The Vangiones appear first in history as an ancient Germanic tribe of unknown provenance. They threw in their lot with Ariovistus in his bid of 58 BC to invade Gaul through the Doubs river valley and lost to Julius Caesar in a battle probably near Belfort. After some Celts evacuated the region in fear of the Suebi, the Vangiones and they gradually assumed control of the Celtic city of Burbetomagus, Worms. The emperor, cultivated them as allies, intending to invade Germany through the region between the Rhine and the Danube and he had Drusus place two forts among the Vangiones, castrum Moguntiacum and one of unknown name at Worms. From there troops of the Vangiones were inducted into the Roman army, when he changed his mind after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, the Vangiones were used for garrison duty on the far-flung northern frontier of the province of Britannia, Hadrians Wall. The Vangiones of Germania Superior held their position as a bulwark of civilized might as long as Germania Superior existed, under the Roman Republic they were not among the Belgae, an alliance of Celticised Germanic tribes in northeastern France.
In the early empire this name was extended by the Romans to all the Celticised Germans in northern France, in the late empire what was left of Germania Superior was divided into First Germany and Second Germany, the first comprising the Vangiones and Mainz. The identity disappeared nearly altogether when the region was overrun by the Alemanni, the Vangiones merged into the Alemanni. Only names local to Worms remembered the presence of the Vangiones, the fate of the Vangionic troops in Britain is uncertain. Some may have remained as a Scottish tribe, but that hypothesis is more speculative than not, the Vangiones are mentioned in Caesars De Bello Gallico as a unit among the copiae of Ariovistus. The Germans had been invited by the Celts to participate in the resolution of their issues. They continued to cross the Rhine until, in 58 BC,120,000 of them were in Gaul, Caesar does not say that the Vangiones were among the 120,000, but the text does imply it. He does not state that they specifically were Germanic, but the 120,000 are stated to be so, Caesar gives no indication of the homeland of any of the Germani other than the other side of the Rhine.
Moreover, he omits mention of what happened to the Vangiones, Pliny the Elders Naturalis Historia includes a geography that relies on Varro, a citizen of the late Republic and contemporary of Caesar, and Agrippa, who lived in the next generation after Caesar. Through him they give us information on Gaul and the Germanic tribes living in it. Caesar describes pre-Roman Gaul and some of the modifications he made to it, the Belgae of his time lived on the left bank of the lower Rhine and were considered Celts of Germanic origin. For the region of Alsace he gives a double list, one Celtic, two known end points are the Treveri who we know lived in the vicinity of Trier and the Helvetii who we know lived in Switzerland. The Celtic list between those points is Lingones, Mediomatrici and Raurici, the Germanic list, whom Pliny describes as accolentes Germaniae gentium in eadem provincia colonists from the peoples of Germany in the same province is Nemetes and Vangiones
The Mediomatrici were an ancient Celtic people of Gaul, who belong to the division of Belgae. Julius Caesar shows their position in a way when he says that the Rhine flows along the territories of the Sequani, Triboci or Tribocci. Ptolemy places the Mediomatrici south of the Treviri, divodurum was the capital of the Mediomatrici. Besides Metz, settlements in France include the oppidum of Hérapel, other settlements and oppida in Germany were thought to be Saarbrücken, Speyer and Rodalben, although today the ascription of Speyer, Homburg und Rodalben is hotly disputed. The name Mediomatrici has been explained as the people between the Matrona and the Matra and this agrees with Strabo, who says that the Sequani and Mediomatrici inhabit the Rhine, among whom are settled the Triboci, a Germanic nation which had crossed over from their own country. Elements of the Mediomatrici may have settled near Novara, in northern Italy and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed.
