Martin Cooper (inventor)
Martin "Marty" Cooper is an American engineer. He is a pioneer in the wireless communications industry in radio spectrum management, with eleven patents in the field. While at Motorola in the 1970s, Cooper invented the first handheld cellular mobile phone in 1973 and led the team that developed it and brought it to market in 1983, he is considered the "father of the cell phone" and is cited as the first person in history to make a handheld cellular phone call in public. Cooper is co-founder of numerous communications companies with his wife and business partner Arlene Harris. Cooper sits on committees supporting the U. S. Federal Communications Commission and the United States Department of Commerce. Martin was born in Chicago to Ukrainian Jewish Immigrants, he graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1950. After graduating he served as a submarine officer during the Korean War. In 1957, he earned his master's degree from IIT in electrical engineering and in 2004 received an honorary doctorate degree from IIT.
He serves on the university's board of trustees. Cooper left his first job at Teletype Corporation in Chicago in 1954 and joined Motorola, Inc. as a senior development engineer in the mobile equipment group. He developed products including the first cellular-like portable handheld police radio system, produced for the Chicago police department in 1967. By the early 1970s, Cooper headed up Motorola's communications systems division. Here he conceived of the first portable cellular phone in 1973 and led the 10-year process of bringing it to market. Car phones had been in limited use in large U. S. cities since the 1930s but Cooper championed cellular telephony for more general personal, portable communications. He believed the cellular phone should be a "personal telephone – something that would represent an individual so you could assign a number. While it has been stated Cooper's vision for the device was inspired by Captain James T. Kirk using his Communicator on the television show Star Trek, Cooper himself said that his actual inspiration was Dick Tracy's wrist radio.
Top management at Motorola supported Cooper's mobile phone concept, investing $100 million between 1973 and 1993 before any revenues were realized. Cooper assembled a team that assembled a product in less than 90 days; that original handset, called the DynaTAC 8000x weighed 2.5 pounds, measured 10 inches long and was dubbed "the brick" or "the shoe" phone. A substantial part of the DynaTAC was the battery which weighed four to five times more than a modern cell phone; the phone had only 20 minutes of talk time before requiring a 10-hour recharge but according to Cooper, "The battery lifetime wasn't a problem because you couldn't hold that phone up for that long!" By 1983 and after four iterations, the handset was reduced to half its original weight. Cooper is the lead inventor named on "radio telephone system" filed on October 17, 1973, with the U. S. Patent Office and issued as U. S. Patent 3,906,166. John Francis Mitchell, Motorola's Chief of Portable Communication Products and the engineers who worked for Cooper and Mitchell are named on the patent.
On April 3, 1973, Cooper and Mitchell demonstrated two working phones to the media and to passers-by prior to walking into a scheduled press conference at the New York Hilton in midtown Manhattan. Standing on Sixth avenue near the Hilton, Cooper made the first handheld cellular phone call in public from the prototype DynaTAC; the call connected him to a base station Motorola had installed on the roof of the Burlington House and into the AT&T land-line telephone system. Reporters and onlookers watched as Cooper dialed the number of his chief competitor Dr. Joel S. Engel at AT&T. "Joel, this is Marty. I'm calling you from a cell phone, a real handheld portable cell phone." That public demonstration landed the DynaTAC on the July 1973 cover of Popular Science Magazine. As Cooper recalls from the experience: "I made numerous calls, including one where I crossed the street while talking to a New York radio reporter – one of the most dangerous things I have done in my life." That first cell phone began a fundamental technology and communications market shift to making phone calls to a person instead of to a place.
