Joseph Knowland State Arboretum and Park
Joseph Knowland State Arboretum and Park is a park located in the Grass Valley neighborhood of Oakland, California. It was a state park, is now the property of the City of Oakland; the Oakland Zoo occupies the developed western lowlands of the park, just off I-580. The park's namesake and principal founder was Joseph Knowland, who served on the California State Park Commission from 1934 to 1960 and was its chairman from 1938. Under his influence, the State of California purchased 453 acres for $660,000 on a matching grant basis. On April 30 1948, the property became a State Park. In December 1949, the park was leased to the City of Oakland with the proviso that Knowland Park would always remain a public park. At this time, a portion of the park became the new site of the relocated Oakland Zoo. Joseph Knowland was honored, on the 101st California State Admission Day, September 9 1951, by the City of Oakland, Alameda County, the State of California, with the renaming of the park to Joseph Knowland State Arboretum and Park.
In 1973, the site was ceded to the City of Oakland, in 1975, management of the park was granted to the City of Oakland. The largest and most pristine portion of the park is undeveloped, yet is the most accessible to park users; the western highlands and northern slopes are a thriving hotspot for rare native plants and wildlife. Some of the natural highlights of the park include rare native plant communities, thriving but threatened wildlife, choice bird-watching locales, a known-critical migratory corridor for mountain lions and bobcats; the park is traversed along its northern boundary by Arroyo Viejo which flows to Lion Creek and San Leandro Bay. In 2010, the East Bay Chapter of the California Native Plant Society included Knowland Park in its South Oakland Botanical Priority Protection Area due to its rich native plant resources that include rare natural communities of Valley Needlegrass Grassland and Maritime Chaparral. In 2011, Oakland City Council voted to approve the expansion of the Oakland Zoo into upper Knowland Park.
This move has been fiercely contested by the Friends of Knowland Park. On December 9, 2014, the Oakland City Council voted to block public access to dozens of acres within the heart of the park by granting a mitigation easement to offset the damage that would occur from a planned development by the Oakland Zoo onto the western highland of Knowland Park; the Save Knowland Park Coalition, which includes the Sierra Club - East Bay Chapter, California Native Plant Society, California Grasslands Association, several other environmental organizations as well as the Green Party are supporting a referendum effort to put the issue to a vote of Oakland registered voters. Oakland Zoo Save Knowland Park
Civil defense siren
A civil defence siren is a siren used to provide the emergency population warning of approaching danger, while sometimes indicating when the danger has passed. Some are used to call the volunteer fire department when they are needed. Designed to warn city dwellers of air raids in World War II, they were reused to warn of nuclear attack and of natural destructive weather patterns such as tornadoes; the generalised nature of the siren led to many of them being replaced with more specialised warnings, such as the Emergency Alert System. A mechanical siren generates sound by spinning a slotted chopper wheel to interrupt a stream of air at a regular rate. Modern sirens can develop a sound level of up to 135 decibels at 100 feet; the Chrysler air raid siren, driven by a 331-cubic-inch Chrysler Hemi gasoline engine, generates 138 dB at 100 feet away. By use of varying tones or binary patterns of sound, different alert conditions can be signalled. Electronic sirens can transmit voice announcements in addition to alert tone signals.
Siren systems may be electronically integrated into other warning systems. Many warning sirens have a sound made distinguishable from that used by emergency vehicles by the use of two simultaneous tones, with pitches in a 5:6 frequency ratio. In the United States, several sets of warning tones have been used that have varied due to age, government structure, manufacturer; the initial alerts used during World War II were the Attack Signal. The Victory Siren manual stated that when manual generation of the warbling tone was required, it could be achieved by holding the Signal switch on for 8 seconds and off for 4 seconds. In 1950, the Federal Civil Defence Administration revised the signals, naming the alert signal "red alert" and adding an "all-clear" signal, characterized by three 1-minute steady blasts, with 2 minutes of silence between the blasts. Beginning in 1952, the Bell and Lights Air Raid Warning System, developed by AT&T, was made available to provide automated transmission of an expanded set of alert signals: Red Alert Yellow Alert White Alert Blue Alert The Yellow Alert and Red Alert signals correspond to the earlier Alert Signal and Attack Signal and the early Federal Signal AR timer siren control units featured the "Take Cover" button labelled with a red background, the "Alert" button labelled with a yellow background.
