Circuit de Monaco
Circuit de Monaco is a street circuit laid out on the city streets of Monte Carlo and La Condamine around the harbour of the principality of Monaco. It is commonly referred to as Monte Carlo because it is largely inside the Monte Carlo neighbourhood of Monaco. The circuit is used on two weekends in the month of May of each year to host the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and Formula E Monaco ePrix or Monaco Historic Grand Prix alternating yearly. Formula Ones respective feeder series over the years – Formula Two, Formula 3000, the inaugural race was held in 1929 and was won by William Grover-Williams in a Bugatti. To date, only three drivers have won a race at the Circuit. Louis Chiron did it at the non-championship 1931 Monaco Grand Prix,82 years later, the third driver to do so was Stéphane Richelmi at the sprint race of the 2014 Monaco GP2 Series round. The building of the circuit takes six weeks, and the dismantling after the race three weeks. The race circuit has many elevation shifts, tight corners and is narrow and these features make it perhaps the most demanding track in Formula One racing.
Although the course has changed many times during its history, it is considered the ultimate test of driving skills in Formula One. It contains both the slowest corner in Formula One and one of the quickest, due to the tight and twisty nature of the circuit, it favours the skill of the drivers over the power of the cars. However, there is very little overtaking as the course is so narrow, nelson Piquet likened racing round the course to riding a bicycle around your living room. Prior to 1987, the number of starting the race was limited to 20. The famous tunnel section is said to be difficult for drivers to cope due to the quick switch from light to dark, back to light again. As a result, race outcomes tend to be decided by grid positions as well as pit strategies, several attempts have been made to improve cramped conditions in the pit garages. The circuit is generally recognised to be safe than other circuits used for Formula One. Driver and former winner Michael Schumacher stated before the 2012 Grand Prix that the risk is justifiable once a year.
If it were not already an existing Grand Prix, it would not be permitted to be added to the Formula One schedule, in January 2009, the circuit was voted top of the Seven Sporting Wonders of the World in a poll of 3,500 British sports fans. The lap starts with a sprint up Boulevard Albert Ier
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.6 million, the capital of Piedmont is Turin. The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i. e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains”. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population and it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a very small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43. 3% mountainous, along with areas of hills. Piedmont is the second largest of Italys 20 regions, after Sicily and it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy’s largest river. The Po collects all the waters provided within the semicircle of mountains which surround the region on three sides, from the highest peaks the land slopes down to hilly areas, and to the upper, and to the lower great Padan Plain. 7. 6% of the territory is considered protected area.
There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley, Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi. They were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was repeatedly invaded by the Burgundians, the Goths, Lombards, Franks. In the 9th–10th centuries there were incursions by the Magyars. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marks, in 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont to their main territory of Savoy, with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria, the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, and Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont.
A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops, in June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont. It fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802, in the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, and furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italys unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers
Formula 3 Euro Series
Lewis Hamilton,2008 Formula One champion with the McLaren team, won the Euro Series drivers title in 2005. EuroSeries champions Paul di Resta, Romain Grosjean and Nico Hülkenberg have driven in Formula 1, other Formula One drivers who raced in the series include 4-time world champion Sebastian Vettel, Adrian Sutil, Kamui Kobayashi and Nico Rosberg. In 2012, the FIA announced that the series would be discontinued and incorporated into the FIA European Formula Three Championship in 2013, the concept of a European Formula Three Championship dates back to 1975, with a five-race series known as the F3 European Cup. Races were held at Monaco, the Nürburgring in Germany, Anderstorp in Sweden, Monza in Italy, the series title was won by Australian Larry Perkins driving a Ralt-Ford run by Team Cowangie. In 1976, the Cup evolved into a full-scale, ten-round European F3 Championship, among its champions were notable future Formula One drivers, such as Riccardo Patrese Alain Prost, and the late Michele Alboreto.
This lower-status series was formed by ADAC, the F3V and a few key German teams that not to participate in the new Euro Series. BSRs owner Bertram Schäfer acts as the series promoter, the FFSA and DMSB hold joint responsibility for determining the sporting regulations of the Euro Series. The organisation and promotion of the championship is handled by ITR, the championship consists of ten events, each comprising two races, held at a variety of European circuits. Approximately 50–60% of these occur at circuits in Germany, while the other events are held in various countries, including Great Britain, France. Most rounds are shared with the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, notable venues have included Pau and Le Mans in France, Brands Hatch in Britain, Circuit de Catalunya in Spain, Estoril in Portugal, Adria in Italy, and Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium. From 2004 onwards, the Masters of Formula 3, held at Zandvoort in the Netherlands, was included as a round of the championship, in 2005, the series visited Monaco as a Grand Prix support event, which was the first Formula Three event at Monaco since 1997.
