeded his brother in 1824, his reign of six years proved to be unpopular from the moment of his coronation in 1825, in which he tried to revive the practice of the royal touch. The governments appointed under his reign reimbursed former landowners for the abolition of feudalism at the expense of bondholders, increased the power of the Catholic Church, reimposed capital punishment for sacrilege, leading to conflict with the liberal-majority Chamber of Deputies.
Charles initiated the French conquest of Algeria as a way to distract his citizens from domestic problems. He appointed a conservative government under the premiership of Prince Jules de Polignac, defeated in the 1830 French legislative election, he responded with the July Ordinances disbanding the Chamber of Deputies, limiting franchise, reimposing press censorship. Within a week France faced urban riots which lead to the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication and the election of Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Exiled once again, Charles died in 1836 in Gorizia part of the Austrian Empire, he was the last of the French rulers from the senior branch of the House of Bourbon. Charles Philippe of France was born in 1757, the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, the Dauphine Marie Josèphe, at the Palace of Versailles. Charles was created Count of Artois at birth by his grandfather, the reigning King Louis XV; as the youngest male in the family, Charles seemed unlikely to become king.
His eldest brother, Duke of Burgundy, died unexpectedly in 1761, which moved Charles up one place in the line of succession. He was raised in early childhood by the Governess of the Children of France. At the death of his father in 1765, Charles's oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste, became the new Dauphin, their mother Marie Josèphe, who never recovered from the loss of her husband, died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Charles an orphan at the age of nine, along with his siblings Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Élisabeth. Louis XV fell ill on 27 April 1774 and died on 10 May of smallpox at the age of 64, his grandson Louis-Auguste succeeded him as King Louis XVI of France. In November 1773, Charles married Marie Thérèse of Savoy. In 1775, Marie Thérèse gave birth to a boy, Louis Antoine, created Duke of Angoulême by Louis XVI. Louis-Antoine was the first of the next generation of Bourbons, as the king and the Count of Provence had not fathered any children yet, causing the Parisian libellistes to lampoon Louis XVI's alleged impotence.
Three years in 1778, Charles' second son, Charles Ferdinand, was born and given the title of Duke of Berry. In the same year Queen Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, Marie Thérèse, quelling all rumours that she could not bear children. Charles was thought of as the most attractive member of his family, bearing a strong resemblance to his grandfather Louis XV, his wife was considered quite ugly by most contemporaries, he looked for company in numerous extramarital affairs. According to the Count of Hézecques, "few beauties were cruel to him." Among his lovers where notably Anne Victoire Dervieux. He embarked upon a lifelong love affair with the beautiful Louise de Polastron, the sister-in-law of Marie Antoinette's closest companion, the Duchess of Polignac. Charles struck up a firm friendship with Marie Antoinette herself, whom he had first met upon her arrival in France in April 1770 when he was twelve; the closeness of the relationship was such that he was falsely accused by Parisian rumour mongers of having seduced her.
As part of Marie Antoinette's social set, Charles appeared opposite her in the private theatre of her favourite royal retreat, the Petit Trianon. They were both said to be talented amateur actors. Marie Antoinette played milkmaids and country ladies, whereas Charles played lovers and farmers. A famous story concerning the two involves the construction of the Château de Bagatelle. In 1775, Charles purchased a small hunting lodge in the Bois de Boulogne, he soon had the existing house torn down with plans to rebuild. Marie Antoinette wagered her brother-in-law that the new château could not be completed within three months. Charles engaged the neoclassical architect François-Joseph Bélanger to design the building, he won his bet, with Bélanger completing the house in sixty-three days. It is estimated that the project, which came to include manicured gardens, cost over two million livres. Throughout the 1770s, Charles spent lavishly, he accumulated enormous debts. In the 1780s, King Louis XVI paid off the debts of both his brothers, the Counts of Provence and Artois.