AF timers changed the colour-coding, setting the Alert button as blue, the Take Cover button yellow, the Fire button red, thus confusing the colour-coding of the alerts. In 1955, the Federal Civil Defence Administration again revised the warning signals, altering them to deal with concern over nuclear fallout; the new set of signals were the Take-Cover Signal. The All-Clear signal was removed because leaving a shelter while fallout was present would prove hazardous. During World War II Britain had two warning tones: Red Warning All Clear These tones would be initialised by the Royal Observer Corps spotting Luftwaffe aircraft coming towards Britain, helped by coastal radar stations; the Attack Warning would be sounded when the Royal Observer Corps spotted enemy aircraft in the immediate area. The sirens were tested periodically; this was done by emitting the tones in reverse order, with the All Clear tone followed by the Red Warning tone. This ensured. Sirens are sometimes integrated into a warning system that links sirens with other warning media, such as the radio and TV Emergency Alert System, NOAA Weather Radio, telephone alerting systems, Reverse 911, Cable Override and wireless alerting systems in the United States and the National Public Alerting System, Alert Ready, in Canada.
This fluid approach enhances the credibility of warnings and reduces the risk of assumed false alarms by corroborating the warning messages through multiple media. The Common Alerting Protocol is a technical standard for this sort of multi-system integration. Siren installations themselves have many ways of being activated. Used are DTMF broadcasts over phone lines or over radio broadcast; this does open vulnerability for exploitation. These sirens can be tied into other networks such as a fire departments volunteer notification/paging system; the basics of this type of installation would consist of a device connected to the controller/timer system of the siren. When a page is received, the siren is activated. A mechanical siren uses a rotor and stator to chop an airstream, forced through the siren by radial vanes in the spinning rotor. An example of this type of siren is the Federal Signal 2T22, developed during the Cold War and produced from the early 1950s to the late 1980s; this particular design employs dual stators to sound each pitch.
Because the sound power output of this type of siren is the same in every direction at all times, it is described as omnidirectional. The Federal 2T22 was marketed in a 3-signal configuration known as the Federal Signal 3T22, which had capabilities for a "hi-lo" signal; some sirens, like the Federal Signal Thunderbolt series, had a blower so that more air could be pumped into the siren. While some mechanica
William Fife Knowland was an American politician, newspaper publisher, Republican Party leader. He was a US Senator representing California from 1945 to 1959, he served as Senate Majority Leader from August 1953 to January 1955 after the death of Robert A. Taft; as the most powerful member of the Senate and with his strong interest in foreign policy, Knowland helped set national foreign policy priorities and funding for the Cold War, the policy regarding Vietnam, China, Korea and NATO, other foreign-policy objectives. He opposed sending American forces to French Indochina and was a sharp critic of Communist China under Mao Zedong. Knowland represented the right wing of the party and considered some of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's policies too liberal. After the Republicans lost their majority in the 1954 election, he served as Minority Leader from 1955–1959, he was defeated in his 1958 run for California Governor. He succeeded his father, Joseph R. Knowland, as the editor in chief and publisher of the Oakland Tribune.
