The Westinghouse Broadcasting Company known as Group W, was the broadcasting division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It owned several radio and television stations across the United States and distributed television shows for syndication. Westinghouse Broadcasting was formed in the 1920s as Inc.. It was renamed Westinghouse Broadcasting Company in 1954, adopted the Group W moniker on May 20, 1963, it was a self-contained entity within the Westinghouse corporate structure. It kept national sales offices in Los Angeles. Group W stations are best known for using a distinctive corporate typeface, introduced in 1963, for their logos and on-air imaging. Styled typefaces had been used on some non-Group W stations as well and several former Group W stations still use it today; the Group W corporate typeface has been digitized and released by John Sizemore. The font is used in the video game Damnation. Westinghouse Broadcasting was well known for two long-running television programs, the Mike Douglas Show and PM Magazine.
The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company entered broadcasting with the November 2, 1920, sign-on of KDKA radio in Pittsburgh. The oldest surviving licensed commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA was an outgrowth of experimental station 8XK, a 75-watt station, located in the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg, founded in 1916 by Westinghouse assistant chief engineer Frank Conrad. Westinghouse launched three more radio stations in 1921: WJZ licensed to Newark, New Jersey, in September. WBZA in Boston, a station which shared WBZ's frequency and simulcasted WBZ's programming, signed on in November 1924. Westinghouse was one of the founding owners of the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, in 1926 RCA established the National Broadcasting Company, a group of 24 radio stations that made up the first radio network in the United States. Westinghouse owned a 20 percent stake in NBC, as a result, all of Westinghouse's stations became affiliates of NBC's Blue Network when it was launched on January 1, 1927.
Most of the Blue Network's programming originated at WJZ, which in 1923 had its license moved to New York City, its ownership transferred to RCA. In 1931, Westinghouse switched the call letters of its two Massachusetts stations, with WBZA moving to Springfield and WBZ going to Boston; the two stations had suffered from interference problems, though the Boston facility was the more powerful of the two. In 1934, KYW was moved from Chicago to Philadelphia following a Federal Communications Commission-dictated frequency realignment. Westinghouse's next station was its first purchase: WOWO in Fort Wayne, Indiana joined the group in August 1936; the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement of 1941 saw all of Westinghouse's original stations move to their current dial positions. With WOWO's power increase to 50,000 watts that year, the Westinghouse stations were now clear-channel stations. A decade the FCC forbade common ownership of two or more clear channel stations with overlapping nighttime coverage, though the commission allowed Westinghouse to keep WBZ, KYW, KDKA, WOWO together under a grandfather clause.
Among them, the four stations' nighttime signals blanketed all of the eastern half of North America. Despite the assignments which resulted from NARBA, WBZA became a 1,000-watt daytime-only operation as it continued to share a frequency with WBZ; the Westinghouse group survived the government-dictated split of NBC's radio division in 1943. WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW became affiliates of NBC's Red Network while WOWO, which had a secondary affiliation with the Blue Network, fell back on its primary relationship with CBS. Westinghouse expanded to the West Coast in 1944 with its purchase of 5,000-watt KEX in Portland, Oregon, a station which shared a frequency with WOWO. Westinghouse would increase KEX's power to 50,000 watts in 1948. In the 1940s, Westinghouse moved on to develop FM and television stations as the FCC began to issue permits for those services. Westinghouse built FM sister stations for WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW, KEX, WOWO, all of which were on the air by the end of the decade. FM radio was an unsuccessful venture for Westinghouse, the company would silence most of its FM stations during the 1950s.