Belgae. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Sequani is an exonym assigned by the Romans, most likely based on a similar-sounding endonym. The endonym is not known for certain, Sequani is like Sequana, Caesars name for the Seine, but the country of the Sequani is not in the Seines watershed. Strabo was originally responsible for the connection by supposing that the Sequana flowed through the country of the Sequani. The French name of the Saône, the forming the western border of the Sequani. The Romans called it the Arar, william Smith hypothesized that Sequani and Souconna were related. The country of the Sequani can be defined by the reports of the ancient writers, the Jura Mountains separated the Sequani from the Helvetii on the east, but the mountains belonged to the Sequani, as the narrow pass between the Rhone and Lake Geneva was Sequanian. They did not occupy the confluence of the Saône into the Rhone, extending a line westward from the Jura estimates the southern border at about Mâcon, but Mâcon belonged to the Aedui. Strabo says that the Arar separates the Sequani from the Aedui and the Lingones, on the northeast corner the country of the Sequani touched on the Rhine.
Before the arrival of Julius Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the side of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them. The Sequani appealed to Caesar, who back the Germanic tribesmen. This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix, under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica. A triumphal arch at Vesontio, which in return for service was made a colony. Diocletian added Helvetia, and part of Germania Superior to Sequania, the southern reach of this territory was known as Sapaudia, which developed into Savoy. Fifty years later, Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, under Julian, it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, and was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals. Later, when Rome was no able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul. Vesontio Luxovium Loposagium Portus Abucini Segobudium Epamanduodurum Ariolica Magetobria / Admagetobria Pons Dubis Castro Vesulio Sigynnae Caesar, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Sequani. Endnotes, T. Rice Holmes, Caesars Conquest of Gaul, Hist. of Rome, bk. v. ch. vii. Dunod de Charnage, Hist. des Séquanois J. D. Schöpflin, Alsatia illustrata, i
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg
The Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg is a non-metropolitan archdiocese, of Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in France, first mentioned in 343. It is one of nine archbishoprics in France which have no suffragans and it is currently headed by Archbishop Luc Ravel, in office since February 2017. The Diocese of Strasbourg was first mentioned in 343, belonging to the province of the Archbishopric of Mainz since Carolingian times. It is supposed that this was the first seat of the diocese, the diocese may thus have been founded around 300. The bishop was the ruler of a principality in the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages. For this state, see Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg, since the 15th century, the diocesan seat has been the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Strasbourg. On 29 November 1801 it gained territory from the Diocese of Basel, Diocese of Metz, on 25 February 1803 it lost territory to the Diocese of Konstanz, on 26 April 1808 it gained territory from the same and in 1815 lost territory to that Diocese of Konstanz.
In 1871 the bulk of the diocese became part of German Empire, after World War I, Alsace along with the diocese was returned to France, but the concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle. The diocese was elevated to Archdiocese of Strasbourg on 1 June 1988 by Pope John Paul II but not as Metropolitan of a province and remains exempt. The bishop of this see is appointed by the French president according to the Concordat of 1801, the concordat further provides for the clergy being paid by the government and Catholic pupils in public schools can receive religious instruction according to archdiocesan guide lines. It enjoyed papal visits from Pope John Paul II in October 1988, the archiepsicopal cathedral seat is the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Strasbourg, France, as mother church, a World Heritage Site. As per 2014, it pastorally served 1,380,000 Catholics on 8,280 km² in 767 parishes and 5 missions with 722 priests,80 deacons,1,332 lay religious and 17 seminarians.
As of 31 December 2003, the area of the archdiocese comprised a total of 1,713,416 inhabitants of which 75. 9% are Catholics, also,619 diocese priests,50 deacons,288 ordained priests and 1,728 nuns belonged to the archdiocese
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the region of Alsace. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants, Strasbourgs metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est regions inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014, Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Strasbourgs historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.
Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, after the 5h century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means Town of roads, Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres from. The natural courses of the two eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. This section of the Rhine valley is an axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself.