Bell Labs had introduced the idea of cellular communications in 1947, but their first systems were limited to car phones which required 30 pounds of equipment in the trunk. Motorola gained Federal Communications Commission approval for cellular licenses to be assigned to competing entities and prevented an AT&T monopoly on cellular service. Cooper worked at Motorola for 29 years, he led the creation of trunked mobile radio, quartz crystals, liquid crystal displays, piezo-electric components, Motorola A. M. stereo technology and various mobile and portable two-way radio product lines. Cooper rose to Corporate Director of Research and Development at Motorola. In addition to his work on the mobile cellular phone, he was instrumental in expanding the technology of pagers from use within a single building to use across multiple cities. Cooper worked with inventor Clifford L. Rose to fix a flaw in quartz crystals used in Motorola's radios which encouraged the Company to mass-produce the first crystals used in wrist watches.
Cooper and his wife Arlene Harris founded Dyna LLC in 1986 as a home base for
Star Trek: Nemesis
Star Trek: Nemesis is a 2002 American science fiction film directed by Stuart Baird and based on the franchise of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the tenth film in the Star Trek film series, as well as the fourth and last to star the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation, it was written by John Logan from a story developed by Logan, Brent Spiner, producer Rick Berman. In the film, the crew of the USS Enterprise-E are forced to deal with a threat to the United Federation of Planets from a Reman clone of Captain Picard named Shinzon, who has taken control of the Romulan Star Empire in a coup d'état. Principal photography for the film took place from November 2001 to March 2002. Jerry Goldsmith composed the film's score; the film was released in North America on December 13, 2002, by Paramount Pictures, received mixed reviews, with publications criticizing it for being the least successful in the Star Trek franchise. The film went on to earn $67 million worldwide. Following the failure of the film and the cancellation of Star Trek: Enterprise and Erik Jendresen began development on the unproduced Star Trek: The Beginning.
Four years Viacom split from CBS Corporation, Paramount rebooted the film series in 2009 with Star Trek, directed by J. J. Abrams. On Romulus, members of the Romulan Imperial Senate debate whether to accept the terms of peace and alliance with the Reman rebel leader Shinzon; the Remans are a slave race of the Romulan Empire, used as cannon fodder. A faction of the military is in support of Shinzon, but the Praetor and Senate are opposed to an alliance. After rejecting the motion, the Praetor and remaining senators are disintegrated by a device left in the room by a military-aligned senator. Meanwhile, the crew of the USS Enterprise prepare to bid farewell to first officer Commander William Riker and Counselor Deanna Troi, who are being married on Betazed. En route, they discover a positronic energy reading on a planet in the Kolaran system near the Romulan Neutral Zone. Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Lieutenant Commander Worf, Lieutenant Commander Data land on Kolarus III and discover the remnants of an android resembling Data.
When the android is reassembled it introduces itself as B-4. The crew deduce it to be a less advanced, early version of Data. Vice Admiral Kathryn Janeway contacts Picard and orders the Enterprise on a diplomatic mission to nearby Romulus. Janeway explains that the Romulan Empire has been taken over in a military coup by Shinzon, who says he wants peace with the Federation and to bring freedom to Remus. On arrival, they learn Shinzon is a clone of Picard, secretly created by the Romulans to plant a high-ranking spy into the Federation; the project was abandoned when Shinzon was still a child and he was left on Remus to die as a slave. After many years, Shinzon became a leader of the Remans, constructed his armed flagship, the Scimitar. Diplomatic efforts go well, but the Enterprise crew discover that the Scimitar is producing low levels of thalaron radiation, what had been used to kill the Imperial Senate and is deadly to nearly all life forms. There are unexpected attempts to communicate with the Enterprise computers, Shinzon himself violates Troi's mind through the telepathy of his Reman viceroy.