Of the early Westinghouse FMs, only the original KDKA-FM and the second WBZ-FM facility proved to be worth keeping, Westinghouse sold those outlets in the early 1980s. Moving back to AM radio, Westinghouse returned to Chicago with its 1956 purchase of WIND. In 1962, Westinghouse re-entered the New York market when it bought WINS a local Top-40 powerhouse. Having reached the FCC's then-limit of seven AM stations, Westinghouse sold KEX to actor and singer Gene Autry, decided to shut down WBZA and return its license to the FCC. In 1966, Westinghouse agreed to buy KFWB in Los Angeles. On April 19, 1965, WINS instituted a 24-hour, all-news format. KYW went all-news six months on September 12, three months after Westinghouse regained control of the station. KFWB would adopt the format on March 11, 1968; the three stations all prospered with their new formats ranking among the five highest-rated stations in their marke
Earth: Final Conflict
Earth: Final Conflict was an American-Canadian science fiction television series based on ideas developed by Gene Roddenberry. The series was produced under the guidance of his widow, Majel Barrett-Roddenberry, who possessed notes kept by Roddenberry that would provide the conceptual basis for the series, it ran for five seasons between October 6, 1997 and May 20, 2002. Early in the 21st century, a race of aliens, the Taelons, travel to Earth and take up residence in limited numbers; the Taelons possess advanced technologies, many of which they share with humanity out of generosity and good will. As a result of these advances, disease and pollution are nearly eliminated within three years of their arrival. Despite this, some question whether the Taelons' motives are as benevolent as they appear, a resistance movement forms to halt the Taelons' growing influence on humanity. After the cancellation of Star Trek in 1969, its creator Gene Roddenberry began working on other projects, producing scripts and pilot episodes which were shown to various networks, including Genesis II and The Questor Tapes.
He began early planning for a project called Battleground: Earth, a science fiction series set in the near future when a group of aliens landed on Earth under a banner of peace. Twentieth Century Fox expressed interest in producing a pilot episode for the series, but Roddenberry's busy schedule prevented it; when the order for the pilot came in, he was in England filming a TV movie, followed by work on the Star Trek films and the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation. When he died in 1991, Battleground: Earth had yet to be produced. In the mid-1990s, Roddenberry's widow, Majel Barrett-Roddenberry, began to develop the project, it went into production with Tribune Entertainment. It was renamed Earth: Final Conflict to avoid confusion with the film Battlefield Earth, released around the same time; the success of the show led to the development of other posthumous Roddenberry projects, most notably Andromeda. The show ran for five seasons; the finale was broadcast on May 20, 2002. The show is infamous for the unusually high turnover rate among the regular cast due to contractual disagreements between the cast and the producers.
All of the show's major characters were killed or otherwise removed within a season or two of being introduced. In fact, the only character to appear as a regular during all five seasons was FBI Agent Ronald Sandoval, the show's main antagonist; the fifth season of the show was a radical departure from the storyline of the previous seasons, with the Taelons being replaced by a new and more hostile alien race, a group of energy vampires called the Atavus. Kevin Kilner as William Boone, Companion Protector/Resistance agent Lisa Howard as Lili Marquette, interdimensional shuttle pilot/Resistance agent Von Flores as Ronald Sandoval, Companion Protector Richard Chevolleau as Marcus "Augur" Deveraux, Resistance hacker Leni Parker as Da’an, the North American Companion David Hemblen as Jonathan Doors, Resistance leader Robert Leeshock as Liam Kincaid, Companion Protector/Resistance agent Anita La Selva as Zo’or, United Nations Companion Leader of the Taelon Synod Jayne Heitmeyer as Renee Palmer, Companion business liaison/Resistance agent Melinda Deines as Juliet Street, Resistance hacker Guylaine St-Onge as Juda, Atavus warrior Alan Van Sprang as Howlyn, Atavus leader Helen Taylor as Ra’jel, Sire of the Synod Majel Barrett-Roddenberry as Julianne Belman, Doctor and CVI expert/Resistance agent "Three years ago they came, forever altering the future of humanity.
William Boone's life has been destroyed. A man caught between two worlds. Assigned protector to the Companions. An alien implanted. Controlling a bio-engineered weapon of unprecedented power. William Boone searches for the truth." – Season 1 introduction. The Taelons have used their advanced technology to help humanity achieve a better quality of life. However, the North American Taelon Companion, Da'an, is targeted by an assassin while making a speech. Jonathan Doors, a businessman with close ties to the Taelons, is killed. Da'an is impressed by Police Commander Boone's work in protecting him from the assassination attempt, offers him a spot as a Taelon Protector, a personal bodyguard and envoy for a particular Taelon. Boone politely refuses. Deep down, he doesn't trust the Taelons fully. Subsequently, Boone's wife is killed in a mysterious automobile accident and Boone finds out that Jonathan Doors faked his own death so that he could focus on an underground resistance movement that he founded in secret.