Knowland was born in the City of Alameda County, California. His father, Joseph R. Knowland, was serving his third term as a US Representative, he was the third child, with an older sister, a brother, Joseph Russell "Russ" Knowland Jr.. His grandfather Joseph Knowland had made the family fortune in the lumber business, his mother, Elinor Fife Knowland, died than a month after his birth. His father's second wife, Emelyn S. West, raised Knowland as her own son. A young Knowland made campaign speeches for the 1920 Republican ticket of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge at the age of 12, he married at 19, became a California State Assemblyman at 25, entered the US Senate at 37, became a grandfather at 41. Knowland, the president of the student body, graduated from Alameda High School in the Class of 1925, he graduated with a political science degree in three and a half years from the University of California, Berkeley in 1929. He was a member of Zeta Psi fraternity. California Governor C. C. Young and University of California President William Wallace Campbell praised Knowland's political activities as a university student.
Knowland attended the 1932 Republican National Convention. He watched from the gallery, the California delegation which included his father, Earl Warren, Louis B. Mayer and Marshall Hale; the Republicans in Chicago renominated Vice President Charles Curtis. In November 1932, he was elected to the State Assembly, serving two years, in 1934 to the California State Senate, serving four years, he did not seek re-election in 1938 but remained active in the California Republican Party by serving in a number of roles. He was influential on the national scene, serving as the chairman of the executive committee of the Republican National Committee from 1940 to 1942. Knowland campaigned for 1940 Republican presidential candidate Wendell L. Willkie. In June 1942, Knowland was drafted into the U. S. Army for World War II service. After a few months service as a private and sergeant, he went through Officer Candidate School and was commissioned as a second lieutenant, he served as an aide to Brigadier General M. L. Stockton attended military government school.
He was sent to Europe in 1944, landed in France a month after D-Day, served in various rear-echelon duties, rising to the rank of major. Hiram Johnson, the senior US Senator from California, died on August 6, 1945. On August 14, 1945, Governor Earl Warren appointed Knowland to fill Johnson's seat. Warren first offered the Senate seat to Joseph R. Knowland, who declined Warren's offer: "I lost the Senate Seat in 1914, I have the responsibility of the Oakland Tribune, Bring my boy, Billy home." Major William F. Knowland was serving on special duty with the Army Public Relations Section as part of the European Occupation Forces in Paris. Knowland always said he learned of his new job from an article in Stripes. Knowland was sworn in as a freshman Senator of the 79th Congress September 6, 1945, the day the Senate adjourned in memory of Hiram Johnson, he was assigned membership in the Commerce Committee, the Irrigation and Reclamation and Immigration Committee, the National Defense Committee. In 1946, in a special election for the last part of Johnson's term, Knowland defeated Democrat Will Rogers Jr. by 334,000 votes.
The special election featured a blank ballot, whereby electors had to write in the name of their choice. He defeated Rogers in the general election by nearly 261,000 votes, winning a full term in the Senate in his own right. Knowland became a caustic critic of the Harry S. Truman administration, he was publicly critical of the actions in the "loss" of China to the Korean War. However, Knowland admired the former Senator from Missouri personally. A firm believer in legislative authority under the US Constitution, Senate leader Knowland sometimes was at odds with President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Eisenhower wrote that Knowland "means to be helpful and loyal, but he is cumbersome" and described the Senator's foreign policy views on Red China, as "simplistic." In his diaries, the publicly avuncular Eisenhower felt free to confide more critical assessments of his political acquaintances. "Knowland has no foreign policy, except to develop high blood pressure whenever he mentions'Red China'... In his case, there seems to be no final answer to the question,'How stupid can you get?'"
Fellow conservative Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater described Knowland as "a determined man, and
St Mark's Campanile
St Mark's Campanile is the bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, located in the Piazza San Marco. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city; the tower is 98.6 metres tall, stands alone in a corner of St Mark's Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a simple form, the bulk of, a fluted brick square shaft, 12 metres wide on each side and 50 metres tall, above, a loggia surrounding the belfry, housing five bells; the belfry is topped by a cube, alternate faces of which show the Lion of St. Mark and the female representation of Venice; the tower is capped by a pyramidal spire, at the top of which sits a golden weathervane in the form of the archangel Gabriel. The campanile reached its present form in 1514; the current tower was reconstructed in its present form in 1912 after the collapse of 1902. The initial 9th-century construction, initiated during the reign of Pietro Tribuno and built on Roman foundations, was used as a watch tower or lighthouse for the dock, which occupied a substantial part of the area, now the Piazzetta.