Dr. Crusher discovers that Shinzon is aging because of the process used to clone him, the only possible means to stop it is a transfusion of Picard's blood. Shinzon kidnaps Picard from the Enterprise, as well as B-4, having planted the android on the nearby planet to lure Picard to the Border. However, Data reveals he has swapped places with B-4, rescues Picard, returns with Picard to the Enterprise, they have now seen enough of the Scimitar to know that Shinzon plans to use the warship to invade the Federation using its thalaron-radiation generator as a weapon, with the eradication of all life on Earth being his priority. The Enterprise races back to Federation space but is ambushed by the Scimitar in the Bassen Rift, a region that prevents any subspace communications. Two Romulan Warbirds come to the aid of the Enterprise, not wanting to be complicit in Shinzon's plans, but Shinzon destroys one and disables the other. Recognizing the need to stop the Scimitar at all costs, Picard orders the Enterprise to ram it.
The collision leaves both ships damaged and destroys most of the Scimitar's primary weapons. Shinzon orders the Scimitar to back away activates the thalaron weapon. Picard boards the Scimitar to face Shinzon alone, kills him by impaling him on a metal strut. Data jumps the distance between the two ships with a personal transporter to get Picard back to the Enterprise and sacrifices himself when he fires his phaser at the thalaron generator, destroying the Scimitar; the crew mourn Data, the surviving Romulan commander offers them her gratitude for saving the Empire. On the Enterprise, now back at Earth drydock for extensive repairs, Picard bids farewell to the newly promoted Captain Riker, leaving to command the USS Titan and begin a possible peace negotiation mission with the Romulans. Picard meets with B-4, discovers that Data had downloaded the engrams of his neural net into B-4's positronic matrix before he boarded the Scimitar. Picard leaves B4's quarters walking down a corridor smiling, knowing that one day, Data will return.
Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard Jonathan Frakes as Commander / Captain William T. Riker Brent Spiner as Lieutenant Commander Data / B-4 LeVar Burton as Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Commander Worf Gates McFadden as Doctor Beverly Crusher Marina Sirtis as Counselor Deanna Troi-Riker. According to Sirtis, she was "ecstatic" about the role Troi plays in the m
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine is an American science fiction television series created by Rick Berman and Michael Piller. It aired from January 3, 1993, to June 2, 1999, in syndication, spanning 176 episodes over seven seasons; the fourth series in the Star Trek franchise, it served as the third sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it is based on the eponymous space station Deep Space Nine, located adjacent to a wormhole connecting Federation territory to the Gamma Quadrant on the far side of the Milky Way galaxy. Following the success of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Paramount Pictures commissioned a new series set in the Star Trek fictional universe. In creating Deep Space Nine and Piller drew upon plot themes developed in The Next Generation, namely the conflict between two alien species, the Cardassians and the Bajorans. Deep Space Nine was the first Star Trek series to be created without the direct involvement of franchise creator Gene Roddenberry, the first set on a space station rather than a traveling starship, the first to have a person of color—Commander Benjamin Sisko —as its central character.
Changes were made to the series over the course of its seven-year run. For the third season, the starship USS Defiant was introduced to enable more stories away from the space station, while the fourth saw the introduction of Worf from The Next Generation, as a recurring character; the final three seasons dealt with a recurring story arc, that of the war between the Federation and an invasive Gamma Quadrant power, the Dominion. Although not as popular as The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine was critically well-received. Following the success of Deep Space Nine, Paramount commissioned Berman and Brannon Braga to produce Star Trek: Voyager, which began in 1995. During Deep Space Nine's run, various episode novelisations and tie-in video games were produced; some video games included Harbinger in 1996, The Fallen in 2000, Dominion Wars. Deep Space Nine centers on the Cardassian space station Terok Nor. After the Bajorans have liberated themselves from the long and brutal Cardassian Occupation, the United Federation of Planets is invited by the Bajoran Provisional Government to administer joint control of the station, which orbits Bajor.