The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris, in spite of its position far inland, Strasbourgs climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, on average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded was −23.4 °C in December 1938. Nonetheless, the disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution
Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer
The Diocese of Speyer is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. The diocese is located in the South of the Rhineland-Palatinate and comprises the Saarpfalz district in the east of the Saarland, the bishops see is in the Palatinate city of Speyer. The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, see Bishop of Speyer for a list of previous bishops. As of 31 December 2006,44. 5% of the population of the diocese was Catholic, in a slightly different hierarchic structure it is one of the oldest Dioceses in Germany. A bishop of Speyer was first mentioned in a document in 346, through grants by the Holy Roman Emperor, the prince-bishops of Speyer established themselves as worldly as well as spiritual rulers. The diocese is directed by bishop Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, the diocese is structured in the following deaneries, with borders that are almost the same as the local county borders
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris is a generic term for the nonstandard sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed. Works written in Latin during classical times used Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin had no official orthography. Vulgar Latin is sometimes called colloquial Latin, or Common Romance, in Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum or Latinum vulgare. The term common speech, which became Vulgar Latin, was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire, traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as graffiti or advertisements. The educated population mainly responsible for Classical Latin might have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background, the term was first used improperly in that sense by the pioneers of Romance-language philology, François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. These terms, as he points out in the work, are a translation into German of Dantes vulgare latinum and Latinum vulgare, and these names in turn are at the end of a tradition extending to the Roman republic.
Latin could be sermo Latinus, but in addition was a variety known as sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, sermo plebeius and these modifiers inform post-classical readers that a conversational Latin existed, which was used by the masses in daily speaking and was perceived as lower-class. These vocabulary items manifest no opposition to the written language, there was an opposition to higher-class, or family Latin in sermo familiaris and very rarely literature might be termed sermo nobilis. The supposed sermo classicus is a scholarly fiction unattested in the dictionary, all kinds of sermo were spoken only, not written. If one wanted to refer to what in post-classical times was called classical Latin one resorted to the concept of latinitas or latine. If one spoke in the lingua or sermo Latinus one merely spoke Latin, but if one spoke latine or latinius one spoke good Latin, and formal Latin had latinitas, the original opposition was between formal or implied good Latin and informal or Vulgar Latin.
The spoken/written dichotomy is entirely philological, although making it clear that sermo vulgaris existed, the ancients said very little about it. Because it was not transcribed, it can only be studied indirectly, knowledge comes from these chief sources, especially in Late Latin texts. Mention of it by ancient grammarians, including prescriptive grammar texts from the Late Latin period condemning linguistic errors that represent spoken Latin, the comparative method, which reconstructs Proto-Romance, a hypothetical vernacular proto-language from which the Romance languages descended. The original written Latin language was adapted from the spoken language of the Latins, with some minor modifications. As with many languages, over time the spoken language diverged from the written language with the written language remaining somewhat static. Nevertheless, during the period spoken Latin still remained largely common across the Empire. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire rapidly began to change this, the former western provinces became increasingly isolated from the Eastern Roman Empire leading to a rapid divergence in the Latin spoken on either side
The Germanic peoples are an ethno-linguistic Indo-European group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age, the term Germanic originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. Tribes referred to as Germanic by Roman authors generally lived to the north, in about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term Germani appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ. This may simply be referring to Gaul or related people, the term Germani shows up again, allegedly written by Poseidonios, but is merely a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat later, the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, from Caesars perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control.
This usage of the word is the origin of the concept of Germanic languages. In other classical authors the concept sometimes included regions of Sarmatia, also, at least in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilised than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine. He made clear that he was using the name in the local sense and these are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be closely related to the peoples east of the Rhine, and descended from immigrants into Gaul. Caesar described this group of both as Belgic Gauls and as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, and the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail.