In 1781, Charles acted as a proxy for Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II at the christening of his godson, the Dauphin Louis Joseph. Charles's p
Execution of Louis XVI
The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. The National Convention had convicted the king in a near-unanimous vote and condemned him to death by a simple majority. Louis XVI awoke at 5 o'clock and after dressing with the aid of his valet Jean-Baptiste Cléry, went to meet with the non-juring Irish priest Henry Essex Edgeworth to make his confession, he heard his last Mass, served by Cléry, received Communion. The Mass requisites were provided by special direction of the authorities. On Father Edgeworth's advice, Louis avoided a last farewell scene with his family. At 7 o'clock he confided his last wishes to the priest, his Royal seal was to go to his wedding ring to the Queen. After receiving the priest's blessing, he went to meet Antoine Joseph Santerre, Commander of the Guard. A green carriage was waiting in the second court, he seated himself in it with two militiamen sitting opposite them.
The carriage left the Temple at 9 o'clock. For more than an hour the carriage, preceded by drummers playing to drown out any support for the King and escorted by a cavalry troop with drawn sabres, made its way through Paris along a route lined with 80,000 men at arms and soldiers of the National Guard and sans-culottes. In the neighbourhood of the present rue de Cléry, the Baron de Batz, a supporter of the Royal family who had financed the flight to Varennes, had summoned 300 Royalists to enable the King's escape. Louis was to be hidden in a house in the rue de Cléry belonging to the Count of Marsan; the Baron leaped forward calling "Follow me, my friends, let us save the King!", but his associates had been denounced and only a few had been able to turn up. Three of them were killed. At 10 o'clock, the carriage arrived at Place de la Révolution and proceeded to an area where a scaffold had been erected, in a space surrounded by guns and drums, a crowd carrying pikes and bayonets. After refusing to have his hands tied, Louis XVI relented when the executioner proposed to use his handkerchief instead of rope.
After this his hair was cut and the collar of his shirt was removed. After being led upon the scaffold, Louis tried to give a speech but the noise of the drums made this difficult to understand, he was laid on the bench, the collar closed over his neck and the blade came down. According to reports the blade did not sever his neck but cut through the back of his skull and into his jaw. Edgeworth, Louis' Irish confessor, wrote in his memoirs: The path leading to the scaffold was rough and difficult to pass; the 13 February issue of the Thermomètre du jour, a moderate Republican newspaper, described the King as shouting "I am lost!", citing as its source the executioner, Charles-Henri Sanson. Charles-Henri Sanson responded to the story by offering his own version of events in a letter dated 20 February 1793; the account of Sanson states: Arriving at the foot of the guillotine, Louis XVI looked for a moment at the instruments of his execution and asked Sanson why the drums had stopped beating. He came forward to speak.
As he was strapped down, he exclaimed "My people, I die innocent!" Turning towards his executioners, Louis XVI declared "Gentlemen, I am innocent of everything of which I am accused. I hope that my blood may cement the good fortune of the French." The blade fell. It was 10:22 am. One of the assistants of Sanson showed the head of Louis XVI to the people, whereupon a huge cry of "Vive la Nation! Vive la République!" Arose and an artillery salute rang out. In his letter, published along with its French mistakes in the Thermomètre of Thursday, 21 February 1793, Sanson emphasises that the King "bore all this with a composure and a firmness which has surprised us all. I remained convinced that he derived this firmness from the principles of the religion by which he seemed penetrated and persuaded as no other man." In his Causeries, Alexandre Dumas refers to a meeting circa 1830 with Henri Sanson, eldest son of Charles-Henri Sanson, present at the execution. Henri Sanson was family appointed Executioner of Paris from April 1793, would execute Marie Antoinette.
Speaking to Victor Hugo in 1840, a man called Leboucher, who had arrived in Paris from Bourges in December 1792 and was present at the execution of Louis XVI, recalled vividly: Here are some unknown details. The executioners numbered four; the executioners wore breeches, coats in the French style as the Revolution had modified it, and