The station is renamed Deep Space Nine, a Starfleet crew is assigned to manage it. Shortly after their arrival, the Starfleet crew discovers a stable wormhole in Bajoran space leading from the Alpha Quadrant to the Gamma Quadrant, the station is moved to a strategic position near the wormhole's entrance to safeguard it from the Cardassians. Deep Space Nine and Bajor become a center for exploration, interstellar trade, political maneuvering, open conflict. Threats come not only from Cardassians and Romulans from the Alpha Quadrant, but from the Dominion, an alliance of alien species from the Gamma Quadrant that take up arms alongside the Cardassians against the Federation and its allies starting in Season 3. Deep Space Nine becomes a key military base for the Federation in the Dominion War, is assigned the starship USS Defiant to aid in its protection. According to co-creator Berman, he and Piller considered setting the new series on a colony planet, but they felt a space station would appeal more to viewers, would save the money required for a land-based show's on-location shooting.
They did not want the show set aboard a starship because Star Trek: The Next Generation was still in production, in Berman's words, it "seemed ridiculous to have two shows—two casts of characters—that were off going where no man has gone before."While its predecessors tended to restore the status quo ante at the end of each episode, allowing out-of-order viewing, DS9 contains story arcs that span episodes and seasons. One installment builds upon earlier ones, with several cliffhanger endings. Michael Piller considered this one of the series' best qualities, allowing repercussions of past episodes to influence future events and forcing characters to "learn that actions have consequences." This trend was noticeable toward the series finale, by which time the show was intentionally scripted as a serial. Unlike Star Trek: The Next Generation, interpersonal conflicts were prominently featured in DS9; this was at the suggestion of Star Trek: The Next Generation's writers, many of whom wrote for DS9, who felt that Roddenberry's prohibition of conflicts within the crew restricted their ability to write compelling dramatic stories.
In Piller's words, "People who come from different places—honorable, noble people—will have conflicts". The setting of the series—a space station rather than a starship—fostered a rich assortment of recurring characters, it was not unheard of for "secondary" characters to play as much of a role in an episode as the regular cast, if not more. For example, "The Wire" focused entirely on Elim Garak, while "Treachery and the Great River" featured Weyoun, with a secondary plot centered on Nog. "It's Only a Paper Moon" relied on holographic crooner Vic Fontaine to carry the story. Several Cardassian characters figure prominently in DS9 Gul Dukat, a senior member of the Cardassian military involved in the occupation of Bajor, played by Marc Alaimo. A complex character, Dukat undergoes several transformations before resolving as a profoundly evil character, Sisko's archenemy, by the show's conclusion. A StarTrek.com article about Star Trek's greatest villains described Gul Dukat as "possibly the most complex and fully-developed bad guy in Star Trek history".
Elim Garak, p
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient. A thermometer has two important elements: a temperature sensor in which some change occurs with a change in temperature. Thermometers are used in technology and industry to monitor processes, in meteorology, in medicine, in scientific research; some of the principles of the thermometer were known to Greek philosophers of two thousand years ago. The modern thermometer evolved from the thermoscope with the addition of a scale in the early 17th century and standardisation through the 17th and 18th centuries. While an individual thermometer is able to measure degrees of hotness, the readings on two thermometers cannot be compared unless they conform to an agreed scale. Today there is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers; the most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990.
It extends from 0.65 K to 1,358 K. Various authors have credited the invention of the thermometer to Hero of Alexandria; the thermometer was not a single invention, but a development. Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air and contract and described a demonstration in which a closed tube filled with air had its end in a container of water; the expansion and contraction of the air caused the position of the water/air interface to move along the tube. Such a mechanism was used to show the hotness and coldness of the air with a tube in which the water level is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the gas; these devices were developed by several European scientists in the 16th and 17th centuries, notably Galileo Galilei. As a result, devices were shown to produce this effect reliably, the term thermoscope was adopted because it reflected the changes in sensible heat; the difference between a thermoscope and a thermometer is. Though Galileo is said to be the inventor of the thermometer, what he produced were thermoscopes.
