Slow motion is an effect in film-making whereby time appears to be slowed down. It was invented by the Austrian priest August Musger in the early 20th century; this style is achieved when each film frame is captured at a rate much faster than it will be played back. When replayed at normal speed, time appears to be moving more slowly. A term for creating slow motion film is overcranking which refers to hand cranking an early camera at a faster rate than normal. Slow motion can be achieved by playing recorded footage at a slower speed; this technique is more applied to video subjected to instant replay than to film. A third technique, becoming common using current computer software post-processing is to fabricate digitally interpolated frames to smoothly transition between the frames that were shot. Motion can be slowed further by interpolating between overcranked frames; the traditional method for achieving super-slow motion is through high-speed photography, a more sophisticated technique that uses specialized equipment to record fast phenomena for scientific applications.
Slow motion is ubiquitous in modern filmmaking. It is used by a diverse range of directors to achieve diverse effects; some classic subjects of slow-motion include: Athletic activities of all kinds, to demonstrate skill and style. To recapture a key moment in an athletic game shown as a replay. Natural phenomena, such as a drop of water hitting a glass. Slow motion can be used for artistic effect, to create a romantic or suspenseful aura or to stress a moment in time. Vsevolod Pudovkin, for instance, used slow motion in a suicide scene in The Deserter, in which a man jumping into a river seems sucked down by the splashing waves. Another example is Face/Off, in which John Woo used the same technique in the movements of a flock of flying pigeons; the Matrix made a distinct success in applying the effect into action scenes through the use of multiple cameras, as well as mixing slow-motion with live action in other scenes. Japanese director Akira Kurosawa was a pioneer using this technique in his 1954 movie Seven Samurai.
American director Sam Peckinpah was another classic lover of the use of slow motion. The technique is associated with explosion effect shots and underwater footage; the opposite of slow motion is fast motion. Cinematographers refer to fast motion as undercranking since it was achieved by cranking a handcranked camera slower than normal, it is used for comic, or occasional stylistic effect. Extreme fast motion is known as time lapse photography; the concept of slow motion may have existed before the invention of the motion picture: the Japanese theatrical form Noh employs slow movements. There are two ways. Both involve a projector. A projector refers to a classical film projector in a movie theater, but the same basic rules apply to a television screen and any other device that displays consecutive images at a constant frame rate. For the purposes of making the above illustration readable a projection speed of 10 frames per second has been selected, in fact film is projected at 24 frame/s making the equivalent slow overcranking rare, but available on professional equipment.
The second type of slow motion is achieved during post production. This is known as digital slow motion; this type of slow motion is achieved by inserting new frames in between frames that have been photographed. The effect is similar to overcranking. Since the necessary frames were never photographed, new frames must be fabricated. Sometimes the new frames are repeats of the preceding frames but more they are created by interpolating between frames.. Many complicated algorithms exist that can track motion between frames and generate intermediate frames within that scene, it is similar to half-speed, is not true slow-motion, but longer display of each frame. Slow motion is used in action films for dramatic effect, as well as the famous bullet-dodging effect, popularized by The Matrix. Formally, this effect is referred to as speed ramping and is a process whereby the capture frame rate of the camera changes over time. For example, if in the course of 10 seconds of capture, the capture frame rate is adjusted from 60 frames per second to 24 frames per second, when played back at the standard film rate of 24 frames per second, a unique time-manipulation effect is achieved.
For example, someone pushing a door open and walking out into the street would appear to start off in slow motion, but in a few seconds within the same shot the person would appear to walk in "realtime". The opposite speed-ramping is done in The Matrix when Neo re-enters the Matrix for the first time to see the Oracle; as he comes out of the warehouse "load-point", the camera zooms into Neo at normal speed but as it gets closer to Neo's face, time seems to slow down visually accentuating Neo pausing and reflecting a moment, alluding to future manipulation of time itself within the Matrix on in the movie. Slow-motion is used in sport broadcasting and its origins in this domain extend right back to the earliest days of television, one example being the European Heavyweight Title in 1939 where Max Schmeling knocked out Adolf Heuser in 71 sec
J. Stuart Blackton
James Stuart Blackton was a British-American film producer and director of the silent era. One of the pioneers of motion pictures, he founded Vitagraph Studios in 1897, he was one of the first filmmakers to use the techniques of stop-motion and drawn animation, is considered a father of American animation, was the first to bring many classic plays and books to the screen. Blackton was the commodore of the Motorboat Club of America and the Atlantic Yacht Club. James Stuart Blackton was born on January 5, 1875, in Sheffield, England, to Henry Blacktin and Jessie Stuart, he changed the family name to Blackton. He worked as a reporter and illustrator for the New York Evening World, performed on stage with conjuror Albert Smith. In 1896, Thomas Edison publicly demonstrated the Vitascope, one of the first film projectors, Blackton was sent to interview Edison and provide drawings of how his films were made. Eager for good publicity, Edison took Blackton to his Black Maria, the special cabin he used to do his filming, created a film on the spot of Blackton doing a lightning portrait of Edison.