Construction was finished during the reign of Domenico Morosini. Adjoining the base of the campanile is the loggetta built by Sansovino, completed in 1549 and rebuilt in 1912 after it had been destroyed by the fall of the campanile. One of the models for the tower was the St. Mercuriale's Campanile, in Forlì; the campanile suffered damage by lightning on many occasions. It was damaged in 1388, set on fire and destroyed in 1417 and damaged by a fire in 1489 that destroyed the wooden spire; the campanile assumed its definitive shape in the sixteenth century thanks to the restorations made to repair further damage caused by the earthquake of March 1511. These works, initiated by the architect Giorgio Spavento executed under the direction of Bartolomeo Bon of Bergamo, added the belfry, realized in marble; the work was completed on 6 July 1513, with the placement of the gilded wooden statue of the Archangel Gabriel in the course of a ceremony recorded by Marin Sanudo. In the following centuries numerous other interventions were made to repair the damage from fires caused by lightning.
It was damaged in 1548 and 1565. In 1653, Baldassarre Longhena took up the restorations; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1658. More work was done after a fire caused by a lightning strike on 13 April 1745, which caused some of the masonry to crack, killed several people as a result of falling stonework; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1761 and 1762. In 1776 it was equipped with a lightning rod. In 1820, the statue of the angel was replaced with a new one by Luigi Zandomeneghi. In July 1902, the north wall of the tower began to show signs of a dangerous crack that in the following days continued to grow. On Monday, 14 July, around 9:45 am, the campanile collapsed also demolishing the loggetta. Only the caretaker's cat was killed; because of the campanile's position, the resulting damage was limited. Apart from the loggetta, only a corner of the Biblioteca Marciana was destroyed; the pietra del bando, a large porphyry column from which laws used to be read, protected the basilica itself.
The same evening, the communal council approved over 500,000 Lire for the reconstruction of the campanile. It was decided to rebuild the tower as it was, with some internal reinforcement to prevent future collapse, plus installing an elevator. Royal Privy Councillor and scaffolding specialist Georg Leib of Munich was the first to donate his scaffolding to rebuild St. Mark's Campanile, on 22 July 1902. Work lasted until 6 March 1912; the work was carried out by the construction firm of G. A. Porcheddu; the new campanile was inaugurated on 25 April 1912, on the occasion of Saint Mark's feast day 1000 years after the foundations of the original building had been laid. The original Campanile inspired the designs of other towers worldwide in the areas belonging to the former Republic of Venice. Identical, albeit smaller, replicas of the campanile exist in the Slovenian town of Piran and in the Croatian town of Rovinj. Other replicas include the clock tower at King Street Station in Seattle; the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, a landmark skyscraper located at One Madison Avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, US, was designed by the architectural firm of Napoleon LeBrun & Sons, who based the external form and shape of the skyscraper on this Campanile.