The first clear diagram of a thermoscope was published in 1617 by Giuseppe Biancani: the first showing a scale and thus constituting a thermometer was by Robert Fludd in 1638. This was a vertical tube, closed by a bulb of air at the top, with the lower end opening into a vessel of water; the water level in the tube is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the air, so it is what we would now call an air thermometer. The first person to put a scale on a thermoscope is variously said to be Francesco Sagredo or Santorio Santorio in about 1611 to 1613; the word thermometer first appeared in 1624 in La Récréation Mathématique by J. Leurechon, who describes one with a scale of 8 degrees; the word comes from the Greek words θερμός, meaning "hot" and μέτρον, meaning "measure". The above instruments suffered from the disadvantage that they were barometers, i.e. sensitive to air pressure. In 1629, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, a student of Galileo, published what is the first description and illustration of a sealed liquid-in-glass thermometer.
It is described as having a bulb at the bottom of a sealed tube filled with brandy. The tube has a numbered scale. Delmedigo does not claim to have invented this instrument, nor does he name anyone else as its inventor. In about 1654 Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany produced such an instrument, the first modern-style thermometer, dependent on the expansion of a liquid, independent of air pressure. Many other scientists experimented with various designs of thermometer. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique—there was no standard scale. In 1665 Christiaan Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards, in 1694 Carlo Renaldini proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In 1701, Isaac Newton proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and body temperature. In 1714 Dutch scientist and inventor Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first reliable thermometer, using mercury instead of alcohol and water mixtures.
In 1724 he proposed a temperature scale. He could do this because he manufactured thermometers, using mercury for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption. In 1742, Anders Celsius proposed a scale with zero at the boiling point and 100 degrees at the freezing point of water, though the scale which now bears his name has them the other way around. French entomologist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur invented an alcohol thermometer and temperature scale in 1730 that proved to be less reliable than Fahrenheit's mercury thermometer; the first physician that put thermometer measurements to clinical practice was Herman Boerhaave. In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt invented a clinical thermometer that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. In 1999, Dr. Francesco Pompei of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal artery thermometer, a non-
A Pocket PC known by Microsoft as a'Windows Mobile Classic device', was a kind of personal digital assistant that runs the Windows Mobile operating system. It has some of the abilities of modern desktop PCs; as of 2010, thousands of applications existed for handhelds adhering to the Microsoft Pocket PC specification, many of which were freeware. Some of these devices are mobile phones. Microsoft-compliant Pocket PCs can be used with many add-ons such as GPS receivers, barcode readers, RFID readers, cameras. In 2007, with the advent of Windows Mobile 6, Microsoft dropped the name Pocket PC in favor of a new naming scheme: Windows Mobile Classic: devices without an integrated phone; the Pocket PC was an evolution from prior calculator-sized computers. Keystroke-programmable calculators which could do simple business and scientific applications were available by the 1970s. In 1982, Hewlett Packard's HP-75 incorporated a 1-line text display, an alphanumeric keyboard, HP BASIC language and some basic PDA abilities.
The HP 95LX, HP 100LX and HP 200LX series packed a PC-compatible MS-DOS computer with graphics display and QWERTY keyboard into a palmtop format. The HP OmniGo 100 and 120 used a pen and graphics interface on DOS-based PC/GEOS, but was not sold in the United States; the HP 300LX built a palmtop computer on the Windows CE operating system, but not until the form factor and features of the Palm platform were adapted that it was named the Pocket PC. Prior to the release of Windows Mobile 2003, third-party software was developed using Microsoft's eMbedded Visual Tools, eMbedded Visual Basic and eMbedded Visual C. eVB programs can be converted easily to NS Basic/CE. Or to Basic4ppc. According to Microsoft, the Pocket PC is "a handheld device that enables users to store and retrieve e-mail, appointments, play multimedia files, exchange text messages with Windows Live Messenger, browse the Web, more." From a technical standpoint, "Pocket PC" is a Microsoft specification that sets various hardware and software requirements for mobile devices bearing the "Pocket PC" label.