Doors believes the Taelons have sinister intentions, wants to find out their true motives. He believes that the Taelons had something to do with the death of his wife; because of this, Boone agrees to work as a double agent for the resistance. He accepts Da'an's offer to become a Protector, receives a Cyber-Viral Implant that gives him enhanced mental abilities – including perfect recall. While most CVIs alter the minds of their hosts so they become singularly loyal to the Taelons above all others, including friends and the human race a
South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network. The show revolves around four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, Kenny McCormick—and their exploits in and around the titular Colorado town. Much like The Simpsons, South Park uses a large ensemble cast of recurring characters, it became infamous for its profanity and dark, surreal humor that satirizes a wide range of topics towards a mature audience. Parker and Stone developed the show from The Spirit of two consecutive animated shorts; the latter became one of the first Internet viral videos leading to South Park's production. Since its debut on August 13, 1997, 297 episodes of South Park have been broadcast, it debuted with great success earning the highest ratings of any basic cable program. Subsequent ratings have varied but it remains one of Comedy Central's highest rated shows, is slated to air in new episodes through 2019.
The pilot episode was produced using cutout animation, leading to all subsequent episodes being produced with computer animation that emulated the cutout technique. Parker and Stone perform most of the voice acting for the show's male characters. Since 2000, each episode has been written and produced in the week preceding its broadcast, with Parker serving as the primary writer and director; the show's twenty-second season premiered on September 26, 2018. South Park has received numerous accolades, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, numerous inclusions in various publications' lists of greatest television shows; the show's popularity resulted in a feature-length theatrical film, South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, released in June 1999, less than two years after the show's premiere, became a commercial and critical success garnering a nomination for an Academy Award. In 2013, TV Guide ranked South Park the tenth Greatest TV Cartoon of All Time; the show follows the exploits of four boys, Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman and Kenny McCormick.
The boys live in the fictional small town of South Park, located within the real-life South Park basin in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. The town is home to an assortment of frequent characters such as students, elementary school staff, other various residents, who tend to regard South Park as a bland, quiet place to live. Prominent settings on the show include the local elementary school, bus stop, various neighborhoods and the surrounding snowy landscape, actual Colorado landmarks, the shops and businesses along the town's main street, all of which are based on the appearance of similar locations in Fairplay, Colorado. Stan is portrayed as the everyman of the group, as the show's website describes him as an "average, American 4th grader". Kyle is the lone Jew among the group, his portrayal in this role is dealt with satirically. Stan is modeled after Parker, they are best friends, their friendship, symbolically intended to reflect Parker and Stone's friendship, is a common topic throughout the series.
Eric Cartman is loud and amoral portrayed as an antagonist. His anti-Semitic attitude has resulted in a progressive rivalry with Kyle, although the deeper reason is the strong clash between Kyle's strong morality and Cartman's complete lack of such. Kenny, who comes from a poor family, wears his parka hood so that it covers most of his face and muffles his speech. During the show's first five seasons, Kenny would die in nearly every episode before returning in the next with little-to-no definitive explanation given, he was written out of the show's sixth season in 2002, re-appearing in the season finale. Since Kenny's death has been used by the show's creators. During the show's first 58 episodes, the boys were in the third grade. In the season four episode "4th Grade", they entered the fourth grade, but have remained there since. Plots are set in motion by events, ranging from the typical to the supernatural and extraordinary, which happen in the town; the boys act as the voice of reason when these events cause panic or incongruous behavior among the adult populace, who are customarily depicted as irrational and prone to vociferation.
The boys are frequently confused by the contradictory and hypocritical behavior of their parents and other adults, perceive them as having distorted views on morality and society. Each episode opens with a tongue-in-cheek all persons fictitious disclaimer: "All characters and events in this show—even those based on real people—are fictional. All celebrity voices are impersonated.....poorly. The following program contains coarse language and due to its content it should not be viewed by anyone."South Park was the first weekly program to be rated TV-MA, is intended for adult audiences. The boys and most other child characters use strong profanity, with only the most taboo words being bleeped during a typical broadcast. According to Parker and Stone, when little boys are alone, that's how they talk. South Park makes use of carnivalesque and absurdist techniques, numerous running gags, sexual content, offhand pop-cultural references, satirical portrayal of celebrities. Early episodes featured more slapstick-style humor.