Replicas of the current tower sit on the complex of The Venetian, the Venice-themed resort on the Las Vegas Strip, its sister resort The Venetian Macao, in the Italy Pavilion at Epcot, a theme park at Walt Disney World in Lake Buena Vista, in the nearly empty New South China Mall in Dongguan, China. There is a mill chimney in Darwen, Lancashire, modelled on the Campanile in St. Mark's Square, called India Mill. Another one is in the Venice Grand Canal in Taugig City; the Venetian Towers in Barcelona, are modelled on the Campanile. The Custom House Tower in Boston, MA is modelled on the Campanile; the Italianate-style tower at Jones Beach S
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in Northern California on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains. With an Mw magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Modified Mercalli intensity of IX, the shock was responsible for 63 deaths and 3,757 injuries. The Loma Prieta segment of the San Andreas Fault System had been inactive since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake until two moderate foreshocks occurred in June 1988 and again in August 1989. Damage was heavy in Santa Cruz County and less so to the south in Monterey County, but effects extended well to the north into the San Francisco Bay Area, both on the San Francisco Peninsula and across the bay in Oakland. No surface faulting occurred, though a large number of other ground failures and landslides were present in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
Liquefaction was a significant issue in the damaged Marina District of San Francisco, but its effects were seen in the East Bay, near the shore of Monterey Bay, where a non-destructive tsunami was observed. Due to the sports coverage of the 1989 World Series, it became the first major earthquake in the United States, broadcast live on national television. Rush-hour traffic on the Bay Area freeways was lighter than normal because the game, being played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, was about to begin, this may have prevented a larger loss of life, as several of the Bay Area's major transportation structures suffered catastrophic failures; the collapse of a section of the double-deck Nimitz Freeway in Oakland was the site of the largest number of casualties for the event, but the collapse of man-made structures and other related accidents contributed to casualties occurring in San Francisco, Los Altos, Santa Cruz. The history of earthquake investigations in California has been focused on the San Andreas Fault System, due to its strong influence in the state as the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.
Andrew Lawson, a geologist from the University of California, had named the fault after the San Andreas Lake and led an investigation into that event. The San Andreas Fault ruptured for a length of 290 mi during the 1906 shock, both to the north of San Francisco and to the south in the Santa Cruz Mountains region. Several long term forecasts for a large shock along the San Andreas Fault in that area had been made public prior to 1989 but the earthquake that transpired was not what had been anticipated; the 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an undiscovered oblique-slip reverse fault, located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event. Between 1910 and 1989 there were 20 varying forecasts that were announced, with some that were specific, covering multiple aspects of an event, while others were less complete and vague. With a M6.5 event on the San Juan Bautista segment, or an M7 event on the San Francisco Peninsula segment, United States Geological Survey seismologist Allan Lindh's 1983 forecasted rupture length of 25 miles for the San Juan Bautista segment nearly matched the actual rupture length of the 1989 event.
An updated forecast was presented in 1988, at which time Lindh took the opportunity to assign a new name to the San Juan Bautista segment – the Loma Prieta segment. In early 1988, the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities made several statements regarding their forecasts for the 225 mi northern San Andreas Fault segment, the 56 mi San Francisco Peninsula segment, a 18.8–22 mi portion of that segment, referred to as the southern Santa Cruz Mountains segment. The thirty year probability for one or more M7 earthquakes in the study area was given as 50%, but because of a lack of information and low confidence, a 30% probability was assigned to the Southern Santa Cruz Mountains segment. Two moderate shocks, referred to as the Lake Elsman earthquakes by the USGS, occurred in the Santa Cruz Mountains region in June 1988 and again in August 1989. Following each event, the State office of Emergency Services issued short term advisories for a possible large earthquake, which meant there was "a increased likelihood of an M6.5 event on the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault".
The advisories following the two Lake Elsman events were issued in part because of the statements made by WGCEP and because they were two of the three largest shocks to occur along the 1906 earthquake's rupture zone since 1914. The ML 5.3 June 1988 and the ML 5.4 August 1989 events occurred on unknown oblique reverse faults and were within 3 mi of the M6.9 Loma Prieta mainshock epicenter, near the intersection of the San Andreas and Sargent faults. Total displacement for these shocks was small and although they occurred on separate faults and well before the mainshock, a group of seismologists considered these to be foreshocks due to their location in sp
Oakland Museum of California
The Oakland Museum of California or OMCA is an interdisciplinary museum dedicated to the art and natural science of California, located adjacent to Oak Street, 10th Street, 11th Street in Oakland, California. The museum contains more than 1.8 million objects dedicated to "telling the extraordinary story of California." It was created in the mid-1960s out of the merger of three separate museums dating from the early 20th century, was opened in 1969. The museum building, designed by architect Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates LLC, with landscape design by Dan Kiley and gardens by Geraldine Knight Scott, is an important example of mid-century modernism and the integration of indoor and outdoor spaces; the concrete building includes three tiers, one each focusing on the art and natural science collections, along with temporary exhibition galleries, an auditorium, a restaurant, other ancillary spaces. Outdoor architectural features are terraced roof gardens, outdoor sculpture, a large lawn area, a koi pond.
