Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
A secondary forest is a forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a timber harvest, until a long enough period has passed so that the effects of the disturbance are no longer evident. It is distinguished from an old-growth forest, which has not undergone such disruption, complex early seral forest, as well as third-growth forests that result from harvest in second growth forests. Secondary forest regrowing after timber harvest differs from forest regrowing after natural disturbances such as fire, insect infestation, or windthrow because the dead trees remain to provide nutrients and water retention after natural disturbances; however after natural disturbance the timber is harvested and removed from the system, in which case the system more resembles secondary forest rather than complex early seral forest. Depending on the forest, the development of primary characteristics may take anywhere from a century to several millennia. Hardwood forests of the eastern United States, for example, can develop primary characteristics in one or two generations of trees, or 150–500 years.
The disruption is the result of human activity, such as logging, but natural phenomena that produce the same effect are included in the definition. Secondary forests tend to have trees closer spaced than primary forests and contain less undergrowth than primary forests. Secondary forests were thought to lack biodiversity compared to primary forests, however this has been challenged in recent years. Secondary forests have only one canopy layer, whereas primary forests have several. Secondary forestation is common in areas where forests have been lost by the slash-and-burn method, a component of some shifting cultivation systems of agriculture. Secondary forests may arise from forest, harvested or over a long period of time, forest, regenerating from fire and from abandoned pastures or areas of agriculture, it takes a secondary forest forty to 100 years to begin to resemble the original old-growth forest. Secondary forests re-establish by the process of succession. Openings created in the forest canopy allow sunlight to reach the forest floor.
An area, cleared will first be colonized by pioneer species. Though some species loss may occur with primary forest removal, a secondary forest can protect the watershed from further erosion and provides habitat. Secondary forests may buffer edge effects around mature forest fragments and increase connectivity between them, they may be a source of wood and other forest products. Today most of the forest of the United States, the eastern part of North America and Europe consist of secondary forest. In the case of tropical rainforests, where soil nutrient levels are characteristically low, the soil quality may be diminished following the removal of primary forest. In Panama, growth of new forests from abandoned farmland exceeded loss of primary rainforest in 1990. However, due to the diminished quality of soil, among other factors, the presence of a significant majority of primary forest species fail to recover in these second-growth forests. Land use, land-use change and forestry Land use CIFOR Secondary Forest FAO Forestry World Resource Institute M. van Breugel, 2007, Dynamics of secondary forests.
PhD Thesis Wageningen University. ISBN 978-90-8504-693-6 Uzay. U Sezen, 2007, Parentage analysis of a regenerating palm tree in a tropical second-growth forest. Ecological Society of America, Ecology 88: 3065-3075
Huon Valley Council, Tasmania
Huon Valley Council is a local government body in Tasmania, covering most of the south of the state. Huon Valley is classified as a rural local government area and has a population of 16,199, towns and localities of the region include Cygnet, Franklin, Geeveston and the largest principal town, Huonville. In 1993 the municipalities of Esperance and Port Cygnet were amalgamated to form the Huon Valley Council. Remote subantarctic Macquarie Island, located some 1400 km southeast of Tasmania proper, was part of Esperance until and has been administratively part of the Huon Valley since then. Huon Valley is classified as rural and large under the Australian Classification of Local Governments; the townships in the south east region of Tasmania that experienced the largest growth were Huonville and Cygnet. The Huon Valley Council is composed of nine Councillors elected using the Hare-Clark system of proportional representation as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office.
The Mayor and Deputy Mayor are each directly elected for a four-year term. The Mayor and Deputy Mayor must be elected as Councillors to hold office. Elections are held in October, with the next election due to be held in October 2022. Neither the Labor Party nor the Liberal Party endorse local government candidates in Tasmania; the most recent election of Councillors was held over a three-week period concluding on 30 October 2018. As elected in 2018 the Council had 9 members: Ian Mackintosh was elected to Council in September 2015 following the election of Rosalie Woodruff to the House of Assembly and her subsequent resignation as Councillor. Councillor Ken Studley resigned in May 2016 following a Board of Inquiry into the Council, a replacement was elected via recount of the votes. In 2016 the entire Huon Valley Council was sacked by the state government after a long period of severe dysfunction; the municipality is presently controlled by a Commissioner, former Glenorchy mayor and Elwick MLC Adriana Taylor.
List of local government areas of Tasmania Tyson, Nell. and Rushton, Annie Family bushwalks in Tasmania's Huon valley Dover, Tas.: Driftwood Publishing. ISBN 0-646-26155-X Huon Valley Council official website Local Government Association Tasmania Tasmanian Electoral Commission - local government
Adventure Bay, Tasmania
Adventure Bay is the name of both a township and a geographical feature on the eastern side of Bruny Island, Tasmania. At the 2006 census, Adventure Bay and the surrounding area had a population of 152; the first European to sight the bay was explorer Abel Tasman, who sought to anchor his vessel Heemskerck there in 1642. Instead, Heemskerck was driven back offshore by a storm, in token of which Tasman named the place Storm Bay. Captain Tobias Furneaux renamed it in March 1773, in honour of his ship HMS Adventure, which he had anchored in the bay for five days after becoming separated from Captain James Cook's HMS Resolution during Cook's second voyage to the Pacific search of Terra Australis Incognita. Furneaux's log made clear the bay was an excellent anchorage for resupplying vessels:To the SW of the first watering place there is a large lagoon which I believe has plenty of fish in it for one of our Gentlemen caught upwards of 2 dozen trout, shot a possum, the only animal we saw. There are a great many gum trees and of a vast thickness and height, one of which measured in circumference 26 feet and the height under the branches was 20 feet."