The inventor did such a good job selling the art of moviemaking that he talked Blackton and partner Smith into buying a print of the new film, as well as prints of nine other films, plus a Vitascope to show them to paying audiences. The new act was a great success, despite the various things Blackton and Smith were doing between the Edison films; the next step was to start making films of their own. In this way the American Vitagraph Company was born. During this period, J. Stuart Blackton ran the Vitagraph studio, produced and wrote its films, he starred in some of his films, playing the comic strip character "Happy Hooligan" in a series of shorts. Since profits were increasing, Blackton felt that he could try any idea that sprang to his head, in a series of films Blackton developed the concepts of animation; the first of his animation films is The Enchanted Drawing, with a copyright date of 1900 but made at least a year earlier. In this film, Blackton sketches a face, a bottle of wine and a glass, a top hat, a cigar.
During the film he appears to remove the wine, glass and cigar as real objects, the face appears to react. The "animation" here is of the stop-action variety, where the camera is stopped, a single change is made, the camera is started again; the process was first used by others. The transition to stop-motion was accidental, occurred around 1905. According to Albert Smith, one day the crew was filming a complex series of stop-action effects on the roof while steam from the building's generator was billowing in the background. On playing the film back, Smith noticed the odd effect created by the steam puffs scooting across the screen and decided to reproduce it deliberately. A few films use this effect to have toys come to life. In 1906, Blackton directed Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, which uses stop-motion as well as stick puppetry to produce a series of effects. After Blackton's hand draws two faces on a chalkboard, they appear to come to life and engage in antics. Most of the film uses live action effects instead of animation, but this film had a huge effect in stimulating the creation of animated films in America.
In Europe, the same effect was had from The Haunted Hotel, another Vitagraph short directed by Blackton. The Haunted Hotel was live-action, about a tourist spending the night in an inn run by invisible spirits. Most of the effects are live-action, but one scene of a dinner making itself was done using stop-motion, was presented in a tight close-up that allowed budding animators to study it for technique. Blackton made another animated film that has survived, 1907's Lightning Sketches, but it has nothing to add to the art of animation. In 1908 he made the first American film version of Romeo and Juliet, filmed in New York City's Central Park and The Thieving Hand, filmed in Flatbush, Brooklyn. By 1909, Blackton was too absorbed in the business of running Vitagraph to have time for filmmaking, he came to regard his animation experiments in particular as being rather juvenile. Stuart Blackton believed that the US should join the Allies involved in World War I overseas and in 1915 produced The Battle Cry of Peace.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt was one of the film's staunchest supporters and convinced Gen. Leonard Wood to loan Blackton an entire regiment of marines to use as extras. Upon its release, the film generated a controversy rivaling that of Birth of a Nation because it was considered as militaristic propaganda. Blackton left Vitagraph to go independent in 1917, but returned in 1923 as junior partner to Albert Smith. In 1925, Smith sold the company to Warner Brothers for more than $1 million. Blackton did quite well with his share until the Stock Market Crash of 1929, which destroyed his savings and made him bankrupt in 1931, he spent his last years on the road, showing his old films and lecturing about the days of silent movies. His daughter Violet Virginia Blackton married writer Cornell Woolrich in 1930 but their marriage was annulled in 1933, he married actress Evangeline Russell in 1936. Blackton died August 13, 1941, a few days after he suffered a fractured skull after being hit by a car while crossing the street with his son.
At the time of his death he was working for Hal Roach on experiments to improve color process backgrounds. Blackton was interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. Dewey, Donald
Swashbuckler films are a subgenre of the action film genre characterised by swordfighting and adventurous heroic characters, known as swashbucklers. Real historical events feature prominently in the plot, morality is clear-cut, heroic characters are heroic and villains tend to have a code of honour. There is a damsel in distress and a romantic element. Right from the advent of cinema, the silent era was packed with swashbucklers; the most famous of those were the films of Douglas Fairbanks, such as The Mark of Zorro, which defined the genre. The stories came from romantic costume novels those of Alexandre Dumas and Rafael Sabatini. Triumphant, thrilling music was an important part of the formula. There were three great cycles of swashbuckler films: the Douglas Fairbanks period from 1920 to 1929. Richard Lester's Dumas adaptations revived the genre in the 1970s; the term "swashbuckler" originates from boisterous fighters who carried a buckler. "Swashbuckler" was a putdown, used to indicate a poor swordsman who covered his lack of skill with noise and clamour.