Between 2009 and 2013, the museum underwent a major renovation and expansion designed by Mark Cavagnero Associates. The art and history galleries were closed from August 2009 to May 2010, followed by closure of the natural science gallery and education facilities. Skidmore and Merrill designed the environmental graphics program for the renovation and re-branding of the museum. Core support for the capital improvements came from Measure G, a $23.6 million bond initiative passed by Oakland voters in 2002. The museum owns more than 70,000 examples of California art and design, created from the mid-1800s to the present. Painters represented in the art collection include Addie L. Ballou, Albert Bierstadt, George Henry Burgess, Richard Diebenkorn, Maynard Dixon, Childe Hassam, Thomas Hill, Amédée Joullin, William Keith, David Park, Mel Ramos, Granville Redmond, Jules Tavernier, Wayne Thiebaud, the "Society of Six"; the museum holds the personal archives of Dorothea Lange and images by many other noted photographers.
The Museum holds a notable collection of paintings and decorative objects associated with the American Craftsman movement, including a large collection of paintings and decorative art by Arthur Mathews and his wife Lucia Kleinhans Mathews. More than 1.8 million items represent California's history and cultures from the era before Europeans arrived, to the 21st century. The strongest collections are in photography; the collection of the Natural Sciences Department showcases California as a biodiversity hotspot and as the state containing the greatest biological diversity in the nation. It numbers more than 100,000 research specimens and other artifacts, including over 10,000 identified and pinned entomology specimens, over 5,000 specimens in the malacology collection, more than 2,000 bird and mammal study skins and mounts, several thousand bird eggs, more than 3,180 herbarium sheets, over 2,330 freeze-dried exhibit specimens, as well as collections of reptiles and amphibians, fishes and marine invertebrates, fungi.
The Oakland Public Museum opened in the nearby Camron-Stanford House in 1910. Its first curator, Charles P. Wilcomb, gathered a collection representing two aspects of California cultural history, Native Americans and settlers from the East Coast; the Oakland Art Gallery opened in the Oakland Municipal Auditorium in 1916 under the auspices of the Oakland Public Museum, whose director at the time, Robert B. Harshe, was an artist; the Snow Museum of Natural History opened in the Cutting mansion on the shore of Lake Merritt, in 1922. Although the merged Oakland Museum focuses on California art and nature, some "legacy" pieces from outside the state remain, such as a collection of snuff bottles and a carved jade pagoda. Official Oakland Museum of California website Great Buildings website - exterior and interior views
Sather Tower is a bell tower, with clocks on its four faces, on the University of California, Berkeley campus, more known as The Campanile for its resemblance to the Campanile di San Marco in Venice. It is the university's most recognizable symbol. Given by Jane K. Sather in memory of her husband, banker Peder Sather, it is the third-tallest bell-and-clock-tower in the world, its current 61-bell carillon, built around a nucleus of 12 bells given by Jane Sather, can be heard for many miles and supports an extensive program of education in campanology. Sather Tower houses many of the Department of Integrative Biology's fossils because its cool, dry interior is suited for their preservation. Designed by John Galen Howard, founder of the Department of Architecture at the University, Sather Tower was completed in 1914 and opened to the public in 1917. With seven principal floors and an eighth-floor observation deck, at 307 feet it is the third-tallest bell-and-clock-tower in the world, it marked a secondary axis in Howard's original Beaux-Arts campus plan and has been a major point of orientation in every campus master plan since.