Others among Furneaux's crew spotted evidence of what they believed were small deer but were more kangaroos. Furneaux noted signs of an Aboriginal settlement in the form of "several huts or wigwams on shore, with several bags of grass in which they carry their shellfish." - but the branches of which the huts were made were "split and torn" and there was "not the least appearance of any people."Reliably mapped and offering an abundance of water, fresh water and game, Adventure Bay became a popular anchorage for European explorers. Cook's Resolution watered there in 1777, followed by William Bligh aboard HMS Bounty in 1788 and HMS Providence in 1792. Others who resupplied their vessels in the bay in this period included Bruni d'Entrecasteaux aboard Recherché in 1792 and 1793, Nicolas Baudin in the corvette Géographe in 1802. Matthew Flinders tried to enter the bay with Norfolk in 1798. British whalers were reported in Adventure Bay by 1804. Shore-based whaling stations operated in the bay from 1826 at four separate locations.
During the 19th and 20th century Adventure Bay was used by the timber industry. Sheltered from all but strong north-easterly winds, the township of Adventure Bay at the southern end of the bay itself was the site of both extensive timber mills and a long jetty from where seagoing vessels could load timber. Dangerously exposed to north-easterly gales, several ships were driven ashore and wrecked there, the largest being the 241-ton barque Natal Queen in 1909. Adventure Bay Post Office opened on 1 December 1890 and closed in 1974. Adventure Bay is now a tourist destination. Scott, Australian Discovery, I By Sea, London: J. M. Dent and Sons, OCLC 583472222
Franklin is a small township on the western side of the Huon River in the south-east of Tasmania, between Huonville and Geeveston. At the 2011 census, Franklin had a population of 337, it was named after Sir John Franklin and his wife Lady Jane Franklin who subdivided a large property there owned by John Price to settle families of modest means. The Franklins had a ketch named Huon Pine built at Port Davey to provide a direct link between the settlement at Hobart. Huon Post Office opened on 31 August 1848, was renamed Franklin-Huon in 1853 and Franklin in 1878. Used for mixed cropping potatoes and other vegetables, by the late 19th century Franklin and its immediate surrounds were a major apple orcharding region. With the collapse of Tasmania's export fruit industry during the 1970s the region reverted to mixed farming; until the 1930s Franklin was the major town in the Huon Valley. It was thriving with the shipping. Franklin boasted several hotels, banks and a Town Hall, it had its own hydroelectric power station, driven by a local creek.
With the establishment of a better road across the Sleeping Beauty Range mountains and the growth of the nearby town Huonville, Franklin went into decline over the next few decades. However, it has had a resurgence as a popular tourist town and has had an influx of interstate'Seachangers' who have revitalised the town. Much of old Franklin remains
Hartz Mountains (Tasmania)
The Hartz Mountains are mountains with twin peaks located in southern Tasmania, Australia. The mountains are situated 55 kilometres south west of Hobart, via Geeveston, are part of the Hartz Mountains National Park; the Hartz Mountains area experiences typical south-west weather conditions. In all seasons there can be snow, high rainfall, extremes of temperature, strong winds and sudden weather changes. With an elevation of 1,254 metres above sea level, the Hartz Peak is the highest point of the Hartz Mountains, in fine weather the summit offers one of the best views of the southwest and north; this walk is only for experienced walkers. List of mountains of Tasmania
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns and bamboos are trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years, it is estimated. A tree has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk; this trunk contains woody tissue for strength, vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark. Below the ground, the roots spread out widely. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller shoots.
The shoots bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development. Trees reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms and bamboos produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in moderating the climate, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture; because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.
Although "tree" is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the general form of an elongated stem, or trunk, which supports the photosynthetic leaves or branches at some distance above the ground. Trees are typically defined by height, with smaller plants from 0.5 to 10 m being called shrubs, so the minimum height of a tree is only loosely defined. Large herbaceous plants such as papaya and bananas are trees in this broad sense. A applied narrower definition is that a tree has a woody trunk formed by secondary growth, meaning that the trunk thickens each year by growing outwards, in addition to the primary upwards growth from the growing tip. Under such a definition, herbaceous plants such as palms and papayas are not considered trees regardless of their height, growth form or stem girth. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a looser definition.
Aside from structural definitions, trees are defined by use. The tree growth habit is an evolutionary adaptation found in different groups of plants: by growing taller, trees are able to compete better for sunlight. Trees tend some reaching several thousand years old. Several trees are among the oldest organisms now living. Trees have modified structures such as thicker stems composed of specialised cells that add structural strength and durability, allowing them to grow taller than many other plants and to spread out their foliage, they differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by growing larger and having a single main stem. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution. With an estimated 60,000-100,000 species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species; the greatest number of these grow in tropical regions and many of these areas have not yet been surveyed by botanists, making tree diversity and ranges poorly known.
The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees, including conifers, cycads and gnetales. Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the "true dicotyledons", so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; the vascular system of trees allows water and other chemicals to be di