Novels, Hollywood, altered the word's connotation to make swashbuckler mean a loudmouthed but good braggart, the hero of the plotline. Jeffrey Richards describes the genre as stylized; the hero is one who "maintains a decent standard of behavior, fights for King and Country, believes in truth and justice, defends the honour of lady". The values are those of a knight and therefore the setting is the eleventh to nineteenth century. Fencing was always a mainstay of this genre, a dramatic duel was a pivotal part of the storyline. Nowhere else is swordplay more apparent than in the swashbuckler film. Famous fencing instructors included Fred Cavens, Jean Heremans and Ralph Faulkner, they all had additional long careers in sport fencing. Erich Wolfgang Korngold won the 1938 Academy Award for his score to The Adventures of Robin Hood; the 1935 Captain Blood was nominated for Music. Korngold was known for his late Romantic compositional style and assigning each character his or her own leitmotif. Alfred Newman wrote the scores for: The Prisoner of Zenda, the 1940 version of The Mark of Zorro, the 1942 The Black Swan.
The 1940 film of The Mark of Zorro was Nominated for an Academy Award for the Best Original Score. Dimitri Tiomkin scored Cyrano de Bergerac. According to film historian David Wallace, "His trademarks, noisy cues, propulsive adventure themes that employed every brass instrument invented, melting wrought melodies accompanying romantic scenes became the stock-in trade of just about every film composer since." Hans Zimmer scored the Pirates of the Caribbean series. Television followed the films, the British television series The Adventures of Robin Hood had produced 143 episodes by 1959 and became an outstanding success both in United Kingdom and the United States. British television production in the genre was prolific, includes The Buccaneers, The Adventures of Sir Lancelot, Sword of Freedom, The Adventures of William Tell, The Adventures of the Scarlet Pimpernel, ITC's The Count of Monte Cristo and George King's Gay Cavalier, Quentin Durward and Sharpe. American television produced two series of Zorro.
Following the film The Mask of Zorro, a television series about a female swashbuckler, the Queen of Swords, aired in 2000. List of adventure films List of action films List of genres Combat in film Samurai film Errol Flynn: Holywood's Greatest Swashbuckler Swashbuckling TV at Screen Online Maureen O'Hara - Cinema Swashbucklers
Silent comedy is a style of film, related to but distinct from mime, invented to bring comedy into the medium of film in the silent film era before a synchronized soundtrack which could include talking was technologically available for the majority of films. Silent comedy is still practiced, albeit much less and it has influenced comedy in modern media as well. Many of the techniques of silent comedy were borrowed from vaudeville traditions with many silent comedies such as Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin getting their start in vaudeville. Silent comedies place heavy emphasis on visual and physical humors including "sight gags", to tell stories and entertain the viewer. Many of these physical gags are exaggerated forms of violence which came to be called "slapstick"; the "prat fall", slipping on a banana peel, getting soaked with water, getting a pie thrown in one's face are all classic examples of slapstick comedy devices. The first silent comedy film is regarded as L'Arroseur Arrosé, directed and produced by Louis Lumière.
Shown to the public on June 10, 1895, it ran for 49 seconds and consisted of a gardener being sprayed in the face with a hose. Most based on a popular comic strip of the time, L'Arroseur Arrosé created a new genre and inspired its audiences; as film shifted from a novelty medium that set out to capture exotic places and everyday actions to an established industry in the early 1900s, films began to tell fabricated stories that were written and shot in a studio. Before 1902, these consisted of films that were no longer than a couple of minutes in length and consisted of one shot. By 1902, filmmakers like George Melies began producing films that were closer to one reel in length of film and utilized multiple shots. During this time period comedy became a genre of its own; the first international silent comedian star came was the French Max Linder who worked for the Pathé Film Company. His character, a mustached, top hat wearing, high class man, excelled in taking simple scenarios and everyday tasks and wreacking havoc.
His style of comedy was imitated numerous silent comedians. Intertitles always served the purpose of introducing characters and setting. Intertitles often conveyed dialogue; these intertitles included illustrations, but most they were black with white text. Conversation could be shown using body language and mouthing. Color silent films are quite rare. Seven Chances is an exception, with opening scenes filmed in early Technicolor. Mack Sennett and Hal Roach were two of the most famous producers of silent comedies. Famous actors and teams from this era are now legendary: Ben Turpin, Keystone Cops, Mabel Normand, Edna Purviance, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, Harry Langdon, Charley Chase, Stan Laurel, along with many others. In the early years of "talkie" films a few actors continued to act silently for comedic effect, most famously Charlie Chaplin, whose last great "silent" comedies City Lights and Modern Times were both made in the sound age. Another late example was Harpo Marx.