While social satire had been used on the show earlier on, it became more prevalent as the series progressed, with the show retaining some of its focus on the boys' fondness of scatological humor in an attempt to remind adult viewers "what it was like to be eight years old." Park
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Soul Train is an American music-dance television program which aired in syndication from October 2, 1971 to March 27, 2006. In its 35-year history, the show featured performances by R&B, dance/pop, hip hop artists, although funk, jazz and gospel artists appeared; the series was created by Don Cornelius, who served as its first host and executive producer. Production was suspended following the 2005–2006 season, with a rerun package airing for two years subsequently; as a nod to Soul Train's longevity, the show's opening sequence during seasons contained a claim that it was the "longest-running first-run, nationally syndicated program in American television history," with over 1,100 episodes produced from the show's debut through the 2005–2006 season. Despite the production hiatus, Soul Train held that superlative until 2016, when Entertainment Tonight surpassed it completing its 35th season. Among non-news programs, Wheel of Fortune surpassed that mark in 2018; the origins of Soul Train can be traced to 1965 when WCIU-TV, an upstart UHF station in Chicago, began airing two youth-oriented dance programs: Kiddie-a-Go-Go and Red Hot and Blues.
These programs—specifically the latter, which featured a predominantly African-American group of in-studio dancers—would set the stage for what was to come to the station several years later. Don Cornelius, a news reader and backup disc jockey at Chicago radio station WVON, was hired by WCIU in 1967 as a news and sports reporter. Cornelius was promoting and emceeing a touring series of concerts featuring local talent at Chicago-area high schools, calling his traveling caravan of shows "The Soul Train". WCIU-TV took notice of Cornelius's outside work and in 1970, allowed him the opportunity to bring his road show to television. After securing a sponsorship deal with the Chicago-based retailer Sears, Roebuck & Co. Soul Train premiered on WCIU-TV as a live show airing weekday afternoons. Beginning as a low-budget affair, in black and white, the first episode of the program featured Jerry Butler, the Chi-Lites, the Emotions as guests. Cornelius was assisted by Clinton Ghent, a local professional dancer who appeared on early episodes before moving behind the scenes as a producer and secondary host.
The program's immediate success attracted the attention of another locally based firm—the Johnson Products Company —and they agreed to co-sponsor the program's expansion into national syndication. Cornelius and Soul Train's syndicator targeted 25 markets outside of Chicago to carry the show, but stations in only seven other cities—Atlanta, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia—purchased the program, which began airing on a weekly basis on October 2, 1971. By the end of the first season, Soul Train was on in the other eighteen markets; when the program moved into syndication, its home base was shifted to Los Angeles, where it remained for the duration of its run. Soul Train was part of a national trend toward syndicated music-oriented programs targeted at niche audiences. Though Don Cornelius moved his operations west, a local version of Soul Train continued in Chicago, he continued to oversee production in Chicago, where Clinton Ghent hosted episodes on WCIU-TV until 1976, followed by three years of once-weekly reruns.
The syndicated version was picked up in the Chicago market by CBS-owned WBBM-TV at its launch. Don Cornelius hosted every national episode of Soul Train during this era except for one: comedian Richard Pryor guest hosted the final episode of the 1974-75 season. In 1985, Chicago-based Tribune Entertainment took over Soul Train's syndication contract. Most of the stations that aired Soul Train during the final 13 years were either Fox affiliates or independent stations that would become WB or UPN affiliates. Don Cornelius ended his run as host at the end of the show's 22nd season in 1993, though he remained the show's main creative force from behind the scenes; the following fall, Soul Train began using guest hosts weekly until comedian Mystro Clark began a two-year stint as permanent host in 1997. Clark was replaced by actor Shemar Moore in 2000. In 2003, Moore was succeeded by actor Dorian Gregory, who hosted through 2006. Soul Train pulled into its last stop when production of first-run episodes was suspended at the conclusion of the 2005–06 season, the show's 35th.
