Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles. Human evolution has occurred in small groups, as opposed to mass societies, humans maintain a social network. In popular culture, tribalism may refer to a way of thinking or behaving in which people are loyal to their social group above all else, or, derogatorily, a type of discrimination or animosity based upon group differences; the word "tribe" can be defined to mean an extended kin group or clan with a common ancestor, or can be described as a group with shared interests and habits. The proverb "birds of a feather flock together" describes homophily, the human tendency to form friendship networks with people of similar occupations and habits; some tribes can be located in geographically proximate areas, like villages or bands, though telecommunications enables groups of people to form digital tribes using tools like social networking websites. In terms of conformity, tribalism has been defined as a "subjectivity" or "way of being" social frame in which communities are bound beyond immediate birth ties by the dominance of various modalities of face-to-face and object integration.

Ontologically, tribalism is oriented around the valences of analogy and mythology. That means that customary tribes have their social foundations in some variation of these tribal orientations, while taking on traditional practices, modern practices, including monetary exchange, mobile communications, modern education; the social structure of a tribe can vary from case to case, but the small size of customary tribes makes social life of such tribes involve a undifferentiated role structure, with few significant political or economic distinctions between individuals. A tribe refers to itself using its own language's word for "people", refers to other, neighboring tribes with various epithets. For example, the term "Inuit" translates to "people". Tribalism implies the possession of a strong cultural or ethnic identity that separates one member of a group from the members of another group. Based on strong relations of proximity and kinship, members of a tribe tend to possess a strong feeling of identity.

Objectively, for a customary tribal society to form there needs to be ongoing customary organization and exchange. However, intense feelings of common identity can lead people to feel tribally connected; the distinction between these two definitions for tribalism and subjective, is an important one because while tribal societies have been pushed to the edges of the Western world, tribalism, by the second definition, is arguably undiminished. A few writers have postulated that the human brain is hard-wired towards tribalism by its evolutionary advantages, but that claim is linked to equating original questions of sociality with tribalism. Tribalism has a adaptive effect in human evolution. Humans are social animals and ill-equipped to live on their own. Tribalism and social bonding help to keep individuals committed to the group when personal relations may fray; that keeps individuals from joining other groups. It leads to bullying when a tribal member is unwilling to conform to the politics of the collective.

Some scholars argue that inclusive fitness in humans involves kin selection and kin altruism, in which groups of an extended family with shared genes help others with similar genes, based on their coefficient of relationship. Other scholars argue that fictive kinship is common in human organizations, allowing non-kin members to collaborate in groups like fraternities. Divisions between groups fosters specialized interactions with others, based on association: altruism, kin-selectivity and violence. Thus, groups with a strong sense of unity and identity can benefit from kin selection behaviour such as common property and shared resources; the tendencies of members to unite against an outside tribe and the ability to act violently and prejudicially against that outside tribe boosted the chances of survival in genocidal conflicts. Modern examples of tribal genocide reflect the defining characteristics of tribes existing prior to the Neolithic Revolution. According to a study by Robin Dunbar at the University of Liverpool, social group size determined by primate brain size.

Dunbar's conclusion was that most human brains can understand only an average of 150 individuals as developed, complex people. That is known as Dunbar's number. In contrast, anthropologist H. Russell Bernard and Peter Killworth have done a variety of field studies in the United States that came up with an estimated mean number of ties, 290 double Dunbar's estimate; the Bernard–Killworth median of 231 is lower because of upward straggle in the distribution, but it is still appreciably larger than Dunbar's estimate. Malcolm Gladwell expanded on this conclusion sociologically in his book, The Tipping Point, where members of one of his types, were successful by their larger-than-average number of close friendships and capacity for maintaining them, which tie together otherwise-unconnected social groups. According to such studies "tribalism" is hard to escape fact of human neurology because many human brains are not adapted to working with large populations. Once a person's limit for connection is reached, the human brain resorts to some combination of hierarchical schemes and other simplified models to

Germán Vargas Lleras

Germán Vargas Lleras is a Colombian politician who served as Vice President of Colombia under President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón. A member of the Radical Change political party, he served four consecutive terms in the Senate, having been elected in 1994. German Vargas served in the Cabinet as the Minister of Interior and as the Minister of Housing and Territory, he was elected Vice President of Colombia in 2014, running alongside Juan Manuel Santos, seeking re-election for a second term as President. On 15 March 2017, Vargas Lleras resigned as Vice President in order to be eligible to run for President in the 2018 Presidential elections. Germán was born on 19 February 1962 in Bogotá to Germán Vargas Espinosa and Clemencia Lleras de la Fuente, he comes from one of the country's most prominent political families, with his mother being the daughter of former President Carlos Lleras Restrepo, he is the nephew of former presidential candidate Carlos Lleras de la Fuente. Former president Alberto Lleras Camargo is related to the family.