It has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages. The etymology of the word Germani is uncertain, the likeliest theory so far proposed is that it comes from a Gaulish compound of *ger near + *mani men, comparable to Welsh ger near, Old Irish gair neighbor, Irish gar- near, garach neighborly. Another Celtic possibility is that the name meant noisy, cf. Breton/Cornish garm shout, here the vowel does not match, nor does the vowel length ). Others have proposed a Germanic etymology *gēr-manni, spear men, cf. Middle Dutch ghere, Old High German Ger, Old Norse geirr. However, the form gēr seems far too advanced phonetically for the 1st century, has a vowel where a short one is expected. The term Germani, probably applied to a group of tribes in northeastern Gaul who may or may not have spoken a Germanic language
Brumath, Brumpt, is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Brumath occupies the site of the Roman Brocomagus, maria Christina of Saxony, aunt of Louis XVI, died in the château in the city. The building was destroyed in the Revolution, Brumath is located on the Zorn river, and is 17 km north of Strasbourg and 13 km south of Haguenau. Brumath has a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, the vaulted basement of the former castle of the Hanau-Lichtenberg family now houses the Musée archéologique, displaying findings made in and around the ancient Roman town of Brocomagus. Brumath is served by the Route nationale 63, linking Strasbourg to Haguenau and it has a railway station on the line linking Strasbourg and Metz. Maria Christina of Saxony died in Brumath, the great-great-grandmother of J. K. Rowling, Salomé Schuch, lived in Brumath. Battle of Brumath Bernard Schreiner, French politician born in Brumath Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Brumath transmitter INSEE commune file
Revolt of the Batavi
The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD69 and 70. After these initial successes, a massive Roman army led by the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis eventually defeated the rebels. Following peace talks, the Batavi submitted again to Roman rule, but were forced to accept humiliating terms and a legion stationed permanently on their territory, at Noviomagus. The Batavi were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti tribal group who had migrated to the region between the Old Rhine and Waal rivers in what became the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Their land, though potentially fertile alluvial deposits, was largely uncultivable, thus the Batavi population it could support was tiny, not more than 35,000 at this time. They were a people, skilled horsemen and swimmers. In return for the privilege of exemption from tributum, they supplied a disproportionate number of recruits to the Julio-Claudian auxilia. They provided most of the emperor Augustus elite regiment of German Bodyguards, the Batavi auxilia amounted to about 5,000 men, implying that for the entire Julio-Claudian period, over 50% of all Batavi males reaching military age may have enlisted in the auxilia.
Thus the Batavi, although just about 0. 05% of the population of the empire in AD23. They were regarded by the Romans as the best and bravest of their auxiliary, in Roman service, they had perfected a unique technique for swimming across rivers wearing full armour and weapons. Gaius Julius Civilis was a prince of the Batavi and the prefect of a Batavi cohort. By 69, Civilis, the Batavi regiments and the Batavi people had become disaffected from Rome. After the Batavi regiments were withdrawn from Britain in 66, Civilis and his brother were arrested by the governor of Germania Inferior on false accusations of treason, the governor ordered the brothers execution, and sent Civilis to Rome in chains for judgement by the Roman emperor Nero. While Civilis was in prison awaiting trial, Nero was overthrown in AD68 by an army led into Italy by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, Nero committed suicide, ending the rule of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded a century earlier by Augustus. He acquitted Civilis of the charge and allowed him to return home.
Meanwhile, Galba disbanded the German Bodyguards Regiment, which he distrusted due to the loyalty they had given to Nero in the final days. This alienated several hundred crack Batavi troops, and indeed the whole Batavi nation, at the same time, relations collapsed between the 8 Batavi cohorts and their parent-legion XIV Gemina, to which they had been attached since the invasion of Britain 25 years earlier. The seething hatred between the Roman legionaries and their German auxiliaries erupted in serious fighting on at least two occasions, at this juncture, the Roman empire was convulsed by its first major civil war for a century, the Year of the Four Emperors
It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. However, narrower definitions may be used based on geographical factors, such as climate. Greenland, geographically a part of North America, is politically a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while Northern Europe overlaps with most of Northwestern Europe, north-Central Europe, and Northeastern Europe, it does not border Southern Europe. Countries which are central-western, central-central, or central-eastern are generally considered part of neither Northern Europe or Southern Europe. Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Mediterranean region, everything not near this sea was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries and this meaning is still used today in some contexts, such as in discussions of the Northern Renaissance. In medieval times, the term Thule was used to mean a place in the extreme northern reaches of the continent. The region has a south west extreme of around 50 degrees north, the entire regions climate is mildly affected by the Gulf Stream.
From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates, in the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental. With the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, Northern European countries are known for harsh winters with temperatures reaching as low as minus 50 degrees Celsius in some parts. Countries in Northern Europe have large, developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world and they often score highly on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index