Instead, for two seasons starting in 2006–07, the program aired archived episodes under the title The Best of Soul Train. This was because in years, Nielsen ratings dropped to below 1.0. The future of Soul Train was uncertain with the announced closing of Tribune Entertainment in December 2007, which left Don Cornelius Productions to seek a new distributor for the program. Cornelius soon secured a deal with Trifecta Media; when Don Cornelius Productions still owned the program, clips of the show's performances and interviews were kept away from online video sites such as YouTube owing to copyright infringement claims. C
Joan Alexandra Molinsky, known professionally as Joan Rivers, was an American comedian, writer and television host. She was noted for her controversial comedic persona—heavily self-deprecating or acerbic toward celebrities and politicians. Rivers rose to prominence in 1965 as a guest on The Tonight Show. Hosted by her mentor, Johnny Carson, the show established Rivers' comedic style. In 1986, with her own rival program, The Late Show with Joan Rivers, Rivers became the first woman to host a late night network television talk show, she subsequently hosted The Joan Rivers Show. From the mid-1990s, she became known for her comedic red carpet awards show celebrity interviews, in 2009, she was the Celebrity Apprentice Winner. Rivers co-hosted the E! Celebrity fashion show Fashion Police from 2010 to 2014 and starred in the reality series Joan & Melissa: Joan Knows Best? with daughter Melissa Rivers. She was the subject of the documentary Joan Rivers: A Piece of Work. In addition to marketing a line of jewelry and apparel on the QVC shopping channel, Rivers authored 12 best-selling books and three LP comedy albums under her own name: Mr. Phyllis And Other Funny Stories, The Next To Last Joan Rivers Album, What Becomes A Semi-Legend Most?.
She was nominated in 1984 for a Grammy Award for her album What Becomes a Semi-Legend Most?. In 2015, Rivers posthumously received a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for her book, Diary of a Mad Diva. In 1968, The New York Times television critic Jack Gould called Rivers "quite the most intuitively funny woman alive". In 2017, Rolling Stone magazine ranked her sixth on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time, in October the same year, she was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame. Joan Alexandra Molinsky was born on June 8, 1933, in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish immigrants Beatrice and Meyer C. Molinsky, she had an elder sister named Barbara Waxler. Rivers spent her early life in Prospect Heights and Crown Heights in Brooklyn, where she attended the progressive and now-defunct Brooklyn Ethical Culture School and Adelphi Academy of Brooklyn, a college preparatory day school, where she was co-chairman of her school, due to her past experiences in theatrical activities.
Within 2 years, she performed in the School Cavalcades, in 1949, aged 16, she was vice president of the Dramatic Club. She graduated from the Adelphi Academy of Brooklyn, in 1950, at 17. In her adolescence, Rivers relocated with her family to Larchmont, north of New York City. Rivers stated in interviews that she was overweight throughout her childhood and adolescence, that it had a profound impact on her body image, which she would struggle with throughout her life, she attended Connecticut College between 1950 and 1952, graduated from Barnard College in 1954 with a B. A. summa cum laude in English anthropology. Before entering show business, Rivers worked at various jobs such as a tour guide at Rockefeller Center, a writer/proofreader at an advertising agency and a fashion consultant at Bond Clothing Stores. During this period, agent Tony Rivers advised her to change her name, so she chose Joan Rivers as her stage name. During the late 1950s, Rivers appeared in a short off-Broadway run play, Driftwood, co-starring Barbra Streisand.
It ran for six weeks on playwright Maurice Tei Dunn's apartment on 49th Street, in NYC, according to an interview with Adweek. Rivers performed in numerous comedy clubs in the Greenwich Village area of New York City in the early 1960s, including The Bitter End, The Gaslight Cafe and The Duplex. Rivers became friends with her fellow Greenwich Village comedians Woody Allen and George Carlin and ate with them, she describes working in the Village alongside noted musicians Bob Dylan, Barbra Streisand, Carly Simon and Simon and Garfunkel. Between 1963 and 1964, along with Jim Connell and Jake Holmes, were in the cabaret act "Jim, Jake & Joan". A 1964 appearance at The Bitter End resulted in their appearance in the motion picture, Once Upon A Coffee House, Rivers' first big screen credit; the group parted ways shortly afterwards, on which member Holmes recalled: "We were supposed to do this rally for Bobby Kennedy, running for New York senator in 1964. We were going to play at the rally. Joan showed up with a Keating button on.
And Jim said take that off. She said no — she was sticking to her political guns, and Jim said, "Who needs you, anyway?" That was the end...". She made an appearance as a guest on the television program The Tonight Show originating from New York, hosted at the time by Jack Paar. By 1965, Rivers had a stint on Candid Camera as participant. After seven auditions during a period of three years, she made her first appearance on The Tonight Show with new host Johnny Carson, on February 17, 1965. Rivers credited this episode to be her breakthrough, as Carson said to her on the air "you're gonna be a star". Following this appearance, she became a frequent guest on a close friend of Carson; as her profile rose in the subsequent years, she started to make guest-appearances in numerous popular shows, including The Ed Sullivan Show, The Mike Douglas Show, The Dick Cavett Show and Girl Talk, with Virginia Graham. She wrote material f