This famous motor-racing venue has long-standing associations with Formula Three, as in most F3 championships, the Italian company Dallara is the dominant chassis supplier. It was originally planned to restrict entry to two-car teams, in most Formula Three championships and single-car entries are common. In an effort to minimise costs, Formula Three chassis regulations permit major updates only periodically, there is a rookie classification system with a Rookie of the Year title for drivers who have not previously competed in this championship. The Drivers Trophy was introduced in 2006 to provide a classification system, eligibility for this B class was restricted to drivers who were not more than 22 years old at the start of the season. This class is no longer in use in 2007, tyre usage is restricted to three sets per car for the entire race weekend. There is no limit on the use of wet-weather tyres, as is the case with most racing disciplines outside Formula One, tyre warming devices are not permitted.
An unauthorised engine change during the course of a race weekend invokes a ten-place penalty on the starting grid, each race weekend begins on Friday, with one 60-minute practice session and a qualifying session that decides the starting grid for the first race
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The GP3 Series, or GP3 for short, is a single seater motor racing series launched in 2010 as a feeder series for the GP2 Series, introduced by GP2 organiser Bruno Michel. GP3 follows the entire European leg of the Formula One series, in 2012, the series visited the Monaco street circuit after 2 years of attempts, as they were always unable to beforehand due to lack of room. 2011 champion Valtteri Bottas did not follow suit however, and instead joined Williams F1 as a reserve driver. Meanwhile, James Calado, Rio Haryanto, Simon Trummer, Tom Dillmann and Nigel Melker all joined GP2 for the 2012 season.5 Series in 2011 and Lewis Williamson in 2012. In the series history, nine drivers have gone on to compete. These include former champions Gutiérrez, Kvyat and Ocon for Sauber, Red Bull Racing and Manor respectively, Jean-Éric Vergne, the GP3 Series car is a standardised car used by all of the competing teams. For the 2010-2012 seasons, the GP3 series used the GP3/10 chassis, chassis The car had been designed and built by Dallara, who currently produces the GP2 chassis.
Engine The GP3/10 used a four-cylinder 2. 0-litre turbocharged 280-400 hp engine developed by Renault Sport, the wastegate was included due to turbocharger rules. Gearbox The GP3/10 used a 6 speed longitudinal sequential Hewland gearbox, tyres Pirelli supplied the tyres for GP3 from 2010 to 2012, same supplier for the GP2 Series. Chassis The car was designed and built by Dallara. Engine The GP3/13 used a naturally aspirated 3. 4-litre V6400 hp engine, gearbox The GP3/13 used a 6 speed longitudinal sequential gearbox developed by Hewland. Tyres Pirelli continued to supply the tyres for GP3 from 2013 onwards, chassis The car has been designed and built by Dallara. Engine The GP3/16 uses a naturally aspirated 3. 4-litre V6400 hp engine, developed by Mecachrome, gearbox The GP3/16 will again use a 6 speed longitudinal sequential gearbox developed by Hewland. Tyres Pirelli will continue to supply the tyres for GP3 from 2016 onwards, the qualifying session is a straight fight for the fastest laptime, and determines the order of the grid for Saturdays Race 1.
The grid is decided by the Saturday result with top 8 being reversed, so the driver who finished 8th on Saturday will start from pole position and the winner will start from 8th place. The distance of race is decided prior to the event, however. With this points system, the most number of points anyone can score in one round is 20 by claiming pole position, no driver ever did manage to get maximum points with this system. Valtteri Bottas at the 2011 Hungarian round achieved pole position and won the feature race, with this points system, the most number of points anyone can score in one round is 48 by claiming pole position, winning both races with the fastest lap in each race
Formula racing is any of several forms of open-wheeled single-seater motorsport. The origin of the lies in the nomenclature that was adopted by the FIA for all of its post-World War II single-seater regulations. The best known of these formulae are Formula One, Three, common usage of formula racing encompasses other single-seater series, including the GP2 Series, which replaced Formula 3000. Categories such as Formula Three and GP2 are described as feeder formulae, there are two primary forms of racing formula, the open formula that allows a choice of chassis or engines and the control or spec formula that relies on a single supplier for chassis and engines. Formula Three is an example of a formula, while Formula BMW is a control formula. There are some exceptions on these two forms like Formula Ford where there is an open chassis formula but a single brand engine formula. The first race to be run to the early Formula One regulations was a non-championship Grand Prix in Turin in September 1946, the first officially recognised Drivers World Championship was held in 1947 and the Formula One World Championship was inaugurated in 1950.
This was the first example of formula racing, Formula E is intended to be the highest class of competition for one-make, single-seat, electrically powered racing cars. The series was conceived in 2012, with the championship to be held in 2014–15. So far, nine cities have confirmed to host an ePrix, Putrajaya, Rio de Janeiro, Punta del Este, Buenos Aires, Long Beach, Monte Carlo and London. In order to manage the costs of operating a Formula E team each constructor will be mandated to make their car available to two teams for a maximum capped price. This cap is set at €350000. Also, all teams and cars have been accommodated at the testing facility Donington Park. Based on pre-season testing at Donington, the 2014-15 car achieved performance somewhere between Formula Three and Formula 4 cars, the GP2 series was introduced in 2005 by Bernie Ecclestone and Flavio Briatore following the discontinuation of the long-term F1 feeder series – Formula 3000. So far,25 out of 136 GP2 drivers have reached F1, in 2012 the GP2 and GP2 Asia Series combined to make one longer GP2 series, which contained four Asian Grands Prix next to the well-known European races.