Sather Tower houses a full concert carillon, enlarged from the original 12-bell chime installed in October 1917 to 48 bells in 1979 and the current 61 bells in 1983. During the Fall and Spring semesters, the carillon is performed for ten minutes at 7:50 a.m. noon, 6:00 p.m. during weekdays, from 12:00-12:15 p.m. and 6:00-6:10 p.m. on Saturdays, from 2:00-2:45 p.m. on Sundays and intermittently at other times of the year. The bells toll the hour 7 days a week between the hours of 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. At noon on the last day of instruction each semester, "They're Hanging Danny Deever in the Morning" is played. Following that, the carillon is silent until the end of finals. A gift by Evelyn and Jerry Chambers in 1983 endowed the position of University Carillonist as well as practice rooms, practice keyboards, a campanology library, international Carillon Festivals every five years from the anniversary of the Class of 1928. Private and group lessons are offered in carillon through the Department of Music, subject to auditions and with Music majors receiving priority.
Students work on one of Sather Tower's two practice keyboards until they are ready to perform on the carillon itself. An elevator takes visitors 200 feet up to an observation deck with sweeping views of the campus, the surrounding hills, San Francisco, the Golden Gate. Admission is free for UC Berkeley students and faculty, two dollars for seniors, Cal Alumni Association members, persons age 17 and under, four dollars for everyone else; the trumpets of the California Marching Band every year play Cal spirit songs during Big Game week from the top of the tower. Known as the Campanile Concert, the music can be heard throughout the campus and Berkeley, in some cases, all the way to Oakland; the surrounding promenade features a grid of pollarded London Plane trees enjoyed for the sport of slacklining. In 1958 a 67-year-old retired attorney jumped to his death, prompting a daily patrol to guard the platform. In 1961, after an undergraduate suicide, glass was installed to enclose the viewing platform.
These panes were removed in 1979 due to complaints that the panes were muffling the sound of the expanded carillon. In 1981 metal bars were installed; the Berkeley Carillon originated as a twelve bell chime, cast in 1915 by John Taylor & Co of Loughborough, England. The original bells were a gift of Jane K. Sather, who gave the university the Sather Tower, Sather Gate, endowed chairs in History and Classics; the original bells were installed in 1917 and played for the first time on November 3, 1917. The delay between the founding and the installation of the bells was caused by World War I, as well as the US Customs Service in San Francisco; the original bells all bear the inscription "Gift of Jane K. Sather 1914," acknowledging the benefactress for whom the Tower is named; the largest of the original bells bears an inscription by Isaac Flagg, Professor of Greek, Emeritus, "We ring, we chime, we toll, / Lend ye the silent part / Some answer in the heart, / Some echo in the soul." The current bells range from small 19 pound bells to the 10,500 pound "Great Bear Bell," which tolls on the hour and features bas-relief carvings of bears as well as the constellation Ursa Major.
It was soon discovered that these twelve bells were insufficient to play many popular tunes, including the national anthem. During the following decades there were a number of discussions about enlarging the instrument, but nothing came of this need. A thirteenth bell was installed along with a clock in 1926 to strike the hours; this clock and bell had been installed in 1899 in Bacon Hall and were named for William Ashburner, a university regent. In 1978, the Class of 1928 decided, as a fiftieth anniversary gift to the university, to add some bells, they began a campaign among their members. In several days they managed to raise over $150,000 and decided at that point to enlarge the chime to a full carillon of forty-eight bells. Bids were sought, the Fonderie Paccard of Annecy, was awarded the contract; the new Class of 1928 Carillon, which incorporated the original twelve bells, was installed and inaugurated in 1979. An article about the new instrument in the Bulletin of the Guild of Carillonneurs in North America ended by suggesting that another class might at some future date consider adding additional bells and making this concert carillon into a g