Vargas Lleras graduated from Universidad del Rosario in Bogota where he received his Bachelor of Laws degree. Afterwards he went to Spain to study Government and Political Science at the Ortega and Gasset Institute of the Complutense University of Madrid. Germán Vargas Lleras began his political career while in college at 19 years of age in a successful campaign that got him elected as councilman of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, in 1981 under the flags of the New Liberalism, a dissident political movement founded by the young Senator Luis Carlos Galán. Right after the election, Galan appointed him political coordinator for the district of Los Mártires in the capital city of Bogotá; the experience he acquired during his tenure led him to run for city councilman of Bogotá in 1988. After the assassination of his political mentor in 1989, the New Liberalism began to crumble, Vargas Lleras, Private Secretary at the Ministry of Agriculture, joined the ranks of the Colombian Liberal Party. Once he had joined the party he retook his tasks in the capital district of Los Mártires and assembled a team that helped him get elected for two consecutive terms as City Councilman.

He ran for the Colombian Senate in 1994 under the auspices of the Liberal Party. In 1999 Vargas Lleras became the visible head of the opposition in the Senate to the government of president Andrés Pastrana due to the ill-fated 1999–2002 FARC–Government peace process, his staunch opposition to ongoing peace talks in midst of those circumstances, brought him nearer to Álvaro Uribe Vélez, a dissident liberal candidate for the presidential election of 2002, calling for the end of the Demilitarized Zone of San Vicente del Caguán. Vargas Lleras moved to support Uribe's candidacy, a decision that forced him to go against the Liberal party and its official candidate for the presidency Horacio Serpa. In 2002 he ran for his third term of office in the Senate on the ticket of the political movement Colombia Always, a dissident of the Liberal Party, founded by Juan Lozano, he not only got re-elected but thanks to the high number of votes received, carried another candidate in the same ticket to get elected along him, with the third highest ballot count in the country.

Five months into his third term, Senator Vargas Lleras was the victim of a terrorist attack, a bomb hidden in a book wrapped in gift paper. As a result of the attack, Vargas Lleras lost some fingers in his left hand. Still recovering from his wounds, Vargas Lleras returned to the Senate's floor in 2003, consolidating himself as one of the leaders of President Uribe's Senate coalition. In 2003, Vargas Lleras was elected Senate President. In July 2005, the national news magazine Semana published a report stating that the Office of the Attorney General of Colombia pointed a man called Joaquín Vergara Mojica, an ex guerilla member of the ELN terrorist organization as the one behind the bomb-attack against Senator Vargas Lleras; the report stated that the accused – along with two other "reinsertados" from the terrorist organization FARC, staged a plan to send explosive devices to high-profile individuals – Senator Vargas Lleras among them, to seek rewards from the CIA by tipping them of the terrorist attacks before the devices exploded.

According to Vergara's version, the bomb inside the book aimed for Senator Vargas Lleras exploded before the law enforcers made it to his office. In October 2003, Juan Lozano was defeated into his run for mayor of Bogotá under the Colombia Always party. Senator Vargas Lleras decided to join the Radical Change party, he rose among its ranks and in 2004 became its Chairman and Director. In the second half of 2005 a group of Uribists led by Juan Manuel Santos founded the Party of the U, publicly invited Senator Vargas Lleras to merge both parties looking to ensure the majorities in the following elections; the Senator declined the invitation arguing that both parties represented different political sectors. Soon after the elections, the infiltration of the Party of the U by extreme right paramilitary organizations became public, triggering a storm of indignation among many Colombians. Senator Vargas Lleras suffered this time with a car-bomb. Vargas Lleras escaped the attack unharmed but a few of his bodyguards were injured.