In 2003, the most senior Formula Renault was the Formula Renault V6 Eurocup, after just two seasons Renault merged the series with the World Series by Nissan to form the World Series by Renault, which supported the Formula One Grands Prix. Part of this series are Formula Renault 3.5 and Formula Renault 2.0, the GP3 Series was launched by Bruno Michel in 2010 as a feeder series for GP2. So far, four drivers have competed in Formula One after GP3 – the 2010 champion Esteban Gutiérrez, the 2011 champion Valtteri Bottas, Jean-Éric Vergne, Formula Three has a long history, with at least ten active championships around the world
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the cars main body, and usually having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, and touring cars, open-wheel cars are usually built specifically for racing, frequently with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are scarce as they are often impractical for everyday use. American racecar driver and constructor Ray Harroun was a pioneer of the concept of a lightweight single-seater. After working as a mechanic in the industry, Harroun began competitive professional racing in 1906. He was hired by the Marmon Motor Car Company as chief engineer, charged with building a racecar intended to race at the very first Indianapolis 500 and he developed a revolutionary concept which would become the originator and forefather of the single-seater racecar design. A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the drivers body, in the Whelen Modified Tour and other short track modified series, the drivers head is contained in the car.
Some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as Watkins Glen International in the US, Nürburgring in Germany, Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium and Silverstone in Great Britain. The Whelen Modified Tour is the only opened wheeled race car series endorsed by NASCAR and this series races on most of NASCARs most famous tracks in the United States. Other asphalt modified series race on tracks in the United States and Canada. Open-wheeled racing is among the fastest in the world, Formula 1 cars can reach speeds in excess of 360 kilometres per hour. At Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Antônio Pizzonia of BMW Williams F1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 kilometres per hour in the 2004 Italian Grand Prix. Since the end of the V10 era in 2006 speeds like this have not been reached, with contemporary machinery reaching around 360 kilometres per hour. It is difficult to give precise figures for the top speeds of Formula 1 cars, as the cars do not have speedometers as such.
The speed traps on fast circuits such as Monza give a good indication, speeds on ovals can range in constant excess of 210–220 miles per hour, and at Indianapolis in excess of 230 miles per hour. Some sources claim that in 1996, Paul Tracy recorded a speed of 256.948 miles per hour at Michigan International Speedway. In 2000, Gil de Ferran set the qualifying record of 241.428 miles per hour at California Speedway. Even on tight non-oval street circuits such as the Grand Prix of Toronto, driving an open-wheel car is substantially different from driving a car with fenders
Andreas Andi Zuber is a motor racing driver. An Austrian by birth, he raced under a licence issued by the United Arab Emirates. Despite beginning his career in 1998,2000 saw his debut in the Formula König championship with Team Böhm Sport. Zuber finished twelfth in the championship with 39 points, the following season, Zuber competed in both the Formula Renault 2.0 Germany and Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 championships for Motopark Academy. He finished sixth in the German series standings, in the Eurocup, he took 54th place in the championship, with a best finish of seventeenth at the A1-Ring. For 2002, the Austrian driver remained in the German championship with Motopark Academy and he finished second behind Dutch driver Ferdinand Kool in final standings. Also he was a guest driver at the Oschersleben round of the Eurocup, Zuber moved on to new-for-2003 Formula 3 Euro Series with Team Rosberg. He finished in 24th place in the standings with two points scored for seventh place in the first race at Le Mans.
He continued in the F3 Euroseries in 2004 with Team Rosberg, finishing 21st without scoring a point, Zuber drove for Carlin Motorsport in the Formula Renault 3.5 Series in 2005, finishing sixth in the championship with one win at Estoril and pole position at Valencia apiece. He switched to the GP2 Series for 2006 for the new Trident Racing team and this win complemented Brunis two triumphs earlier in the year and established Zuber in fourteenth position in the championship. Zuber moved to iSport International for 2007, where he was paired with Timo Glock, the team-mates collided with one another when accelerating away from the grid at the start of the Magny-Cours feature race, after starting from the front row. For 2008, Zuber switched to the Piquet Sports team alongside Pastor Maldonado, four podium finishes saw him repeat his ninth place in the championship of the previous year, but he failed to achieve a race victory for the first time in the category. He was outperformed by Maldonado, who finished fifth overall with almost double the number of points, Zuber drove in the first two rounds of the 2008–09 GP2 Asia Series season for the FMS International team, after which he was replaced by Rodolfo González.
Zuber returned to FMS for the 2009 GP2 Series season, where he was partnered by Luiz Razia, Zuber eventually wound up in thirteenth place overall. Zuber has represented Al Ain in the Superleague Formula, a championship in which the cars represent different football teams, * Al Ain FC overall standing. There is no championship in the Superleague Formula. Official site Andreas Zuber career statistics at Driver Database