Another important legacy of silent film comedy was the humor in animated cartoons. As live-action comedy moved towards a focus on the verbal humor of Abbott and Costello and Groucho Marx, animated cartoons took up the entire range of slapstick gags, frenetic chase scenes, visual puns, exaggerated facial expressions seen in silent comedies; these devices were most pronounced in the Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies cartoons from Warner Bros. directed by Bob Clampett, Chuck Jones and Friz Freleng and in the MGM Cartoons of Tex Avery, the Tom and Jerry cartoons of William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, of Harman and Ising. An early television series that featured exaggerated visual humor was the Ernie Kovacs program. During the 1960s and 1970s, several films made homages or references to the silent era of film comedy. It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World performers and gags form the era and Blake Edwards' The Great Race and Mel Brooks' Silent Movie were full-length tributes. Peter Bogdanovich's What's Up, Doc? featured slapstick gags and Keystone-style chase scenes, ideas that prefigured much of the humor in The Blues Brothers and Airplane!
In the decade. An episode of The Brady Bunch featured the family making a silent comedy filled with pie-throwing. Few feature films today exploit the genre of silent comedy. Comedy teams will use a silent character for comedic effect; the most consistent—and the most famous—is Teller from Penn & Teller. Rowan Atkinson had huge success in the 1990s with the character Mr. Bean. Shaun the Sheep is a British stop motion animated children's television series which uses silent comedy. However, techniques employed by silent comedy, continue to influence talkie comedies through silent comedy's development of the older art of slapstick and through artistic reference to the trademark gags of famous silent comedians. In 2010, India's first silent comedy series, Gutur Gu started SAB TV, became a hit. Kerr, Walter; the Silent Clowns. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-46907-0
Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most
In comedy, a visual gag or sight gag is anything which conveys its humour visually without words being used at all. The gag may involve an unexpected occurrence; the humor is caused by alternative interpretations of the goings-on. Visual gags are used in magic and acting on television or movies; the most common type of visual gag is based on multiple interpretations of a series of events. This type is used in the 1935 Alfred Hitchcock film The 39 Steps. Lead actor Robert Donat was kidnapping actress Madeleine Carroll and they were handcuffed; when they checked into an inn, the innkeeper assumed that they were passionate lovers because of the handcuffs. The film used dialogue. Another visual gag is a switched image at the beginning of a film. A subsequent view of the scene shows something not viewed before. Switched movement may be the gag, such as Charlie Chaplin in The Pawnshop. Chaplin fights with his coworker and punches at him once, their boss walks in mid-swing and Chaplin changes the motion to act like he was dropping to his knees to scrub the floor.
Noel Carroll established the most influential taxonomy of sight gags, breaking down the varieties into six types, two of which are enumerated below. Mutual Interference: The audience is aware of the on-screen situation, but a character comically misunderstands Mimed Metaphor: A variety of virtual simile an object may be treated as if it is a different object or be used in an unconventional way, such as acting like a doughnut is a barbell or using a tuba as an umbrella holder. There are numerous examples in cinema history of directors who based most of the humor in their films on visual gags to the point of using no or minimal dialogue. Visual gags began in live theater; the first known use of a visual gag in a film was in the Lumière brothers' 1895 short, L'Arroseur Arrosé, in which a gardener watering his plants becomes the subject of a boy's prank. An early pioneer in visual gags was Georges Méliès; the filmmaker experimented with techniques in the then-new film media creating techniques to trick viewers.
Vaudeville actors used gags in their routines. A classic vaudeville visual gag was for two actors to mirror each other's actions around a prop. Visual gags are considered a hallmark of the genre. In silent films, the actors in the mirror bit performed in silence with no music playing. Comedians including Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd and the Marx Brothers used visual humour because the technology used to record voices in film did not yet exist; the differences between people are part of the comic duos thin and fat actors are used such as Abbott and Costello and Laurel and Hardy. The New York Times cites the fourth Gilligan's Island episode, "Goodnight, Sweet Skipper", as a classic American sight gag; the castaways were trying to contact civilization with a radio. In the episode, Skipper can recall only how he converted the radio into a transmitter in World War II when he was sleepwalking. After Skipper was unsuccessful, Gilligan got it to work by pounding on the radio. Gilligan retrieved Skipper and demonstrated how he pounded on the radio, causing the guts of the radio to fall out.
Their rescue was foiled. Joke Wile E. Coyote and The Road Runner
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.