The attack led to a confrontation between the Senator and President Uribe when the latter accused the FARC terrorist organization for the attack, disregarding leads attained by the Senator, pointing towards a possible alliance of politicians and the paramilitary organizations. The Colombian Attorney General's Office has not concluded that investigati

James Runcie

James Robert Runcie is a British novelist, documentary film-maker, television producer and playwright. He is Commissioning Editor for Arts on BBC Radio 4, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and a visiting professor at Bath Spa University. Runcie is the son of Robert Runcie, a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rosalind Runcie, a classical pianist, he was educated at the Dragon School in Oxford, Marlborough College, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In 1981, he earned a first-class English degree from Cambridge University. After Cambridge, Runcie went on to attend Bristol Old Vic Theatre School briefly. Runcie has written the novels Canvey Island, The Discovery of Chocolate, The Colour of Heaven and East Fortune. In 2012, the publication of Sidney Chambers and the Shadow of Death drew a favourable critical reception; the book, which consists of six short stand-alone mysteries, is the first in a series of six works of detective fiction, entitled The Grantchester Mysteries. The second, Sidney Chambers and the Perils of the Night, was published in 2013.

The third, Sidney Chambers and the Problem of Evil, was published in 2014, followed by Sidney Chambers and the Forgiveness of Sins in 2015 and Sidney Chambers and the Dangers of Temptation in 2016. The series concluded with Sidney Chambers and the Persistence of Love in 2017, but a prequel, The Road to Grantchester, was published in 2019. Runcie's prequel to The Grantchester Mysteries, The Road to Grantchester plays out from 1943-1951 and features Sidney Chambers' war-service with the Scots Guards in Italy, his first main love, his decision to become a clergyman, his curacy amidst the ruins of post-war Coventry, it will release in the United States in May. Runcie is published by Bloomsbury Publishing, his sleuth novels have been adapted as an ITV drama titled Grantchester. Filmed on location in Grantchester and London, the initial six-part series was shown in the UK in Autumn 2014. A second series was shown in 2016 and a third in 2017. Runcie writes lifestyle pieces about family and literature for major UK newspapers.

From 1983 to 1985, Runcie worked in radio drama for BBC Scotland as a director. His work included Miss Julie, The White Devil, Roderick Hudson, Men Should Weep, A Private Grief. More Runcie has produced Arts and History programmes for the BBC, he is a freelance director of documentary films, has produced documentaries featuring the writers Hilary Mantel, J. K. Rowling and J. G. Ballard, as well as making My Father, filmed a week before Robert Runcie's death, the six-part series How Buildings Learn, he works freelance for the BBC, ITV, Channel 4. He has worked with presenters including David Starkey, Griff Rhys Jones, Andrew Motion, Alain de Botton, Simon Schama. In 2009, Runcie was appointed Artistic Director of the Bath Literature Festival, he left the post in 2013 to take up a position as Head of Literature and Spoken Word at the Southbank Centre in London. J. K. Rowling: A Year in the LifeFrom October 2006 to October 2007, Runcie spent a year filming J. K. Rowling: A Year in the Life for ITV, as the author was completing the final novel in the Harry Potter cycle, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.

The programme featured intimate access to Rowling's daily life, included personal interviews about her childhood and her own struggles with her writing process. The film shows Rowling in tears when she remembers her life before writing the Harry Potter books. Runcie narrated the film; this film was transmitted on 30 December 2007 by ITV and included in the Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince DVD as a supplement. Runcie won a Royal Television Society award for his film Miss Pym's Day Out in 1992, he has received Royal Television Society nominations for How Buildings Learn and The Gentle Art of Making Enemies. Miss Pym's Day Out was nominated for a BAFTA Huw Wheldon Award for the Best Arts Programme in 1992, he won two BAFTA Scotland Radio Drama Awards for Watching Waiters and Mrs Lynch's Maggot, he was nominated for a BAFTA award for the film Great Composers – Bach. Runcie married the theatre director and radio drama producer Marilyn Imrie in 1985, they have one daughter together, Charlotte Runcie, who writes as a literary and radio critic for the Daily Telegraph.

He is stepfather to Imrie's daughter, Rosie Kellagher, a freelance theatre director. Official website James Runcie on IMDb Biography from Bloomsbury Publishing Fantastic Fiction information