For instance, any device, to be classified as a Pocket PC must: Run Microsoft's Windows Mobile, Pocket PC edition Come bundled with a specific suite of applications in ROMNote: the name Windows Mobile includes both the Windows CE operating system and a suite of basic applications along with a specified user interfaceInclude a touchscreen Include a directional pad or touchpad Include a set of hardware application buttons Be based on an ARM version 4 compatible CPU, Intel XScale CPU, MIPS CPU or SH3 CPU. The Pocket PC/Windows Mobile OS was superseded by Windows Phone on February 15, 2010 when the latter was announced at Mobile World Congress that year. No existing hardware was supported for a Windows Phone 7 upgrade. Additionally, not a single one of the thousands of apps available for Windows Mobile would run unaltered on Windows Phone; the first Windows Mobile 6.5 device was first shown on September 2009. Leaked ROMs surfaced in July 2009 for specific devices; the generic ROM images for Mobile 6.5 are available as part of the distributed and downloadable development kit.
Several phones running Windows Mobile 6.1 can be updated to Windows Mobile 6.5. Microsoft's Windows Mobile 6.1 was announced on April 1, 2008 and introduced instant messaging-like texting. Windows Mobile 6.1 was built upon Windows CE 5. Microsoft's Windows Mobile 6, internally code-named'Crossbow', was released by Microsoft on February 12, 2007. Mobile 6 was still based on Windows CE 5 and was just a face-lift of Windows Mobile 5. With Mobile 6 came Microsoft's new naming conventions and devices were no longer called Pocket PCs: devices with no phone abilities were named Windows Mobile Classic, devices with phone abilities were named Windows Mobile Professional. Windows Mobile 5 for Pocket PC was based on Windows CE 5 and contained many fixes and improvements over Windows Mobile 2003. Pocket PCs running prior versions of the operating system stored user-installed applications and data in RAM, which meant that if the battery was depleted the device would lose all of its data. Windows Mobile 5.0 solved this problem by storing all user data in persistent memory, leaving the RAM to be used only for running applications, as it would be on a desktop computer.
As a result, Windows Mobile 5.0 Pocket PCs had more flash memory, less RAM, compared to earlier devices. Windows Mobile 2003 consisted of the Windows CE. NET 4.2 operating system bundled with scaled-down versions of many popular desktop applications, including Microsoft Outlook, Internet Explorer, Excel, Windows Media Player, others. Windows Mobile 2003 Second Edition added native landscape, square screen and VGA support as well as other fixes and changes to those features present in the original release of Windows Mobile 2003. Pocket PC 2000 was launched April 2000, ran Windows CE 3.0. Pocket PC 2000 featured a mobile version of Microsoft Office, a chief feature being the ability to password-protect Excel files. Pocket PC 2002 was launched October 2001, was powered by Windows CE 3.0, as with its predecessor. Some Pocket PC 2002 devices were sold as "Phone Editions", which included cell phone functionality in addition to the PDA abilities. Before the Pocket PC brand was launched, there were other Windows-based machines of the same form factor made by HP, others called Palm-size
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Wah Ming Chang was a Chinese-American designer and artist. With the encouragement of his adopted father, James Blanding Sloan, he began exhibiting his prints and watercolors at the age of seven to favorable reviews. Chang worked with Sloan on several theatre productions and in the 1940s, they created their own studio to produce films, he is known in life for his sculpture and the props he designed for Star Trek: The Original Series, including the tricorder and communicator. The Chang family moved from Honolulu, Hawaii to San Francisco and about 1920 opened the Ho-Ho Tea Room on Sutter Street, which became a favorite venue for the city's Bohemian artists. Wah-Ming's mother, Fai Sue Chang, was a graduate of Berkeley's California School of Arts and Crafts, where she specialized in fashion design and etching; when she died in 1928, her husband persuaded Wah Ming Chang's art teacher and family friends, the respected printmaker and theatre designer, James Blanding Sloan and his wife Mildred Taylor, to become his son's legal guardians.
Sloan exhibited Wah Ming's etchings and watercolors in public exhibitions as early as 1925 to favorable reviews in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the largest art colony on the Pacific Coast, Carmel-by-the-Sea. The child became part of Sloan's family, traveled in 1926 to Taos, New Mexico for the on-site study of American Indian culture, in 1928 displayed his block prints in joint exhibitions with Sloan at the prestigious Philadelphia Print Club and in Pasadena, California, he became a valued assistant in several of Sloan's marionette theatres as well as in productions for the Hollywood Bowl Ballet and the “Cavalcade of Texas.” In the mid-1940s Chang formed a joint studio business with Sloan, The East-West Film Company, produced such memorable films as Pick a Bale of Cotton and the controversial anti-war short, The Way of Peace, created in part with elaborate miniature sets and puppets in stop-motion. For Star Trek, Chang built costumes for the Gorn and Balok's false image, he created tribbles by using artificial fur stuffed with foam, the Neanderthals in "The Galileo Seven", the Romulan Bird of Prey, the Vulcan harp first seen in "Charlie X" and seen in "The Conscience of the King", "Amok Time", "The Way to Eden".
Chang is mistakenly credited with having created the phaser. Jefferies' phaser was not accepted, Chang redesigned it for him. Chang's communicator design has been credited as an inspiration for modern flip-type cell phones, his Balok effigy was used in "The Corbomite Maneuver" Star Trek episode — and at the conclusion of many closing credits sequences of the series. His other film credits include sculpting the maquette of Pinocchio, used as the reference for the animators of the classic Walt Disney feature, articulated deer models for Bambi, he designed the spectacular headdress worn by Elizabeth Taylor in the feature film Cleopatra. Other work included building the title object from 1960s movie The Time Machine. Chang's firm, Project Unlimited, Inc. would win Academy Award recognition for its special effects, but Chang was not listed on the award, due to the way the credits were submitted to the Academy. Film historian Bob Burns reported. "He was the most humble, gentle man I've known in my life," Burns said.
"He never boasted about anything he did, he just did remarkable stuff."In addition, Chang built the artificial creature in "The Architects of Fear" episode of the original The Outer Limits, some props for the original Planet of the Apes film, the frightening skeleton animated in The Power, the flying machine in The Master of the World, the dinosaurs in Land of the Lost. Chang's work as a stop-motion animator through the effects company Centaur Productions, operated with fellow artist Gene Warren, has been enjoyed for years in the cartoons Hardrock and Joe and Suzy Snowflake. In life, Chang moved to Carmel-by-the-Sea, where he produced sculptures of wildlife. In 1941, 31-year-old Wah Ming was diagnosed with polio after suffering flu-like symptoms. After an extended stay at the Twin Oaks Sanitarium hospital in San Gabriel and treatments that included confinement in an iron lung, he would walk again, but for the rest of his life, never had enough strength in his lungs to be able to blow up a balloon.
While his earlier creative efforts were consumed with special effects and film related wonders, his more mature artistic creations were delightful bronze sculptures and whimsical statuary from a life-sized Dennis the Menace, commissioned by creator Hank Ketcham and displayed in Dennis Park in Monterey, California, to the smaller statues such as Girl and Frog, owned by a private collector in Los Angeles. Chang produced the educational 1970 short film Dinosaurs: The Terrible Lizards, a stop-motion feature which discussed life in the Mesozoic Era, it would gain a "Revised Edition" in 1986. Chang appeared in the documentary The Fantasy Film Worlds of George Pal. Mr. Chang was featured in the documentary Time Machine: The Journey Back and directed by Clyde Lucas. Chang produced bronze sculptures in collaboration with Henry "Bob" Jones after meeting at Disney. Riley, Gail Blasser. Wah Ming Chang: Artist and Master of Special Effects. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publish